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CHAPTER ONE

1.0

INTRODUCTION

1.1

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Manpower training and development must be based on a need analysis derived


from a comparison of actual performance and behavior with required
performance and behavior. Manpower training and development is one of the
major ways organization invests in the workforce for greater return today and
even in the foreseeable future.
Organizational effectiveness rests on the efficient and effective
performance of workforce that makeup the organization. The efficient and
effective performance of the workforce in turn, rest on the richness of the
knowledge, skills and abilities possessed by the workforce. Manpower training
and development in most organizations is a continuous act/exercise. The
inexorable march of time and the ceaseless glamour for social change combine
to make adaptability and continuing preparation of the workforce as inevitable
as the initial acquisition of knowledge and skills. This cannot happen if
employees training and development do not occur in an enterprise. In other to
maximize the productivity and efficiency of the organization, every executive,
manager or supervisor in a public or private organization has the responsibility

and indeed the bounding duty to ensure the development of their employees
who have requisite knowledge and expertise.
Training is like sharpening an existing skill in order to reflect the trends in
technology and other social cultural environmental changes of an organization.
Productivity is the goal of todays competitive business world and training can
be a spring board to enhance productivity. The aim is to enable them contribute
their full measure to the welfare, health and development of the organization
(Onah1993). The main objective of training and development in service
organization is to increase efficiency of employees with the resulting increase in
corporate productivity. This accounts for why a large number of fund and time
is expected by organization at one period or the order in the improvement of the
skills of their employees at various levels.
The principal intention of training according to AKPAN (1982:128), is to
equip people with the knowledge required to qualify them for a particular
position of employment, or to improve their skills and efficiency in the position
they already hold.
Manpower development on the other hand, implies growth and the
acquisition of wide experience for future strategic advantages of the
organization.

Manpower training and development therefore, improves the effectiveness


and efficiency of the employee. Therefore, the aim of this research is to know
the current state, nature, procedure and method of training and development
used by the ENUGU ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY (EEDC)
for their employees and lets not forget that any organization that has no plan
for the training and development of its staff is less than dynamic for learning is
a continuous process and acquired skills get obsolete when the environment
changes. Also, a popular caption in the field of personnel management says, If
you think training and development are expensive try ignorance. While
training and development prosper organization, ignorance destroys it.
Therefore, workers like machines must be updated on constant basis or else,
they end up becoming obsolete or misfit.
1.2

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This research as it deals with the training and development of employees in


service organizations is intended to find out the efficiency and effectiveness of
training and development programme in service organization with reference to
ENUGU ELECTRICTY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY (EEDC). Since power
holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) is an organization governing the use of
electricity in Nigeria serves as a source of electricity supply, distribution and

maintenance round the Nation. For this reason, it encounters numerous


problems which range from:
1) Lack of qualified instructors and consultants to undertake training
courses,
2) Lack of essential training tools, to
3) Lack of effective communication within the organization which
makes it impossible for most employees to know about training
opportunities available to them.
1.3

OBJECTIVES /PURPOSE OF THE STUDY


The purpose for this research is to probe into the evaluation of the effect

of manpower training and development in service organization using Enugu


Electricity distribution company (EEDC) as a case study with a view to find out
how the organization is performing in term of its employees training and
development.
The following are the specific objectives of the study:
i)

To highlight the advantages of employees training and development in

ii)

service organization.
To examine the current training and development of employees in the

iii)

organization and EEDC in particular.


To increase the general knowledge and understanding of individual

iv)

member.
To recommend appropriate measures that could help improve the
current manpower training program.
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v)

To increase efficiency and effectiveness of employees with the

resulting increase in corporate productivity.


1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
a) What method of training and development does your organization use?
b) What is the category of staff level in your organization (EEDC)?
c) What is the major problem in the organization?
1.5

STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS

Here, Hi and Ho below represent the alternative hypothesis and null hypothesis
respectively.
HYPOTHESIS ONE
Hi:

Training and development improve productivity and better

performance.
Ho: Training and development does not improve productivity and better
performance.

HYPOTHESIS TWO
Hi: Training and development improve skills and knowledge of
manpower in service organization.
Ho: Training and development do not improve skills and knowledge of
manpower in service organization.

1.6

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The research will be beneficial to all service organization especially Eungu


electricity distribution company(EEDC) and their staff as it emphasized the
need and encourage the establishment of policy guidelines on the efficient and
effective training and development programme.
It will help managers of various organizations to generate ideas and solution to
problems based on the best way to run training in their organization in order to
achieve desired goals and objectives.
It will equally be useful to small scale business, large corporations, and
universities, college of education and to the government. It will also help
researchers to know more about training programme as a tool for improving
employees performance. Finally, it will be of great value to students as a point
of reference and will equally form the basis for further research study.
1.7

SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study although very wide if it has been carried out in the
entire service organization. For this reason, it was necessary to have a
concentrated area of study which was restricted to the evaluation of the effect of
manpower training and development in service organization using Enugu
Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) as the case study. Its major limitation
was the problem of getting information from the institution under study. As
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aparastatals, there is always the fear of giving out information to the public as
such, vital information needed was not readily available.
Time equally would not be left out; getting permission to leave school and the
issue of finance cannot be ignored as much was spent in procuring materials.
However, with fact and judicial use of the limited resources, reasonable
analyses have been carried out in this research work.

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Theoretical Framework for the Study
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Until recently there has been a general resistance to investment of training in


the public service because of the believe that Employees hired under a ment
system must be presumed to be qualified, that they were already trained for
their jobs and that if this was not so it was evidence that initial selection of
personnel was not so it was evidence that initial selection of personnel was at
fault (Stahl, 2009). This assumption has been jettisoned as the need for
training became obvious both in the private and the public sectors.
Training has become more obvious given the growing complexity of the work
environment, the rapid change in organization and technological advancement
which further necessitates the need to training and development of personnel to
meet the challenges. Many organization have come to recognize that training
offers a way of developing skills, enhancing productivity and quality of work
and building workers loyalty to the firm
Manpower training and development is essential to the existence and survival of
organization. It is common for people to see training and development as the
same thing. However, though they are similar, they are not the same thing.
Employees training and development is seen as the most important formation
of any competent management the reason is not far-fetched; the ever increasing
technological sophistication especially in this age of computer building is
central to sustain economic growth and development because human capital is
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the greatest assets of any organization. A capacity building entails investment in


