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Report -1

Program: EMB
Course: Operation Management

Selected Company’s Operations,

Gul Ahmed Textile Mills

Faculty: …...
Institute of Business & Technology
Submitted By: Muhammad Tauqeer Ahmad
Student ID: …..

Submission Date: ……
Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ------------------------------------ 03
COMPANY PROFILE ----------------------------------------- 05
SPINNING ------------------------------------------------------- 11
WEAVILNG------------------------------------------------------ 14
PRETREATMENT--------------------------------------------- 18
DYEING (Export) ----------------------------------------------- 20
DYEING (Local) ----------------------------------------------- 25
COLLAR KITCHEN ------------------------------------------- 27
DESIGN ENGRAVING -------------------------------------- 29
PRINTING -------------------------------------------------------- 32
FINISHING ------------------------------------------------------- 36
FINISH EXPORT FOLDING ------------------------------- 39
THE LABORATORY ----------------------------------------- 42
QUALITY ASSURANCE ------------------------------------ 45
WAREHOUSE ------------------------------------------------- 47
CONFECTION -------------------------------------------------- 49
SALES CONTRACT ----------------------------------------- 54
SAMPLING ------------------------------------------------------ 57
CUTTING LETTER -------------------------------------------- 58
PROCUREMENTS ------------------------------------------- 60
SUGGESTIONS ----------------------------------------------- 65

Assuming of any role in a new organization is a source of great anxiety. An orientation program
definitely helps eliminate this anxiety and removes a number of ambiguities. I felt myself
extremely fortunate for having found the opportunity to go through a very comprehensive
orientation program.

Gul Ahmed Textile is a great organization involved in composite operations. Not only the
operations are very large in terms of volume but also are highly technical. It is almost
impossible to get insight of the entire organization in a limited time. However, the orientation
program has been extremely useful in developing the basic knowledge about the organization
and the functions of its units – reasonably in good number (by the Grace of Allah Almighty).

I am thankful to the Operation Manager Mr. Fazal-Ur-Rehman & General Manager Mr. Danish
Adam jee, whose help and assistance enabled me to successfully complete this report. I am also
very thankful to Mr. Hadi Fayyazi , Mr. Saeed Akhtar , Mr. Majid Khan and others to give me
their precious time in completing my assignment, and passing their great experience.

Again a humble vote of gratitude to all the respected employees, for designing such a pattern for
us and guiding us on the right path.

Gul Ahmed was incorporated in 1953 as a private Limited company and became a Public
Limited company in 1955.1t began as on unquoted Public company with 25000 spindles
and 250 Looms. It was listed on the Karachi Stock exchange in 1970.

It has since grown steadily into a composite unit with the following installed capacity:

Spinning Units Ring Frames 97,000
Weaving Units Air Jets 220
Sulzers 90
Conventional 342
Total 652 Looms

Preparation Singeing Bleaching Mercerizing
Dyeing Pad Steam Thermosol Hot Flue
Printing Rotary Flat Tables -
Finishing Agers Stenters Calendars
Coating Unit Back Coating Flocking Velours

Today it is one of the larger textile mills in the country having over 5000 employees. The
company continuously strives to maintain its position as industry leader in sales growth
and low cost production. This remarkable development has been possible through
commitment to technology, and an honest approach to doing business.

At Gul Ahmed we believe in thinking beyond bottom lines, like contributing to every
conceivable service, such as fulfilling customer expectations, employees housing to health, from
parks to environment, from schools to charities, the nation and mankind at large.

The company exports made up household articles globally, and is its main business, and
in the home market, sells dyed & printed lawn for ladies, and a variety of cambric &
poplins for gents.

Gul Ahmed Textile Mills Limited
Gul Ahmed Textile Mills is a composite textile unit, with the following facilities.

• Ring Spinning of Cotton & Poly Cotton yarn
• Weaving of Grey fabric
• Processing & Finishing of Cotton & Poly Cotton Fabrics
• Stitching of House Hold Textiles including Curtains.


Company Address:
HT/4B Landhi Industrial Area Karachi 75120

Telephone 92-21-5082626-30
Fax 92-21-5082625


1. Spinning.
2. Weaving.
3. Design & Styling.
4. Pretreatment, Printing, Dyeing, Finishing.
5. Hemming of house hold textiles.
6. Quality Control.

Group of Companies

Following is the list of companies, which are part of the group.

• Gul Abmed Textile Mills Limited
• Swisstex Chemicals
• Gul Abmed Energy Limited

Business Activities
In the textile field, activities start from spinning of raw cotton and man made fibers, and these
are spun into yarns. These yarns are then woven into a variety of fabrics, which are processed
and finished in all types of cotton and blended fabrics, bed linen and home textiles including

Gul Ahmed’s Apparel Division has established a tremendous presence in the International markets especially in United States
and Europe, since its establishment in Year 2006. We supply to major clothing brands and large buying houses. Our sewing
manufacturing facility has an in-house production capacity of 5.4 million units per annum and is 100 % export based.
We produce the highest quality garments and our entire organization and production processes
are equipped and continuously updated to satisfy our buyers. Our reputation and commitment
with our valued customers is our highest asset


The group is pioneers in the field of power generation. The textile mills are on self-generation
with an installed capacity of more than 20 MW.

Management of the group is professionally qualified and broadly experienced. The company's
director has held top position in various textile bodies, exports committees and assisted the
government of Pakistan in trade talks & negotiation with EC & USA authorities in framing
textile policies.

Mission Statement:
“To produce quality products through emphasis on consumer needs and to
earn profits through total consumer satisfaction.”

Vision Statement:

To be the textile leader of value added products in Pakistan and to achieve a
turnover of 300 million US $ in the next 15 years.

