6 views

Uploaded by ansarixxx

physics

physics

© All Rights Reserved

- College Physics: A Strategic Approach 2e Knight Solutions Manual
- University Physics Chapter2
- HW 2 Solutions
- Kinematics Bansal
- Section 1 specification edexcel
- 1 D Motion Notes
- PHYF 115 Tutorial 4
- PSE4 TestBank Ch02 Win
- 1-Oct-12 AMIE
- q1 Linear Acceleration Revision
- vraj khamar - rapid-physics-book.pdf
- null
- Kinematics
- Spark Timer Lab
- Mechanics Homework Problems
- Centripetal Acceleration
- F3Chapter_3
- Examples
- Physics Exam Questions2
- Beginner Physics

You are on page 1of 7

Formulas:

v = v 0 + at

x = x 0 +v0t + (1/2)at 2

x = x 0 + (1/2)(v 0 + v )t

v 2 = v02 + 2a (x - x 0 )

v = (v 0 + v) / 2

Constants:

g = 9.80 m/s2

Main Ideas:

1. Define various physical quantities relating to motion.

2. Understand uniform accelerated motion (including falling bodies).

3. Learn how to solve problems.

4. Understand graphical analysis of motion.

1. Definitions

1.1 DISTANCE AND DISPLACEMENT

Distance is the total length that an object has moved. If I walk 2 km north, then 1

km south, the distance I have moved is 3 km. On the other hand, displacement is

the net change in position. My displacement is only 1 km. If I go 3 km west and

4 km north my distance = 7 km and displaceLment = 5 km. For displacement

x = x f x i.

The displacement and distance can be drawn on an axis.

1.2 SPEED AND VELOCITY

Average speed is defined as distance/time. s = d / t .

Problem: If a jogger jogs for 1.5 hours at an average speed of 2.22 m/s, how far

does he go?

Velocity is defined as a quantity which has a magnitude (or value) as well as a

direction. Such a quantity is called a vector. In print a vector is usually

designated by using bold face print. For instance, velocity might be written using

the symbol v.

Average velocity is defined as displacement/time.

v=

x f xi

t f ti

x

.

t

speed is 3.0/0.75 = 4.0 km/hour while my average velocity is 1.0/.75 = 1.3

km/hour.

Problem: The land speed record was set by the car ThrustSSC in 1997 and is 341

m/s (763 miles/hour). This was the first land vehicle to travel faster than the

speed of sound. For this record, the car is first driven one direction, then the

other, and the two speeds are averaged. Suppose the car covered 1609 m in one

direction, then turned around and covered the same distance. If the first pass is

done in 4.74 s and the second in 4.69 s, what is his average velocity on each pass?

Instantaneous velocity is the velocity at a single instant. It is defined as the

average velocity over a very short period of time as the period of time

approaches an infinitesimal limit.

x dx

= .

t 0 t

dt

v = lim

Note that the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity is the instantaneous speed.

Your car speedometer gives your instantaneous speed, but not instantaneous

velocity. Why?

1.3 ACCELERATION

Average acceleration is defined as

a=

v f vi

t f ti

v

.

t

acceleration and velocity are vectors. Acceleration is the rate at which velocity

changes, while velocity is the rate at which position changes.

Problem: A sports car accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in 6.0 seconds. What is its

average acceleration?

Problem: You are driving 20 m/s when a dog runs across your path. You slam

on your brakes and in 2 seconds slow to 5 m/s. What was your average

acceleration?

v dv

=

.

t 0 t

dt

a = lim

2. Uniform Acceleration

We now use these simple definitions to derive equations for the special case when

acceleration is a constant. The equations we will derive can only be used

when the acceleration is a constant. That means when the rate of change of the

velocity is constant. It doesnt change. The velocity itself will change, but the

rate of the change will always be the same. We start with the definition of

acceleration and set the initial time t i = 0, the final time tf = t,, the initial velocity

vi = v0 and the final velocity vf = v.

a = (v -v0) /t. v = v 0 + at

Remember, mathematical equations have a meaning. What does this one mean?