human capital, institutions and practices necessary to enhance human skills,
overhaul institutions and improve procedures and systems (Sanusi, 2002).
Capacity building could also be defined as the internalization of the knowledge,
skills and processes that enable the formulation, implementation, monitoring
and evaluation of set goals in an efficient manner. Yet, it could be viewed as a
series of activities, which an organization, enterprises or even a nation needs to
undertake to provide for itself, on a continuous basis, as well as the regular
supply (Anyanwu, 2002). Moreover, one of the major principles needed by
industries to succeed in current situation of law productivity is quality training
that will equip the employees with new skills, competencies and techniques.
Hence, it is good policy to invest in the development of workers skills, so as to
increase their productivity.
In a more comprehensive manner, training could be defined as a short term
process that utilizes a systematic and organized activities by which nonmanagerial staff acquire the technical knowledge, skills and abilities for specific
purposes in function. Training is an organized procedure by which people
learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose. It is a process for
equipping the employees particularly the non-managerial employees with
specific skills for example technical skill s like plumbing, electrical wiring,
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repairing, artistic skills, clerical and typing skills that would enable them to
improve on their performance and overall efficiency.
Jones, George and Hill, (2000) believed that training primarily focuses on
teaching organizational members how to perform their current jobs and helping
them acquire the knowledge and skills they need to be effective performers.
Training is a form of specialized education aimed at giving the trainee a
particular or specialized knowledge, skill and altitude which he must possess to
effectively perform in a given position. Development is concerned with specific
programmes designed to prepare and groom a worker with particular education
and training for higher responsibilities (Onasanya, 2006).
Beardwell and Helen (2001) also view development as the process of becoming
increasingly complex, more elaborate and differentiated by virtue of learning
and maturation. Training is also seen as a planned process to modify altitude,
knowledge or skill behavior through learning experience to achieve effective
performance in an activity or range of activities. (Osborne, 1996). Rouda and
Kusy (1995) views training and development as the acquisition of knowledge,
competencies and skills, and adopting behaviors that improve performance and
applications, instructional systems design, train-the trainer programs, and
instructional strategies and methods.

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Management development and training has been seen as a process by which


employees are recruited, selected, trained, motivated and required within an
economic system.
According to Alao

(2010), formal management development

programme

began to appear in large cooperation in 1940 and early 1950s. In the past few
decades, there has been an increasing amount of research and general
knowledge of the principle and techniques of administration. The rapid rates of
technological and social changes have made it imperative to have managers and
workers who are trained to cope with these changes.
The ever increasing technological sophistication especially in this age of
computer technology has paved way for management training to meet changing
business. In the recent years, industries have been concerned with the
development of workers and those in management position both to improve
performance in their present job and to provide a solid basis for those who are
newly recruited. Those developments have been given impetus with thee
research of Taylor (2008), which emphasized continued necessity of scientific
discoveries of human potentials through training. It was in this climate of
technological and social changes taking place in the 19 th century that managers
started to seek better ways of coping with increasing complexities taking place
n their enterprises.
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Taylor (2008) was one of the pioneers who found out that workers are important
and can be more efficient than machine (Alao, 2010). Taylor asserted that it is
the workers and management that set the pace for production hence, the need
for manpower training and development in order to enhance the organizational
predetermined goal. It has been emphasized that scientific management is not
a collection of technique only to increase efficiency, but rather a philosophy of
being accomplished by workers training and development (Alao, 2010).
In Nigeria, the genesis for manpower training and development can be traced to
the Ashby commission set up in 1959 to conduct an investigation into Nigerias
need in the field of past secondary certificate and higher education (Alao,
2010).
Development is the process of building the knowledge and skills of
organizational members so that they will be prepared to take a new
responsibility and challenges Jones, George and Hill (2000).
Development can also be defined as a deliberate program of an organization to
mould into the desirable shape its future leaders who are expected to perpetuate
the business of the organization most efficient and effectively, (Fagbohungbe,
2009). Development can be referred to as any learning activity which is directed
towards future needs rather present needs and which is concerned more with
career growth than immediate performance (Cole 1993). The intent of
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development program is to improve and employees conceptual and human


skills in preparation for future jobs.
From the above, it is now clear that there is a major difference between them.
Though both of them are geared towards increasing or improving the skills of
workers. Training is concerned with teaching the workers specific skills that
will assist them in their immediate task while development and the other hand is
concerned with teaching the workers more general skills that will assist them in
career growth thereby equipping them for the future.
As a way of summary, the purpose of training is to improve knowledge and
skills and to change altitude (Mullins, 1999).
2.1.1 FACTORS THAT TRIGGER TRAINING NAD DEVELOPMENT
Training and development is predicted on workers; machines and tool
deficiencies. These deficiencies manifest inform of specific symptoms. The
symptoms that trigger training and development in organization may include:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

When there is high rate of absenteeism among workers.


Where there is increased labor turnover among workers.
When there is decline in productivity among workers
When there is a poor job performance among workers.
When new machines are purchased to replace old ones.
When there is increase in the rate of on-the job accidents among
workers.
When there in an increased complaint form customer
When there is reduced patronage from customers

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ix.

When there is visible negative work altitudes such as lateness and


oscillation (motion without movement or pretending to be busy when in

x.
xi.

actual fact he or she is doing nothing) among workers.


When there is noticed inability to take up challenges among workers
When there is noticed reduction in hob involvement and organizational
commitment.

2.1.2 FORMAL TRAINING


It entails the deliberate and structured presentation of experiences, which may
help the individuals to change their knowledge, understanding attitudes or
behaviors in a positive manner. In industry, formal training is used for any of a
variety of specific purposes as stated below;
a. Induction Training: it involves that introduction of the new entrant to
the undertaking and its ways including the structures, rules and
procedures of the company to enable him to cope with the new
environment.
b. Skill acquisition: involves the development of new skills and abilities
where deskilling of work takes place, semi skilled machine operators
may be provided with the kind and degree of training necessary to
acquire the required skill.
c. Skill development: training is employed to up-date a persons
knowledge or skills at any stage of his career and whenever changes
occur in his work such as where new technology is introduced. In the
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latter case, short courses, which provide information on the new thing
and offer the opportunity to learn and practice new skills or new
application of old ones may be undertaken.
d. Increasing motivation: it entails deliberate use of training ot increase
individuals willingness to work up to the required pattern and
standards. This rest on the belief that people are likely to work more
effectively. They understand not only what they are expected to do, but
why they are expected to do it in this way. The inculcalation of workrelated values and norms is possible in training.
e. Attitude change: training may be undertaken to change the
perspective and attitudes workers adopt in relation to the organization
and their work in it in a positive way. It could develop into employees
trust, commitment to the organization, job involvement and job
satisfaction.

2.1.3 AIMS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT


The aim of training and development include:
- To change the job behavior or altitude of employees so that they can
perform to defined standards.
- To reduce the liberating time this is the gap between placement and the
point at which an employee start to perform effectively.
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- To improve the productivity capacity of individual employee.


- To improve the effectiveness of the organization
2.1.4 BENEFITS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMEENT PROGRAMME
Employees will never see the further development of their skill as something
negative. Even if it might mean they have to put in some extra hours, these
programs and courses are designed to enhance their work and personal life.
Sometimes it is necessary for a leader to get in experts to ensure the optimum
growth and development of its company. This is something that every business,
no matter what size, should e considering. A leaders success is measured by the
success of their employees, as the saying goes: You are only as strong as your
weakest link. let us take a look at some of the benefits of employee
development and training:
1. Uncover Employee Potential: it is unfortunately the case in some
companies that they are overlooking hidden leaders within their work
force. Some employees might be yearning for a leadership within the
business, but because there is no leadership development programme in
place, these individuals dont get the chance to prove their ability or
further develop these hidden skills. Allowing your employees to attend
these programs might help you spot the leaders of tomorrow within your
current work force.

