Shabbat, Menucha and Elijah

Elijah the prophet, Elijah the Tishbite, Elijah the Giladi. May he soon come to us, with the messiah son of David.

1. The heaven and the earth were finished,
and all their array. On the seventh day God finished the work that He had been doing, and He ceased on the seventh day from all the work that He had done. And God blessed the seventh day and declared it holy, because on it God ceased from all the work of creation that He had done. Such is the story of heaven and earth when they were created.

‫1 וַ יְ כלּוּ השּׁמיִ ם וְ הא ֶרץ וְ כל־צבאם׃‬ ָ ָ ְ ָ ָ ָ ַ ָ ַ ֻ ‫2 וַ יְ כל אֹלהים בּיּוֹם השּׁביעי מלאכתּוֹ‬ ְ ַ ְ ִ ִ ְ ַ ַ ִ ֱ ַ ‫אשׁר עשׂה וַ יִּ שׁבֹּת בּיּוֹם השּׁביעי‬ ִ ִ ְ ַ ַ ְ ָ ָ ֶ ֲ ‫מכּל־מלאכתּוֹ אשׁר עשׂה׃‬ ָ ָ ֶ ֲ ְ ַ ְ ָ ִ ‫3 וַ יְ ב ֶרְך אֹלהים את־יוֹם השּׁביעי‬ ִ ִ ְ ַ ֶ ִ ֱ ָ ‫וַ יְ ק ֵדּשׁ אֹתוֹ כּי בוֹ שׁבת מכּל־מלאכתּוֹ‬ ְ ַ ְ ָ ִ ַ ָ ִ ַ ‫אשׁר־בּ ָרא אֹלהים לעשׂוֹת׃‬ ֲ ַ ִ ֱ ָ ֶ ֲ

2. On six days work may be done, but on
the seventh day there shall be a sabbath of complete rest, a sacred occasion. You shall do no work; it shall be a sabbath of the Lord throughout your settlements. (Leviticus 23)

‫3 שׁשׁת יָ מים תּעשׂה מלאכה וּביּוֹם‬ ַ ָ ָ ְ ֶ ָ ֵ ִ ֶ ֵ ‫השּׁביעי שׁבּת שׁבּתוֹן מק ָרא־ק ֶֹדשׁ‬ ְ ִ ָ ַ ַ ַ ִ ִ ְ ַ ‫כּל־מלאכה לא תעשׂוּ שׁבּתהוא‬ ִ ָ ַ ֲ ַ ֹ ָ ָ ְ ָ ְ ַ ‫ליהוָ ה בּכֹל מוֹשׁבֹתיכם׃‬ ֶ ֵ ְ ‫32 וַ יְ ַדבּר יְ הוָ ה אל־מֹשׁה לּאמֹר׃‬ ֵ ֶ ֶ ֵ ‫42 ַדּבּר אל־בּ ֵני יִ שׂ ָראל לאמֹר בּח ֶֹדשׁ‬ ַ ֵ ֵ ְ ְ ֶ ֵ ‫השּׁביעי בּאחד לח ֶֹדשׁ יִ היֶ ה לכם‬ ֶ ָ ְ ַ ָ ֶ ְ ִ ִ ְ ַ ָ ַ ‫שׁבּתוֹן זִ כרוֹן תּרוּעה מק ָרא־ק ֶֹדשׁ׃‬ ְ ִ ָ ְ ְ ‫52 כּל־מלאכת עב ָֹדה לא תעשׂוּ‬ ֲ ַ ֹ ֲ ֶ ֶ ְ ָ ‫וְ הק ַרבתּם אשּׁה ליהוָ ה׃‬ ַ ֶ ִ ֶ ְ ְ ִ

3. The Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Speak
to the Israelite people thus: In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you shall observe complete rest, a sacred occasion commemorated with loud blasts. You shall not work at your occupations; and you shall bring an offering by fire to the Lord. (Leviticus 25)

4. SHEVUT (Shevus)—
Symmachus holds the same opinion as the Rabbis who had laid down that every kind of occupation that may be classed as shevut. (Root ShVT) (an act that is only Rabbinically forbidden to be performed on the Sabbath) (Eruvin 30b)

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5. Beginnings of the Confusion
17

That was on the thirteenth day of the month of Adar; and they rested on the fourteenth day and made it a day of feasting and merrymaking. (Esther 9)

‫71 בּיוֹם־שֹׁלשׁה עשׂר לח ֶֹדשׁ א ָדר וְ נוֹח‬ ַ ֲ ְ ָ ָ ָ ְ ְ ‫בּא ְרבּעה עשׂר בּוֹ וְ עשׂ ֹה אֹתוֹ יוֹם‬ ָ ָ ָ ָ ָ ַ ְ ‫משׁתּה וְ שׂמחה‬ ָ ְ ִ ֶ ְ ִ

The same days on which the Jews enjoyed relief from their foes and the same month which had been transformed for them from one of grief and mourning to one of festive joy.