Setting t 0 = 0, we get v = ( x x 0 ) / t x = x 0 + vt or with v = (v 0 + v) / 2

x = x 0 + 2 (v + v 0 )t

1

x = x 0 + (1/2) (v 0 + at + v 0)t

x = x 0 + v 0t + (1/2)at 2

Finally, from substituting t from first boxed into second boxed, we get

x = x 0 + (1/2)(v + v 0)( v - v 0 )/a

x = x 0 + (1/2)(v 2 - v 02)/a

v 2 = v 02 + 2a (x - x 0 )

Writing all the equations together gives

x,x 0

v = v 0 + at

x = x 0 + (1/2)(v 0 + v )t

x = x 0 +v0t + (1/2)at 2

v 2 = v02 + 2a (x - x 0 )

*

*

*

a

*

v

*

*

*

*

v0

*

*

*

*

t

*

*

*

is the distance traveled so often we set x 0 = 0 and just use x for the distance.

These only work when acceleration is a constant (Magnitude and

Direction). If you are given three known quantities and one unknown, you can

chose one of these equations. If you are given two known quantities and two

unknown ones, you will have to use two of these equations.

See Section 2-6 Solving Problems Solving problems will be a big part of

this class.

1. Read the Problem Carefully.

2. Draw a Diagram

3. Write down what is known or given and what you want to know.

4. Think about the physics principles and make sure the equations are valid.

5. Do the calculation.

6. Think about the answer. Is it reasonable? (Order of magnitude)

7. Check the units.

Problem: Previously, we had seen that our sports car could accelerate at 4.5

m/s2. (This is a constant acceleration). After 8 seconds how far has it gone?

Problem: What is the speed of the car after 10 seconds?

NOTE:

We often use the word deceleration to mean that an object is slowing down.

What is deceleration? Is it the same as negative acceleration? NO! Negative

acceleration means the sign of the acceleration is negative. Deceleration is when

the direction of acceleration is opposite the direction of motion. Suppose a car is

travelling in the negative direction. To decelerate it must have an acceleration in

the positive direction. On the other hand it will gain speed when the acceleration

is in the negative direction.

Problem: A car is traveling in the negative direction at -32 m/s. The driver

applies his brakes and stops in 7.3 seconds. What was the cars acceleration?

Problem: Suppose a spacecraft is traveling with a speed of 3250 m/s, and it slows

down by firing its retro rockets, so that a = -10 m/s2. What is the velocity of the

spacecraft after it has traveled 215 km?

Problem: Suppose a slow Texas lineman picks up a fumbled football on the 20

yard line and runs toward the end zone at 7.3 m/s. The safety is standing on the

23 yard line and needs to catch up to the lineman before he scores a touchdown.

4

If the safety can accelerate at a constant rate, what must be his minimum

acceleration to catch the lineman? What will be the safetys final velocity?

3. Free Falling Bodies

One of the most important cases of uniform accelerated motion is the case of

objects which are near to earth allowed to free fall. At first, it might seem that

different objects accelerate at different rates near the earth depending on their

weight. That is what people thought before Galileo did his experiments in the

late 1500s. However, Galileo showed that objects of different weights dropped

at the same rate.

The reason that some things drop slower in the air is because air resistance

pushes against the moving object. If there was no air resistance then even the

open paper would drop at the same rate. (On the moon, where there is no air, a

feather and a hammer fell at the same rate). When an object is dropped, its

velocity increases by 9.80 m/s every second. It continues to go faster. If there

was no air resistance, this would continue every second. Because there is air

resistance, the object eventually reaches a terminal velocity and doesnt go any

faster. But for many applications, we can negelect air resistance. Then,

everything near the surface of the earth accelerates toward the center of the earth

with a consant acceleration. Therefore, all of the equations we have

derived for constant acceleration apply to an object in free fall,

neglecting air resistance). All objects fall with a constant acceleration of

about 9.80 m/s2 which we call g, the acceleration due to gravity.