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2. Out with the old: training your employees will give them the chance to
understand the latest developments and trends within your industry.
Whether it is new machinery or new social medial tools, the world is
constantly developing.
3. Increased productivity: It is only natural that leadership development
and training will lead to increased productivity. Not only will your staff
be able to do more and understand more, but they will have gained
confidence within their tasks because their skills are developed.
4. Training and development leads to improved profitability.
5. Training and development improves workers morale and job satisfaction.
6. Training and development improves workers commitment to the
organization.
7. Training and development help to nourish better corporate image.
8. Training and development enhance organizational development.
9. Training and development assist in preparing guidelines for works.
10.Training and development improve the relationship between boss and
subordinate and general inter group relationship.
11.Training and development assist in understanding and implementing
organizational policies.
12.Training and development provide information for future needs in
various facets of the organization.
13.Training and development assist workers to adjust to changes.
14.Training and development assist in conflict management
15.Training and development improve labour-management relationship.
2.5 ORIGIN OF ENUGU ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION COMPANY
(EEDC)

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Around the world, electric industries are undergoing extensive restructuring.


The trend, which started in the United Kingdom and Chile in the 1980, has
rapidly spread too many countries in Latin America, Asia, Europe and Africa.
The main motivation of driving forces for restructuring the electric industry in
different countries are not the same. In some countries, such as the United
Kingdom and the Latin America countries, privatization of the electric has
provided a means of attracting funds from the private sector to relieve the
burden of heavy burden of heavy government subsidies. In the country formerly
under centralized control (Central and Eastern Europe), the process follows a
general trend away from centralized government control towards increased
privatization and decentralization. In the United States and several other
countries where the electric industry has for the most part been owned by the
private sector, the trend is toward increased competition and regulation.
Enugu electricity distribution company (EEDC) formally known as National
Electricity Power Authority (NEPA) is a public corporation owned by the
federal government of Nigeria to generate, transmit and distributed electricity to
the populace. The history of electricity (power generation) in Nigeria dates back
to 1898 when electricity was first produced in Nigeria. Therefore, several other
towns established electricity supply by the installation of isolated generation in
each town.
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In 1946, the Nigeria government electricity under taking was established


within the then public works department to take over the responsibility of
electricity supply to Lagos area.
In 1950, however a central body was established by the legislature council
ordinance No 15 of 1950 which transferred electricity supply and development
to the care of central body known as the electricity corporation of Nigeria
(ECN) other bodies also had licenses to generate electricity in some locations
in Nigeria. Significant among such were the Nigeria electricity supply company
(NESCO) in Jos and the African timber and plywood limited in Sapele.
The first 132kv transmission line under the management of ECN was
commissioned in July, 1961and was 146km long connecting Lagos with
Ibandan via Shagamu.
In 1962, another body known as Niger Dams Authority was responsible for the
construction and maintenance of dams and other works on the river Nigeria and
elsewhere generating electricity by means of water supply thereby improved
navigation.
National electric power authority (NEPA) was established in April 1972, with
the amalgamation of the former electricity corporation of Nigeria (ECN) and
the Niger dam Authority (NEPA) with the Headquarters in Lagos.

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As a government parasternal, its employees and consumers seriously hamper


NEPAs operations due to several government directive and fraudulent
activities.
In order to reduce this a normal, the authority was granted partial autonomy as a
quasi-commercialized organization in 1992 while this gesture has granted some
powers to the authority, it is still under the control of the government hence the
authority could still not take some necessary drastic and far-reaching measures
to improve its revenue collection and reduce the incidences of fraudulent
activities.
Like most state owned enterprises, NEPA has suffered from severe
underfunding and under capitalization, inappropriate capital structure, excessive
executive inference, and sub optimality and decision making.
NEPA equipment are subjected to vandalism and theft by group of cabals in
different part of the country. The hydro power stations suffer from low water
level during dry season and the generation output capabilities of thermal
stations are often hampered by shortage of fuel. Equipment are expensive to
repair, mostly due to their obsolete status.
NEPA as we know is a government van entity as earlier stated that enjoys a lot
of the financial transfer subsidies grants and tax and import duty naives from
the government. These social incentive from the government were
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counterproductive for NEPAs efficiency. It resulted in an undertrained and


unmotivated manpower and lack of will to operate as a profitable entity.
NEPA was formally changed to power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) in
January 2004in readiness or privatization. To provide the legal framework for
the restructuring of electric supply industry (ESUI), the electric power sector
reform bill was signed into law on the 11th of March 2005. The bill seeks to
provide for the formation of successor companies to take over the functions,
assets, liabilities and staff of NEPA; develop competitive electricity markets;
establish the Nigeria electricity regulatory commission; provide for the
licensing and regulation of the generation, transmission, distribution and supply
of electricity; enforce such matters as performance standards; consumer rights
and obligation; provide for the determination of tariffs; and to provide for
matters connected with or incidental to the forgoing.
An initial holding company (IHC) has been incorporation as provided for the
act. The name of the IFFC is power holding company of Nigeria. (PHCN) Plc
and it was incorporated on 31st may 2005. The PHCN has taken over all NEPA
assets and liabilities.
Power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) Enugu zone was officially
opened many decades ago. The office is responsible for the distribution and
sales of electricity to Enugu and its environment. The office maintains an
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undertaking office and service centers and cash areas of Enugu state. Just like
any other PHCN office in the country, it has all the departments such as
administrative and service, technical service, customer service, finance and
accounts and audit department each headed by a manager as a zone, the office
reports directly to the chief executive officer Enugu. It also has direct
communication with PHCN Headquarters Abuja.
PHCN Enugu zone has a total staff of 250 including Top management.
Power holding company of Nigeria (PHCN) accounting system is uniform
brought out the country and that of Enugu zone would not be left out. The
classification of the branches nationwide. The zone has fourteen (14) business
unit it and its responsible for everything that happens in the unit.
Enugu electricity distribution company (EEDC) is one of the distribution
company in PHCN. The federal government on Friday November 1 st, 2013
handed over the Enugu electricity distribution company (EEDC) to interstate
electrics limited, the core investor in the company.
2.2.1 METHOD OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training and development methods are means through which ideas, skills or
knowledge are impacted to learners in an organized manner. There are different
types of training and development methods that are in use today. The methods

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of training and development are the same these methods are usually grouped
into two broad categories namely;
i.
ii.

On- the job training and


Off the job training

The method of training and development will be treated separately because


aside from the above methods mentioned there are other methods of
development.
A. TRAINING METHODS
i. On the job training : This is a training programme that is organized on the
workers hob location. On the job training methods are the most widely used and
the simplest method of training. It refers to instructions given to employees on
the job by the supervisor or any other experienced employee using these
methods, employees are placed on a regular job and taught the skills necessary
to get the job done properly. This method requires no special school. While
learning, the trainee is also contributing to the total output of the department.
The greatest problem with this method is that errors or mistakes committed
while learning can be very costly. The various types of on the job training
methods may include;
1. Job Rotation: This is a situation where the movement of an employee form
one official assignment or department to the other, in order for the employee to
be acquainted with the different aspects of the work process or through job
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enlargement. That is given additional responsibility to an employee who has


