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Relative Sweetness
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Sucrose = 1
Lactose = 0.2
Maltose = 0.4
Glucose = 0.7
Fructose = 1.5

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Oligosaccharides
! 3-10 monosaccharides
! Indigestible molecular bonds
! Colonic bacteria digest= gas, SCFA

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Exocrine and
Endocrine Pancreas
and Starch breakdown

Bile duct
from liver

Stomach

Duodenum

Hormones
(insulin,
glucagon)
Blood

Duct cells

Acinar cells

Exocrine portion
of pancreas

NaHCO3

Endocrine portion
of pancreas
(islets of Langerhans)
To pancreatic duct
and duodenum
Duct cells (secrete aqueous
NaHCO3 solution)

Enzymes

Amylase

Secretory vesicles
Acinar cells
(secrete digestive
enzymes)

Location of brush
border enzymes.

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Digestion and
absorption in the
small intestine

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Fates of Glucose
! Monosaccharides enter capillaries, travel to
liver
! In liver cells, fructose & galactose ! glucose
! Glucose
! Used for energy in liver
! Passed into the blood for other cells to use for
energy
! Store in liver & muscles as glycogen
! If consumed in excess energy needs !
synthesize fatty acids

Lactose Intolerance&
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Fiber & Digestive Tract Health


Diverticulosis- bulging pockets form in colon trying to
eliminate small, hard stools

Soluble Fiber: Health Benefits


! Lowers cholesterol
! Soluble fiber binds with bile
! " (re)absorption of bile acids
! # hepatic cholesterol ! bile acids
! # LDL uptake by liver
! Delays rise in blood glucose
! Fiber in food traps nutrients
! Delays nutrient absorption
! Stabilizes blood sugar levels
! AHA recommends 10-25 g of soluble fiber daily

Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile


In the gallbladder,
bile is stored

In the liver,
bile is
made from
cholesterol

In the small intestine,


bile emulsifies fats
Bile reabsorbed
into the blood

In the colon, bile that has


been trapped by viscous
fibers is lost in feces

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Soluble Fiber Content of Common Foods


Food

Soluble Fiber (g)

Total Fiber (g)

Apple (1 med)

Apricots (1 c)

Broccoli or Carrots (1/2 c)

Bread, white

0.5

Bread, whole wheat

0.5

Brussels sprouts (1/2 c)

4.5

Cereals (high fiber)

2-3

6-10

Citrucel (1 scoop)

Grapefruit (1 med)

Kidney beans (1/2 c)

Metamucil (1 tsp.)

2.4

Oatmeal (1/3 c)

Orange (1 med)

Pinto beans (1/2 c)

Prunes (1/2 c)

Carbohydrate
Recommendations

! RDA: 130 g/day

! AMDR: 45 to 65% of energy


! AI for fiber:
! 38g/day for 19-50 year old adult men
! 25g/day for 19-50 year old adult women

Whole Grains versus Refined


Grains

Whole or unrefined grains


contain:

! Bran layers: good source of fiber and


vitamins
! Germ: good source of vegetable oils
and vitamin E
! Endosperm: contains starch and
some protein
Processing: removes bran and germ
Loss of nutrients

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Whole kernel rye bread

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Energy from
glucose and
protein

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ATP Synthase

ATP is produced in mitochondria

Pyruvate is metabolized to acetyl-CoA,


which then enters the citric acid cycle.

Which molecule of the


Nicotinamide is reduced ?

NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide)

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How Many ATPS are generated by Aerobic Respiration

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Exocrine portion
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NaHCO3

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Enzymes

Secretory vesicles
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enzymes)

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! > 45 years old
! Family history
! Overweight/obesity
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! Central weight
! Sedentary lifestyle
! " HDL and/or # TG&

! Non-Caucasian
racial or ethnic group
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Alaskan Native, African
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! Low blood sugar (glucose)
! Causes shakiness, sweating, anxiety
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Why consume whole foods?

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Word/concept List
Insoluble fiber
Amylase
Anaerobic respiration
Glycogen
Glucagon
Disaccharide
Fructose
Gluconeogenesis
Type 2 diabetes
Enterohepatic circulation
Glycemic response

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