Problem: A stone is dropped from a very tall building. What is its position and

velocity after 3.00 seconds?

Problem: A boy throws a ball upward from the top of a building with an initial

velocity of 20.0 m/s. The building is 50 meters high. Determine (a) the time

needed for the stone to reach its maximum height (b) the maximum height (c)

the time needed for the stone to reach the level of the thrower (d) the velocity of

the stone at this instant (e) the velocity and position of the stone after 5.00 s (f)

the velocity of the stone when it reaches the bottom of the building.

4. Graphical Analysis of Linear Motion

We can analyze motion on a graph. The most important thing in doing this is to

look at how the axis is labeled. Look at what is constant, and what i s

changing linearly (at a constant rate). Also determine what the slope

represents. Slope is defined as the change in the vertical axis divided by the

change in the horizontal axis. If the vertical axis is displacement x and the

5

horizontal axis is the time t, then the slope is x/t = v (the slope is the velocity).

If the vertical axis is velocity v, and the horizontal axis is time, t, then the slope is

given by v/t = a (the slope is the acceleration).

Compare the next two graphs of the same motion

Position

(x )

no speed

constant + speed

constant - speed

Time (t )

Velocity

(v )

Time (t )

Compare the next three graphs as they analyze another series of movements

Velocity

Time

Position

Time

Acceleration

Time

- College Physics: A Strategic Approach 2e Knight Solutions ManualUploaded bysin831
- University Physics Chapter2Uploaded byKarlo Ornieta
- HW 2 SolutionsUploaded byZhe Geng
- Kinematics BansalUploaded byBHAAJI0001
- Section 1 specification edexcelUploaded byFuwad Abdul Muyeed
- 1 D Motion NotesUploaded bySwapnil Patel
- PHYF 115 Tutorial 4Uploaded byOoi Wen Li
- PSE4 TestBank Ch02 WinUploaded byEduardo Orozco Othero
- 1-Oct-12 AMIEUploaded byShriramkumar Singh
- q1 Linear Acceleration RevisionUploaded byThiruchelvan Dharmalingam
- vraj khamar - rapid-physics-book.pdfUploaded byRam Ji Pandey
- nullUploaded byd-fbuser-65596417
- KinematicsUploaded bySiddharth Acharya
- Spark Timer LabUploaded byKshitiz Vijayvargiya
- Mechanics Homework ProblemsUploaded bybillya1003
- Centripetal AccelerationUploaded byJAILUND
- F3Chapter_3Uploaded bySubash Mallampalli
- ExamplesUploaded byRizza Regalado
- Physics Exam Questions2Uploaded byAmrita
- Beginner PhysicsUploaded byDaniel Wang
- Central 11-08-13 ISC Board Test-1 Phy(Projectile Motion Motion in Straight) Sol KDp SirUploaded byPrithviraj Netke
- F_AMa Topic 1 Seminar Questions_condensedUploaded byMartinLuk
- physics106_lecture01Uploaded byNachammai Shanmugam
- Lecture2 MotionUploaded byMumbi Mtamira
- Summative Test Science Grade 5 quarter 3Uploaded bySoru Granale Balingbing
- PR11-190 [Somente Leitura]Uploaded byEduardo Feitosa
- force n my.pdfUploaded bySreedhar Pugalendhi
- Capitulo 3Uploaded bywsaionara
- Day 2 KinematicsUploaded byArnold Gacang
- Differential EquationUploaded byeuroxana