been uplifted as a result of the acquisition of a additional skill or knowledge
(Yalokwu 2000; Lawal 2006).
2. Coaching: This is a method of on the job training and development in which
a young employee is attached to a senior employee with the purpose of
acquiring knowledge and experience e needed for the performance of tasks,
(Yalokwu 2000).
3. Apprenticeship: Apprenticeship training is usually required or job that
requires complex and diverse range of skill and knowledge. It runs with the
cooperation between the employees, the government and educational
institutions (technical or vocational school) and labour union.
4. Enlarge Responsibility: Here, the manager or supervisor assign additional
duties and responsibilities to his subordinate employee. He allows him the
opportunity for decision making by deliberately exposing him to challenging
jobs and problem solving situation.
5. Internship: It offers an excellent opportunity for the learner or trainee to
help gain insights into the relationship between theory and practice i.e. the
trainee attends classroom session to acquire the theoretical aspect of the job and
later, proceed to the work settings to practicalize what he has been taught in the
classroom.
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6 .Understudy assignment: The trainee or even an experienced manager who


is being groomed or higher responsibilities is often made to assume part of his
masters job thus enabling him to learn or perform as much as possible. Some
of his supervisors job. The efficacy of this method however depends on how
much responsibility he is willing to allow the subordinate to assume.
7. Instructional Guidance: This is a training situation in which the trainees are
given step by step instruction after which the y are left to perform the task
activities of the job. The trainer appraises the learning ability of the trainees by
measuring their ability to follow instruction.
II. OFF-THE JOB TRAINING: This training method s organized outside
the workers job location. It is usually organized in a training centre or an
educational institution. The objective of this method is to broaden the trainees
job knowledge and experiences beyond what can be learnt within the job
environment. It provides the trainees the opportunity of interacting with trainers
who are different in outlook, experience and knowledge from those they are
used to back at work. Off- the job training has its own disadvantages which
may include:
- It is usually more expensive than on the job training and
- It does not allow on the spot assessment of training effectiveness which is
possible with on the job training. The various types of off the job
training method include:
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1. Seminars: brings together group of people who pool and discuss ideas. A
seminar I meant to stimulate intellectual input. Papers presented are
criticized and corrections are suggested.
2. Workshop: Is a setting where a group of people meet and work together
in order to share and develop ideas about a particular subject or activity.
3. Lecture on classroom method: Involves the transmissions of
knowledge, ideas and factual information from the instructor to a large
group of trainees at one time thereby having the advantage of being a
relatively low cost training method. The major drawback of this method
is that individual differences in the abilities of a trainee to assimilate fast
or get lost in the classroom. Discussions are not taken into
consideration/account.
4. Vestibule training: involves trainees learning in a non work environment
in which conditions and equipment are virtually identical to what will be
encountered on the job. The only major problem with this method is that
its relatively costly than other method since this method requires that
trainees be trained on the same identical machines and equipment used in
the actual job environment.
5. Briefing groups: The trainer presents a short paper and asks for the
reactions of the trainees. It is assumed t hat the trainees are not
completely ignorant of the issues in the paper. The objective is to teach
knowledge, facts and assess the opinions of the trainees.
B. DEVELOPMENT METHOD:
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Executive development is a systematic process of growth and development


through which executive develop and enhance the capabilities to manage
successfully particularly in todays increasingly complex business environment
and in future.
The methods of training are also the methods of development has mentioned
earlier. However apart from the above, Development has additional activities,
which are rarely used in employees training. This includes what Jones,George
and Hills (2000) referred to as:
i.
ii.
i.

Varied work experience


Formal education.
Varied work experience: for an organizational executive to be
effective, he must have knowledge and understanding of all activities
of his organization. He must be an all in one. He is a personnel
manager, production manager, marketing manager, account manager,

all in one. Techniques for varied work experience include:


a. Workers rotation (job rotation): Employees who are discovered to
have potential are moved for job to job to acquire varied work experience
that will broaden their horizon.
b. Job enrichment or vertical loading: New sources of satisfaction to jobs
are added through increased responsibility, autonomy and control.
c. Job enlargement or horizontal loading: Simply widens the job of the
employees. The aim is to sharpen employees skills, make them large to

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face challenges and finally increase their ability to take additional


responsibilities.
d. Promotion and transfer: in anticipation of promotion, particular in the
management centre, staff members may be trained to enable them to
acquire the skills required to function in the new position(s).
e. Appointment as assistant to: some employees function in the
position as assistant to senior officers like managing director.
f. Membership of committees: serving as committees provides a very
good training ground for the employee. He listens to the views,
presentations, criticisms etc of others.
ii.
Formal education: many reputable organization do realize the
benefits to accrue to their organization when their employee receive
formal education form higher institution. Organizations have ways of
identifying talented and promising employees, employees with high
prospect and potential whose sponsorship in higher institution will
pay back. To such organization, it is investment of some sort that will
bring forth dividends. It is believed that such employees when they
complete their courses will be able to take up new responsibilities and
occupy more demanding positions in the organization that trained
them.
Another method of developing executive is simulated development method: the
use of simulated techniques for developing executive talent has become more
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popular in recent time. This is so because it has because, it has been realized
that neither the conventional on the job nor off the job methods are sufficient in
developing the much needed capabilities in managers. This is because most
routine jobs like the lower level employees, managers need than specific skill.
They need to acquire specialized and broad-based skills like conceptual.
Analytical diagnostic, problem- solving skills, human behavioral skills,
interpersonal skills as well as sound decision making skills. They need to
acquire specialized and broad-based skills like conceptual, analytical,
diagnostic, problem-solving skills, human behavioral skills, interpersonal skills
as well as sound decision making skills. Simulated development include:
i.

Membership of professional organization: They provide avenues

ii.

and opportunity for the members development.


Critical incident: Trainees are taught about how to develop the
relevant intellectual ability and practical judgment in searching for
details or facts that may be relevant to the understanding and solution

iii.

of the problem on hand.


In basket method/exercise: the manager or executive is presented
with hypothetical problems similar to the problems that can confront

iv.

him in the actual work situation.


Case studies: The method is geared toward s problem and issues that
face executives in their day to day business. Cases are prepared to
demonstrate the reality in the business would be describing actual
29

business situations, (Wexley and Lathan 1981) say that the primary
purpose of case study is to enhance the problem-solving skills of
v.

participants.
Sensitivity training: Here, Executives are trained in the art of
developing an awareness of and sensitivity to the behavioral pattern of
oneself and that of others with whom he relates. According to Roa and
Rao (1990), this sensitivity is expressed in the form of: increased
openness with and to others, greater concern for others, increased
tolerance for individual differences, less ethnic prejudice, enhanced
listening skills and increased trust and support.

The essence of this method is to develop in the participants the ability to


understand themselves and the behavior of others and to identify their human
relation skills, needs and how best to accommodate the feelings of others to be a
good manager.
2.2.2 BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO ORGANISATION
The following are the benefits of training to organization
a. Increased productivity: one of the main objectives of training is to
increase employees skills. When workers skills are increased it leads to
increased quantity and quality of output in organizations.

30

b. Attitude formation: An important aim of training in organizations the


molding of employee altitude as so to win his support for the companys
activities and to obtain form him better cooperation greater loyalty.
c. Reduced supervision: proper and adequate training of employees reduce
the need to close supervisor by their supervisor because trained personnel
can quite perform assignments successfully on their own than contained
employees.
d. Preventing obsolescence: training is not meant for new employees alone
but also to old and experienced employees. Training can help prevent
employee obsolescence which results from the discrepancy between an
employees expertise and the demand of his job.
e. Increased organization flexibility: organization flexibility refers to
ability of an organization to adjust to short-run variations in the volume
of works.