‫22 ךַּ יָּ מים אשׁר־נָ חוּ בהם היְּ הוּדים‬ ִ ַ ֶ ָ ֶ ֲ ִ ‫מאוֹיְ ביהם וְ הח ֶֹדשׁ אשׁר נֶ הפְּך להם‬ ֶ ָ ַ ְ ֶ ֲ ַ ֶ ֵ ֵ .‫מיָּ גוֹן לשׂמחה וּמאבל ליוֹם טוֹב‬ ְ ֶ ֵ ֵ ָ ְ ִ ְ ִ

6. The Prophecy to David (from Nathan)
When the king was settled in his palace and the Lord had granted him safety from all the enemies around him. (II Sam 7) Thus said the Lord of Hosts: I took you from the pasture, from following the flock, to be ruler of My people Israel, and I have been with you wherever you went, and have cut down all your enemies before you. Moreover, I will give you great renown like that of the greatest men on earth. I will establish a home for My people Israel and will plant them firm, so that they shall dwell secure and shall tremble no more. Evil men shall not oppress them any more as in the past, ever since I appointed chieftains over My people Israel. I will give you safety (‫ ) וַ ה ִניחֹתי‬from all your enemies. ִ ֲ

‫1 וַ יְ הי כּי־ ָישׁב המּלְך בּביתוֹ וַ יהוָ ה‬ ֵ ְ ֶ ֶ ַ ַ ִ ִ ‫ה ִניח־לוֹ מסּביב מכּל־אֹיְ ביו׃‬ ָ ָ ִ ִ ָ ִ ַ ֵ
The Lord declares to you that He, the Lord, will establish a house for you. When your days are done and you lie with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring after you, one of your own issue, and I will establish his kingship. He shall build a house for My name, and I will establish his royal throne forever. I will be a father to him, and he shall be a son to Me. When he does wrong, I will chastise him with the rod of men and the affliction of mortals; but I will never withdraw My favor from him as I withdrew it from Saul, whom I removed to make room for you.Your house and your kingship shall ever be secure before you; your throne shall be established forever.

7. Associated with the “rest” of Death (Menucha)
It was taught, R. Eliezer said: The souls of the righteous are hidden under the Throne of Glory, as it is said, “the life of my lord will be bound up in the bundle of life in the care of the Lord.” (I Sam. 25:29) But those of the wicked continue to be imprisoned, while one angel stands at one end of the world and a second stands at the other end, and they sling their souls to each other, for it is said, and the souls of thine enemies, them shall he sling out, as from the hollow of a sling (source not attributed). Rabbah asked R. Nahman: What about those who are intermediate? Had I died I could not have told you this, he replied. Thus did Samuel say: Both these and those [the wicked and the intermediate] are

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delivered to Dumah1; these enjoy rest (manuach), whereas the others have no rest (manuach). (Shab 152b) Nach nafsheha –idiomatic for “death” in Talmud. i.e. When he died. R. Hiyya b. Ashi as citing Rab, said: The disciples of the Sages have no rest (menucha) even in the world to come, as it is said: “They go from strength to strength, every one of them appeareth before God in Zion.” (Ps. 84:8) (Mo’ed Katan 29b)

8. Messianic “Rest”—Menucha
R. Johanan also said: As long as that wicked man lived mirth was never heard in the mouth of any living being, for it is written, “the whole world is at rest (nacha), and is quiet (shakta), then loudly it sings (Is. 14:7)”: they break forth into singing: whence it follows that hitherto there was no singing. (Shab 149b)

1

The guardian angel of the deceased. [The name is probably Silence, which is the meaning of Dumah, personified.]

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9. Psalm 132 A song of ascents. O LORD, remember in David’s favor . . .2how he swore to the LORD, vowed to the Mighty One of Jacob, 3 “I will not enter my house, nor will I mount my bed, 4 I will not give sleep to my eyes, or slumber to my eyelids 5 until I find a place for the LORD, an abode for the Mighty One of Jacob.” . . . .10 For the sake of Your servant David do not reject Your anointed one. 11 The LORD swore to David a firm oath that He will not renounce, “One of your own issue I will set upon your throne. 10. I Kings 17

If your sons keep My covenant and My decrees that I teach them, then their sons also, to the end of time, shall sit upon your throne.” 13 For the LORD has chosen Zion; He has desired it for His seat. 14 “This is my resting-place (menuchati) for all time; here I will dwell, for I desire it. . . 17 There I will make a horn sprout for David; I have prepared a lamp for My anointed one.

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Elijah the Tishbite, an inhabitant of Gilead, said to Ahab, As the Lord lives, the God of Israel whom I serve, there will be no dew or rain except at my bidding. v. 17 After a while, the son of the mistress of the house fell sick, and his illness grew worse, until he had no breath left in him. She said to Elijah, “What harm have I done you, O man of God, that you should come here to recall my sin and cause the death of my son?” “Give me the boy,” he said to her; and taking him from her arms, he carried him to the upper chamber where he was staying, and laid him down on his own bed. He cried out to the Lord and said, “O Lord my God, will You bring calamity upon this widow whose guest I am, and let her son die?” Then he stretched out over the child three times, and cried out to the Lord, saying, “O Lord my God, let this child’s life return to his body!” The Lord heard Elijah’s plea; the child’s life returned to his body, and he revived. Elijah picked up the child and brought him down from the upper room into the main room, and gave him to his mother. “See,” said Elijah, “your son is alive.” And the woman answered Elijah, “Now I know that you are a man of God and that the word of the Lord is truly in your mouth.”

11. II Kings 2
11

As they kept on walking and talking, a fiery chariot with fiery horses suddenly appeared and separated one from the other; and Elijah went up to heaven in a whirlwind.

12. Micah 3
23

Lo, I will send the prophet Elijah to you before the coming of the awesome, fearful day of the LORD. 24He shall reconcile parents with children and children with their parents, so that, when I come, I do not strike the whole land with utter destruction

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13. End of Days
But you, go on to the end; you shall rest, and arise to your destiny at the end of the days. (Daniel 12)

‫31 וְ אתּה לְך לקּץ וְ תנוּח וְ תעמֹד‬ ֲ ַ ַ ָ ֵ ַ ֵ ָ ַ ‫לג ָֹרלָך לקץ היָּ מין׃‬ ִ ַ ֵ ְ ְ ְ

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