- Poisson ProcessUploaded byfunkkyexalter
- ca swUploaded byansarixxx
- dwwUploaded byansarixxx
- DrainageManual_Final.pdfUploaded byansarixxx
- 2019 Spring Dinner Menu WesbiteUploaded byansarixxx
- untitledUploaded byansarixxx
- Ece565 SoaUploaded byansarixxx
- Ch4Uploaded byansarixxx
- Ch2Uploaded byansarixxx
- 36801384Uploaded byansarixxx
- Lecture 8_semiconductor physics2.pdfUploaded byansarixxx
- Semiconductor FundamentalsUploaded byJayaseelan Dhakshinamoorthy
- ABCD Matrix and Gaussian Beam WaistUploaded byNicholas Lim
- July 2010EssaysQ'SandSampleAnswers 0Uploaded byansarixxx
- Table of Patent Fees - Current Proposed and Unit CostUploaded byansarixxx
- PPAC Detailed AppendixUploaded byansarixxx
- PPAC Public Hearing - Public PresentationUploaded byansarixxx
- ABAUSPTOUploaded byansarixxx
- APPspec-2470-2482-2483-2484-2485Uploaded byansarixxx
- Mayorga v RonaldoUploaded byEllyn Santiago
- HW2 EE570 MuqaibelUploaded byvenkat
- Draft USPTO 2018-2022 Strategic Plan - For Public Comment 8-14-18Uploaded byansarixxx
- MTFUploaded byansarixxx
- telUploaded byansarixxx
- Nca Exam Sched FinUploaded byansarixxx
- Plate ScaleUploaded byansarixxx
- lect1Uploaded byansarixxx
- pitman_index.pdfUploaded byShuvam
- Mod5 HW Spring 2018.PdUploaded byansarixxx

- IAS Book List Mechanical EngineeringUploaded bySachinSharma
- Luciano Reatto- On SupersolidityUploaded byKuiasm
- nnveshfsdbjfUploaded byBala Krishna
- Plasma and oxifuedddddddl.pptUploaded byislam
- Preventive Maintenance TechniquesUploaded byM.Saravana Kumar..M.E
- DG Flexible Pavement Tcm29-33827Uploaded byadeolaodukoya
- Equipos de Lubricación BozzaUploaded byJose Alberto Izquiel
- IPP End Suction Pump Brochure en Oct18 (1)Uploaded byarmando0212-1
- Soalan Dan Kuiz PressureUploaded byFahmi Ami
- copyofcanyoureadaquakebdocxUploaded byapi-357366743
- joomla.pdfUploaded byAnonymous N74GLGLcPp
- na_MAN_tab_en_PUploaded byEnkhtur Delgertsetseg
- 01 - Uniform Circular MotionUploaded bycutyverma
- Study of Gears and Four Bars MechanismUploaded byBarry John
- Short Checklist to Complete a Design Calculation According to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIIIUploaded byRamesh sivan
- HOMEWORK+ASSIGNMENT+_1+-+solutionUploaded byGerry
- stress_2Uploaded bysasis
- Extraccion de CodigosUploaded byjalvarez_385073
- electrical-engineering-portal.com-Star-Delta Motor Starter.pdfUploaded byWrya Saeed
- Rotary Encoder Training MaterialUploaded byLuckyboybk FC
- 2_2_30_enUploaded byEduaardo Laureano Ramos
- Simulation Thermal ProcessUploaded byJulio Mauricio Vidaurre-Ruiz
- Ds Fluor BasfUploaded byAnil Kumar
- 1985_Design and Optimization of Solar Steam Systems_BaerUploaded byhakeemniyas
- PhD Thesis DEL Ong Apr2005Uploaded byRaamulamma Reddy
- D'Alembert's ParadoxUploaded byperception888
- Mastering Physics Ch 10 HW College Physics I Brian Uzpen LCCCUploaded bySamuel
- Eddy Probes SystemsUploaded byRoberto Galina Ortiz
- RX 6 CHCİCAGO BREAKERUploaded bySerkanAl
- Roro Ramp CalUploaded byBoy