2.2.3 BENEFITS OF TRAINING TO EMPLOYEES


The following are the benefits of training to employees;
a. Increases market value: as employees acquire new knowledge and job
skills, they tend to increase their market value and earning power.
b. Increased job security: possession of useful skills by employees
enhances their values to the employers. Thus. There is increased job
security.
31

c. Increased opportunity for promotions: Training qualifies employees


for more future promotions and responsibility with attendant increase in
pay.
2.2.4 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
1. NEED ANALYSIS:
- identify specific job performance skills needed to improve performance and
productivity.
- Analyze the audience to ensure that the program will be suited to their specific
levels of education, experience, and skills, as well as their altitudes and personal
motivations.
- use research to develop specific measurable knowledge and performance
objectives.
2. INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
- Gather instructional objectives, methods, media, and description of
sequence of content, examples, exercises, and activities. Organization
them into a curriculum that supports adult learning theory and provides a
blue print for program development.
- Make sure all materials, such as video scripts, leaders guides, and
participants work-books, complement each other are written clearly, and
blend into unified training geared directly to the stated learning
objectives.
32

- Carefully and professionally handle all program elements whether


reproduced paper, film, or tape to guarantee quality and effectiveness.

3. VALIDATION
Introduce and validate the training before representative audience. Base final
revision on pilot results to ensure program effectiveness.
4. IMPLEMENTATION
When applicable, boost success with a train the trainer workshop that focuses
on presentation knowledge and skills in addition to training content.
5. EVALUATION AND FELLOW UP
-Assess program success according to:
REACTION: document the learners immediate reactions to the training.
LEARNING: us learners have actually learned.
BEHAVIOUR: note supervisors reactions to learners performance following
completion of the training. This is one way to measure the degree to which
learners apply new skills and knowledge to their jobs.
RESULTS: Determine the level of improvement in hob performance and assess
needed maintenance.
2.2.5 ESSENCE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT

33

Organizations embark on training and development programmes, for many


reasons however, these can be summarized as:
i.

Productivity: people are employed for the simple reason of helping


the organization to achieve its goals with this can be done when the
work is quite productive. Most training programme is therefore
organized to help in increasing the workers efficiency on the job, thus

ii.

increasing his productivity.


Preparation for higher responsibilities: improving a workers
performance on his present job will enhance greatly his chances of

iii.

being elevated to higher positions and responsibilities.


To boost the workers morale: By increasing skill of the worker, he
develops a more sense of self worth, confidence and trust in his own
abilities.

2.2.6 TRAINING TECHNIQUES


It involves the application of knowledge effective trainers utilize a more
vigorous decision process in their selection decisions. One approach is to
classify in advance the various training techniques according to the degree to
which they match a set of relevant criteria. These criteria might include, but not
be limited to the following:
1. Whether the techniques is oriented toward knowledge altitudes or skills.
2. Whether the technique is generally applied on the job or off the job

34

3. The degree to which the technique incorporates the major principles of


learning.
4. The relative expense involves in development and administration of the
programme.
5. The unique trainer skills required
6. The time duration over which the training technique usually extends.
2.2.7 METHODS OF DETERMINING EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
NEEDS.
Developmental needs can be determined via a study and understanding of
individual executive developmental needs, the development needs of the
organization in terms of its projected goals and aspirations, the quality and
quantity of available manpower stock as well as the demands and the
requirement of each executive position in the organizational hierarchy. He
following techniques are used in identifying executives development needs.
1. Management appraisal report: it normally indicates the relative
strength and weaknesses of each management staff. The comments on
strengths and weaknesses of the particular executive would point to the
relevant areas for which the executive needs to undergo some types of
training and development.
2. Survey: Each executive would make a survey of what he likes or what
his subordinate managers lack and make appropriate recommendations
accordingly.
35

3. Job Analysis: where movement or transfer into a higher position is being


contemplated, the requirement of those higher responsibilities would
enable management to determine the training and development needs of
subordinates that are being car marked for such higher positions.
2.2.8 REASONS FOR EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT
1) Improves the versatility of the management group.
2) Ensure easy and effective mobility of personnel across functional units as
the need arises.
3) Enhance the executives understanding and perception and political
matters that maybe relevant to the successful performance of his job.
4) Keep the executive current on new development around him which may
affect his job performance.
5) Create a reservoir of executive talents necessary for management
succession or for other constituencies.
6) Develop the much needed flexibility and capability of the organizations
manpower and from an economic stand point is able to provide
maximum productivity from the human resources which is necessary in
ensuring corporate growth.
7) Identify persons with innate abilities and potentials that may be groomed
up for future higher responsibilities.
8) And lastly provide a built in mechanism for preventing manpower
obsolescence over time, through training and development by helping
companys executives to revitalize their skills to enable them cope more
effectively with the ever increasing complexities of modern business
36

2.3

ORGANISATIONAL

PERFORMANCE

IN

MANPOWER

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT.


Organizational performance encompasses the actual output or results of an
organization as measured against its intended outputs (or goals and
objectives). According to Richard in Wikipedia (2008), organizational
performance comprises three specific areas of firm outcomes:
i.

Financial performance (profits, return on assets, return on investment,

ii.
iii.

etc)
Product and market performance (sales market share etc) and
Shareholder return (total shareholder return, economic value added,
etc).

The term organizational effectiveness is broader.


Most of the studies are concerned with organizational performance including
strategic planners, operations, finance, legal and organizational development
(Paul, nd). Many organizations in recent years have attempted to manage
organizational performance using the balanced scorecard methodology where
performance is tracked and measured in multiple dimensions such as (Paul, nd;
Wikipedia, 2008);
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Financial performance (e.g. shareholder return)


Customer service
Social responsibility (e.g. corporate citizenship, community outreach)
Employee stewardship.
37

2.4 PROBLEM OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA


1. Colonial experience: there have been several arguments regarding the
distortions in manpower development of national growth in Nigeria as a result
of colonialism which was fashioned towards economic exploitation (Ekpo
1989;Ake 2001; Danda 2003). It could be recalled that the advent of
colonialism led to the integration of the Nigerian economy into the world
capitalist system thereby placing minimum premium on labour when compared
to other factors of production. This poor performance of indigenous labour by
the colonial government no doubt has persisted in the post colonial Nigerian
state. As a result, this problem account for the lack of adequate attention given
to labour as a critical part of the production process in Nigeria.
2. Poor Political Leadership: closely related to the problem of colonial
experience as a problem of manpower development in Nigeria is poor political
leadership which is further deepening the problem of manpower development in
Nigeria. This factor has manifested itself in poor funding of education over the
years (Baikie 2002; Oku 2003).
2.4.1 OPTIONS FOR EFFECTIVE MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN
NIGERIA
The options for effective manpower development in Nigeria could be viewed
from tow basic perspectives;
38

1. The option of an enhanced regulatory capability on the part of


government for effective enforcement of manpower policies. This is quite
indispensable based on the need to ensure quality manpower
development irrespective of sex, class, ethnic affiliation to mention a few.
This point could best be appreciated considering the liberal nature of
most government policies which tend to snow ball into elitist benefit in
terms of policy outcome.
2. The need for government to be persuasive in making organizations
embraces well designed policies at improving the development of
manpower in Nigeria. This could be done both internally and externally.
Internally, organizations should be made to see reasons why a careful
manpower development plan should for part of their plans and objectives
for the financial year.
As a matter of fact, the success of organizations should not only be measured in
terms of the magnitude of profit through the adoption of outdated personnel
administration technique, but basically on the contribution of the organization
in enlarging the confidence of its workers, through manpower development.
The external factor involves the contribution of organizations to the
development of manpower through financial support meant to boost adult
education, vocational education, and specialized research institutes to mention a
few.
39

2.4.2 THE RELEVANCE OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN


NIGERIA
1. Economic development: The relevance of manpower development in Nigeria
could be situated Vis-a visa economic development. This is because manpower
development captures the actual meaning of development in that it is people
centered (World Bank 1991, Graw bosky and shields 1996). In addition, it
involves the building of capacity and harnessing the states human resource
which constitute a sine-qua-non for development.
2. Political stability: there is no doubt that a country which fails to adequately
develop her manpower would be doing so at the expenses of her socioeconomic and political stability. In the aspect of political stability, Omodia
(2004) stressed the dysfunctional use of the nations human resource among the
youths in propelling political instability when he stated that:
There have been situations in which Nigerian youth especially, those of poor
family background were used as tools for disrupting the political democratic
system through rigging thuggery and ethnic conflicts. These factors of rigging
thuggery in addition to economic mismanagement, personal ambition or
selfishness among others, were the factors that terminated the first and second
republic.

40

3. Poverty alleviation: it has been argued that effective poverty alleviation


scheme must involve the development and utilization of local resources
including human for solving local problems (Robb 2000; Omodia 2005). Thus,
problem of poverty in Nigeria.
2.5 LEARNING PRINCIPLE IN TRAINING AND MAN POWER
DEVELOPMENT
Learning programmes should incorporate as many fundamental principles of
learning as are relevant extensive research, both in experimental settings and in
organizations ahs validated the utility of several basic principles of learning.
Each of these, when understood and carefully applied, will increase the
effectiveness of a given training programme. Learning will generally tend to be
facilitated when
1. Multiple senses are stimulated: the most probable ones are sight, sound
and touch, with small and taste used far less often. It is for this reason
that visual kinds become a critical factor in training programme success
for they stimulate the sense of sight during what might otherwise be a
boring presentation. Example of visual aids include the chalkboard,
overhead transparency projector, felt board, FCP chart and movie
projector.

41

2. Objectives of training are delineated n advance and are known by both


trainees. Objectives allow the participation to anticipate what comes next
and relate the content and methodology to an overriding purpose.
3. Training programme is personalized to fit individual needs: trainees
vary in terms of their backgrounds experience and capacity to learn. An
ideal training programme has entry capacity at different skills levels as
well as a flexible place to accommodate varying speeds of learning.
4. The skill to be learned is challenging yet within the range of
achievement: the task must be difficult enough to stimulate interest and
arouse a competitive spirit, but not so demanding that it is out of reach of
the trainee.
5. Trainees are reinforced for appropriate behavior in the training
program: a word of praise or encouragement from the trainer or peers
can be highly effective at solidifying the learning that has taken place and
stimulating future effort.
6. Trainees receive feedback on their progress: They need to know how
they are doing. The information should specific, relevant, timely and
accurate.

42

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1

RESEARCH DESIGN

In defining design, odo(1992), stated that designing implies out lining the name
of equipment and other materials the research intends using, applying some to
successfully execute the practical aspect of the research study.

43

According to kinnear(1989:133) a research design is the basic plan which


guides the data collection and analysis phases of a research project. It is the
framework which specifies the type of information to be collected and source of
data collection procedure.
A descriptive survey method was used for this study. It is important to
determine the method and procedure adopted in this research report since it
gives the reader background information on how to evaluate the findings and
conclusion.
3.2

SOURCES OF DATA
The data for this research work was collected from both primary and

secondary sources of data.


3.2.1

PRIMARY SOURCES OF DATA


The primary data used for this research work was gotten from oral

interviews conducted by the researcher within the office and premise of the
Enugu electricity distribution company (EEDC) and structured questionnaire
administered to relevant staffs of EEDC. The purpose was to get their personal
views on a number of issues.
3.2.2

SECONDARY SOURCES OF DATA

44

The secondary sources from which data was collected include: textbooks
from library manuals of Enugu Electricity Distribution Company (EEDC) and
different website on the internet.

3.3

POPULATION OF THE STUDY


According to Throne, (1980) population is the totality of any group, person

or objects which is defined by some unique attributes. This is to say that


population is any group of being the researcher has focused attention on and
chosen as approved topic of study.
Since it is usually not possible to study the entire larger population of power
holding company of Nigeria (PHCN),the researcher has chosen the EEDC as
the studied population in order to find a possible solution to which involve a
total of 250 employees including top and junior staff.
3.4

DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZE


Sampling is a process of selecting a given number or any portion of that

population for the purpose of obtaining information for generalization about the
large population Nwabuokei (1986). Sampling population is used to avoid
possible errors in dealing with population. The population size was narrowed
down to determine the sample size. A statistical formula was used in
determining the sample size.
45

Yaro Yamani formula as quoted in Nwabuokei(1986) was applied and it is


stated as follows:
n=

N
1+ N (e)2

Where n=sample size


N=total population size
1 is constant
e = the assume error margin or tolerable error which is taken as
5%(0.05)

n=

N
1 + N(e)2
Where N=250
e = (0.05)2
n=

250
1

0.0025

+ 250(0.0025)

250
1 + 0.625

= __250_
46

1.625
= 153.846
n = 154
Using Bourleys proportion allocation formula
n1 = n1(n)
N
Where n1 = Element within the sample frame i.e. Number allocated to each
class of employee (departments)
n = Sample or the proportion of the universe used
for the study. (Total sample size)
N = Population of the study i.e. overall employees.
Departments:
1)
2)
3)
4)

Administrative and Service Dept ---Technical/Service Dept


----Customer service Dept
---Finance and Account Dept
----

5) Audit Dept
---Population for the study
Administrative and Service Dept
n1= 62 x 154
250
=9548
250
Technical/Service Dept
n1= 80 x 154
250
= 12320

62
80
35
40

33
250

=38.19=38

47

250

=49.28
=49

Customer service Dept


n1= 35 x 154
250
= 5390
250
Finance and Account Dept
n1= 40 x 154
250
= 6160
250
Audit Dept
n1= 33 x 154
250

=5082
250

=21.56
=22

=24.64
= 25

=20.32
=20

To cross check:
38 + 49 + 22 + 25 + 20 =154 (sample size)

3.5 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION


The method of data collection used by the researcher on this topic is
questionnaire.
Questionnaire is used when factual information is needed. Its a list of questions
given to individuals to fill either by answering yes or no.
The questionnaire used for this research work has multiple opinions for the
questions where respondents were provided with opinion of answers to choose
only the right answer to their opinion. This form of research plan was choose in
48

order to ease the work of the researcher in the area of classifying and analyzing
individuals (respondents) options. The researcher went further to conduct
personal interview for answer not properly given when filling the questionnaire.
3.5.1

QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN, DISTRIBUTION AND


COLLECTION OF RESPONSES

The research structured both open- ended and close- ended questions. Double
barrel questions that is, those questions capable of attracting multiple
interpretations were cautiously avoided. In the close ended questions,
respondents were given a number of alternatives from which to select options
they consider appropriate.
In the open ended questions, respondents were provided with blank spaces in
which to write down their own answers in their words. Dichotomous type of
questions that demands yes or No type of answers was also used.
3.5.2

SECONDARY METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The method of secondary collection used are data already in existence

like textbooks from library, manuals for PHCN different website on the internet
and past project reports.
3.5.3 DISTRIBUTION AND COLLECTION OF QUESTIONNAIRE
Out of one hundred and fifty four (154) questionnaire distributed to the staff of
power holding company of Nigeria(PHCN) Enugu zone, one hundred and
49

twenty (120) of them were duly completed and returned representing (77.92%)
and the researcher discovered that thirty four(34)questionnaire were unreturned
representing (22.08%).
Table 3.1

Distribution and return of questionnaire

Department
Administration
Technical Service
Customer service
Finance and Account
Audit
Total

No of questionnaire No returned
distributed
38
30
49
35
22
17
25
20
20
18
154
120

Percentage
(%)
25
29
14
17
15
100

Source: survey data, 2015


3.6

METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

In analyzing the data collected using the questionnaire, the researcher used the
simple percentages method of data analysis. The analysis was represented in
tabular form for easy understanding and it consist the number of respondents
and the corresponding percentage and chi square was used as the statistical
tools used for testing more than two population using data base on two
independent random samples.
The test statistical thus becomes
X2 =

(o1 e1)2
e1

Where o1 = observed frequency


e1= expected frequency
50

This test is based strictly on the primary data gotten from the use of
questionnaire.
DECISION RULE: Reject Null Hypothesis if calculated value of (X 2) is
greater than the critical value and accept Null Hypothesis if calculated value of
(X2) is less than the critical value.
The Degree of freedom = (n - 1) (k - 1)
Where

Df =Degree of freedom
n = Number of rows
k = Number of column

51

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
This chapter is designed to give and analyze the response to the research
hypothesis formulated from the stated problems in chapter one of this work. It
deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of the data collected.
They were analyzed using tables and chi-square (X2) statistical tool
4.1

Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents

TABLE 4.1.1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY GENDER


Sex
No of respondent
Percentage (%)
Male
80
67
Female
40
33
Total
120
100
Source: field survey 2015.
The above table shows that 80(67%) respondents were male while 40(33%)
respondents were female. Showing that majority of the respondents are male.
TABLE 4.1.2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE
Age group
No of respondents
Percentage (%)
18-29
20
17
30-39
35
29
40-49
40
33
50& above
25
21
Total
120
100
Source: field survey 2015

52

This table reflects that 20(17%) of the respondents fall within the age bracket of
18-29; 35(29%) of the respondents fall within the age bracket of 30-39;
40(33%) of the respondents fall within the age bracket of 40-49; while 25(21%)
of the respondents fall within the age bracket of 50 and above.
TABLE 4.1.4
STATUS

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BY MARITAL

Marital status
Single
Married

No of respondent
35
80

Percentage (%)
29
67

divorced

Total

120

100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the above table, 35(29%) respondents are single; 80(67%) respondents
are married while 5(4%) respondents are divorced. This shows that majority of
the respondents are married.
Table 4.1.5
DISTRIBUTION

OF

RESPONDENTS

BY

ACADEMIC

QUALIFICATION
Academic qualification
WAEC/GCE
OND/NCE
HND/BSC
Other qualification
Total

No of respondent
14
22
58
26
120

Percentage(%)
12
18
48
22
100

Source: field survey 2015.

53

From the table above, it was observed that 14(12%) respondent have west
Africa Examination council certificate (Wace/Gce);22(18%) respondent with
(OND/NCE) National Diploma/ Nigeria college of Education certificate;
58(48%) respondent with Bachelor of science / Higher national diploma
(B.sc/HND); While 26(22%) respondent have other qualification (Masters,
PhD)as their highest qualification. This table therefore shows that most of the
respondents are B.SC/HND Holders.
Table 4.1.6
Table 4.1.6 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF
EXPERIENCE
Years
0-2
3-5
6-10
11 and above
Total

No of respondent
18
24
32
46
120

Percentage(%)
15
20
27
38
100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the above table18 (15%) of the respondent falls within 0-2 yrs of
experience; 24(20%) of the respondent falls within 3-5 yrs of experience;
32(27%) of the respondent falls within 6-10 yrs of experience; while 46(38%)
of the respondent falls within 11 yrs and above.

54

Table 4.1.7
PRESENTATION ACCORDING TO KEY RESEARCH QUESTION
RESEARCH QUESTION ONE
WHAT METHOD OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT DOES YOUR
ORGANIZATION USE?
options
On- the-job
Off-the-job
Simulated
All of the above
Total

No of respondent
25
40
25
30
120

Percentage(%)
21
33
21
25
100

Source: Field Survey 2015.


From the above table, 25 (21%) respondents were of the opinion that the
organization uses on the job training method; 40 (33%) respondents were of
the opinion that the organization uses off the job training method; 25 (21%)
respondents said that the organization uses simulated development method;
while 30 (25%) respondents were of the opinion that all three methods are used
by the organization.
TABLE 4.1.8 RESEARCH QUESTION TWO
WHAT IS THE CATEGORY OF STAFF LEVEL IN POWER HOLDING
COMPANY OF NIGERIA, ENUGU?
Option

No of respondent

Percentage(%)
55

Top Mgt.
Middle Mgt.
Supervisory
Junior staff
Total

9
23
28
60
120

8
19
23
50
100

Source: field survey 2015.


The above table shows that 9(8%) of the respondents were top management; 23
(19%) of the respondents are middle management; 28(23%) of the respondents
are supervisory; while 60(50%) of the respondents are from the junior staff
level.
Table 4.1.9

RESEARCH QUESTION THREE

WHAT IS THE MAJOR PROBLEM IN THEORGANIZATION


Option
Lack of tools
Lack of training
Lack of remuneration
Total

No of respondent
58
45
17
120

Percentage(%)
48
38
14
100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the above table, 58(48%) respondents were of the opinion that lack of
working tools and equipment constitute major problem affecting the employees
on their job; 45(38%) respondent said lack of training is the major problem
affecting the employees on their job; while 17(14%) of the respondents were of
the opinion that lack of remuneration is the major problem affecting the
employees on their job.

56

Table 4.1.1
DOES THE ORGANISATION OFFER ANY TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME?
Option
Yes
No
Total

No of respondent
120
120

Percentage(%)
100
100

Source: field survey 2015.


In the above table, the whole 120(100%) respondents agreed to the existence of
training and development programme.
Table 4.1.11
WHAT ARE THE COURSES OFFERED DURING TRAINING AND
DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME

Option
Technical courses
Administrative course
Both
Total

No of respondent
44
22
54
120

Percentage(%)
37
18
45
100

Source: field survey 2015.

57

From the above table, it is observed that 44(37%) of the respondent agree that
PHCN offers technical courses during training and development program;
22(18%) respondent agreed that administrative courses are offered during the
training and development program; while 54(45%) were of the opinion that
both technical and administrative courses are offered during training and
development process in the organization.
Table 4.1.12
DOES TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IMPROVE SKILLS AND
KNOWLEDGE OF THE MANPOWER SERVICE IN ORGANIZATION?
Option
Yes
No
Total

No of respondent
110
10
120

Percentage(%)
92
8
100

Source: field survey 2015.


It is obvious from the table above that 110(92%) respondent believes that
training and development improve skill and knowledge of the manpower in
service organization; while 10(8%) respondents are of the view that training and
development does not improve skill and knowledge of manpower in service
organization.
Table 4.1.13
DOES TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY
AND BETTER PERFORMANCE?
Option

No of respondent

Percentage(%)
58

Yes
No
Total

100
20
120

83
17
100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the table above, it was observed that 100(83%) respondents agrees with
the fact that training and development improves productivity and better
performance; while 20(17%) respondents thinks that training and development
do not improve productivity and better performance.
Table 4.1.14
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMMES?
Option
No of respondent
High
productivity
40
increases staff morale
Enhance
career
25
development
High
productivity
25
reduce staff turn over
30
No response
Total
120

Percentage(%)
33
21
21
25
100

Source: field survey 2015.


The above table indicates that out of 120 respondents, 40(33%) agreed that
training and development programme is embarked upon by the management
because it enhances high productivity and increases staff morale; 25(21%)
respondent believes that high productivity reduced staff turnover; 25(21%)
59

respondent agree that training program enhance career development; while


30(25%) out of the total respondents have no response on the effect of training
benefits.
Table 4.1.15
WHAT ARE THE LIKELY SUGGESTION ON IMPROVING TRAINI
NG AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME IN THE ORGANISATION?
Option
No of respondent
Emphasis should be
28
placed on the job
training
Establishment
of
20
training school within
the organization
42
Adapt sound training
policy
30
Sending staff on study
leave
Total
120

Percentage(%)
23
17
35
25
100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the table above, the following recommendations were made by the
respondents. 28(23%) respondent suggested that emphasis should be placed on
the job training if the organization wants an improvement on training and
development programme; 20(17%) respondent suggested that the organization
should establish a training school within the organization; 42(35%) respondent
agreed on the implementation of sound training policy; and 30(25%) respondent
said employees should be privileged to study leave.
60

Table 4.1.16
AS AN EMPLOYEE, WHICH ONE DO YOU CONSIDER TO BE THE
MOST IMPORTANT FOR THE ORGANIZATION TO ACHIEVE THE
AIM OF PROVIDING ELECTRICITY?
Option

No of respondent

Percentage
(%)

Machines
Workers
both
Total

18
22
80
120

15
18
67
100

Source: field survey 2015.


From the above table, 18(15%) of the respondent go with machines as the most
important to achieve the aim of providing electricity; 22(18%) respondent say
the workers are the most important for the organization to achieve the aim of
providing electricity; while 80(67%) respondent agrees that both machines and
workers are important for an organization to achieve the aim of providing
electricity. It is obvious that the organization needs both machines and worker
to achieve its aim of providing electricity.

4.2

TEST OF HYPOTHESIS
61

The hypothesis which were stated earlier in chapter one would be stated in
this chapter for acceptance or rejection.
Hypothesis can either be null hypothesis (ho), that which is tested or the
alternative hypothesis (hi), that which is available to be accepted when the null
hypothesis has to be rejected. If we cannot reject the null hypothesis, we do not
conclude that the null hypothesis is true but merely that it may be true.
HYPOTHESIS ONE
HI: Training and development improves productivity and better performance.
HO: Training and development does not improve productivity and better
performance.
Recall Table 4.1.13
Table 4.2.1
Option
yes
No
Total

No of respondent
100
20
120

Percentage(%)
83
17
100

Using X2
X2 = (o1 e 1)2
e1
= 120
2

=60

= (100 60)2 + (20 60)2


60
62

=1600 + 1600
60
=

3200
60

= 53.33
Therefore, the calculated X2 = 53.33
Degree of freedom = (n-1) (k-1)
= (2-1) (2-1)
=1
DECISION
From the chi-square for 1 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, the
tabulated X2 value is 3.84. This shows that the computed value of 53.33 is
greater than the tabulated value of 3.84 i.e. 53.33 > 3.84.
CONCLUSION
Based on the above analysis, the researcher rejects null hypothesis (HO) and
accept the alternative hypothesis (HI). That training and development improve
productivity and better performance.
HYPOTHESIS TWO
HI: Training and development improves skills and Knowledge of the manpower
in service organization.
63

HO: Training and development does not improve skills and Knowledge of the
manpower in service organization.
Recall Table 4.1.12
Table 4.2.2
Option
yes
No
Total

No of respondent
110
10
120

Percentage %
92
8
100

Using X2

X2 = (o1 e1)2
e1
X2 = (110 60)2 + (10 60)2
60
= 2500 + 2500
60
= 5000
60
=83.33
Therefore, the calculated X2 = 83.33
Degree of freedom

= (n - 1) (k - 1)
= (2 -1) (2 - 1)
64

=1

DECISION
From the chi square for 1 degree of freedom at 5% level of significance, the
tabulated x2 value is 3.84. This shows that the computed value of 83.33 is
greater than the tabulated value 3.84 i.e 83.33 > 3.84.
CONCLUSION
Based on the above analysis, the researcher rejects the null hypothesis (HO)
and accepts the alternative hypothesis (HI). That is, training and development
improve skills and knowledge of the manpower in service organization.

65

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION
5.1 SUMMARY
An evaluation of the effects of manpower training and development in service
organizations (a case study of Enugu electricity Distribution Company,
EEDC).a well-structured questionnaire was used to elicit responses from
respondent that served as the new data for further analysis in resolving the
objective of the study.
The specific objective of the study include: the purpose for this research is to
probe into the evaluation of the effect of manpower training and development in
service organization using Enugu electricity distribution company (EEDC)as a
case study with a view to find out how the organization is performing in term of
its employees training and development, to highlight the advantages of
employees training and development in service organization, to examine the
current training and development of employees in the organization and EEDC
in particular, to recommend appropriate measures that could help improve the
current manpower training program and to increase efficiency and effectiveness
of employees with the resulting increase in corporate productivity.
In analyzing the data collected using the questionnaire, the researcher used the
simple percentages method of analysis. Chi-square was used as the statistical

66

tools used for testing more than two population using data base on two
independent random samples.
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
The study recommends the following
1. EEDC should adopt sound training policy in training and development
to improve skills and knowledge of the employees.
2. Sending staff on study leave should be adopted in the training and
development to improve skills and knowledge of the employees.
3. Machines and workers should be improved as well to achieve
productivity in electricity.
5.3 CONCLUSION
The study concluded that training and development improve skills and
knowledge of the manpower in service organization. That training and
development improve productivity and better performance the
employees agreed.
The study further concluded that training and development programs
will increase staff morale, enhance career development and reduce staff
turnover. The employee agreed that machines and workers should be
improved.
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