Gul Ahmed's fine textile products represent a unique fusion of the century old
traditions of the east and the latest textile technology of the west. The purest of cotton fibers,
produced from the fertile lands of the Indus Valley, are spun, woven and processed into the
finest quality cotton and blended products through a combination of latest technology, skills
and craftsmanship of this traditional industry.

Quilt covers ,duvet covers, flat and fitted sheets, pillow covers, valance sheets, bolster case with
all sorts of fancy confectioning, embroidery and embellishments, packed to buyers' specific

Ready made curtains lined, un-lined and taptop curtains, plain or fully accessorized with
tiebacks, pelmets, cushion covers, in different styles of confectioning and embroidery, packed to
buyers' specific requirement.
Running meter fabrics, packed to specific requirement.

Gul Ahmed specializes in medium-to-fine-count cotton yarns and is also capable of producing
yarns using a wide variety of synthetic fibers including polyester, rayon and other man-made

All APPAREL Articles , Boxer shorts, carpenter shorts, Men’s , Boys , Women’s Tee Shirts,
Hooded, Trouser, Apparel Items, cycle shorts, table linen, kitchen linen, sofa cover, quilted
articles including bed spreads, comforters, etc.

T he Orientation Program started from the Spinning Department. Gul Ahmed has its own
spinning facility located in Landhi Mill no 5. The contact person was Mr. Mehmood
Director Technical Production. However the orientation was conducted in two sessions. The
spinning facility at GTM 5 comprises of two significant divisions the Production facility and the
Testing Lab.

Production Facility.

The production facility comprises of several departments. Mr. Ashraf provided a detailed
description of each department and gave description of each and every work process. First the
cotton bales are received at the warehouse. This cotton is purchased based on the sample selected
and onwards approval from the lab. Cotton Bales are mostly purchased from Sind, Punjab, and in
some cases even from abroad. The most frequently purchased cotton is MNH 93 produced in


At this stage cotton bales are manually opened and are put in Pluckers. Pluckers are machines
which mix the cotton and separate the bales into smaller denominations. The separated cotton is
then transferred into the Blow Room.

Blow Room

The Blow Room is a facility, which is primarily used for the Cleaning, Mixing and Opening of
cotton for yarn production. Cotton is processed through various stages in this area through
different machines and the main objective is to refine the cotton being used in yarn production. A
brief description of the machinery used is given below.
Auto Blender Primarily used for mixing cotton. This means that the cotton fibers are separated for the
facilitation of the cleaning process. Waste at this stage is also removed.

B-11 This machines is mainly used for trash removal. The cotton is passed through channel with air pressure.
Trash is removed and deposited at the bottom of the machine while the cotton is passed
on for further processing.

Multimixer Again multimixer is another machine used for further mixing and opening of the raw

Heavy Particle As this is self explanatory this machine is used to remove trash and
Separator facilitates in the cleaning process.

Tower Feed Free This is mainly used for beating cotton so that the fibers are further
Roller aligned.

Tower Feed Free This is mainly used for the further waste removal and fine opening of
Fine Opener cotton fiber.

Tower Feed Free The tower has wires attached to its beater which further separates the
Wire Opener fibers.

Vision Shield The vision shield is yet another equipment to purify the raw cotton. This device contains
sensors which sense the foreign particles (Trash) i.e. polythene, leafs etc. and sucks them
out of the raw cotton through air pressure.

D Duster This is the final stage in the blow room in which even the tiny and micro dust particles
are removed from the raw cotton. Once the cotton is passed through the D Duster it is
transferred into the Carding department.

The Carding Department.

The main function of this department is to transform the cotton into Sliver. The main objective
here is to maintain the uniformity, alignment and stretch ability of the fiber as per the desired
standards. Once the Cotton is turned into Sliver it is filled in Cans. Cotton is passed through
Drying Breaker to maintain the uniformity; the fiber is straightened. The sliver is then passed to
Drying Finisher is for the same purposes however the only difference is that of the Auto Leveler.
The Auto leveler is primarily used for controlling the variasion in uniformity (weight) of the
sliver. The unit of measure for uniformity is “Grain”.
Simplex is the process of shaping the Sliver into Roving. The main processes involved are
Grafting, Twisting and Winding the sliver and shaping it like a thin rope. There are currently six
machines used for turning the Sliver into Roving. Each machine has a capacity of 120 spindles.
Spindles are the equipment on which the Roving is collected. The unit of measure of roving is
Hanks. Once the roving are collected it is passed on to the Ring Department for yarn production.
The Ring Department.

This is function where the yarn is finally produced. The Rovings are put on the machines used
here and passing the roving through the machine produces yarns. The main objective of the
machines here is again Grafting, Twisting and Winding. Once the cotton thread is produced it is
collected in the from of Bobbin.

The Auto Cone Department.

The main equipment used in the auto cone department is a machine called Loepee. The function
of this machine is to observe the yarn and remove the unwanted portion of the yarn. If a portion
of the threat is identified as unwanted it is removed and the threat is then again joined to
continue with the process. All sensed thread is collected on a Cone. The cone is of a Standard
size. Once a cones are completed they are transferred to the packing department from where they
are packed and stored.

Spinning Laboratory
The second important section of the spinning facility is the Test Laboratory which is mainly
responsible for the inspection and testing of the cotton samples and monitoring the work
processes and machinery in the production facility. Mr. Saleem provided a detailed description
on the work processes of the Lab.

The Yarn Section.

The first section in the lab is the Yarn Department in which the production is monitored
according to the set and desired standards. There are various machines and equipments used for
this purpose which the performance and output of the production facility.
The Wrapping Drum: This is an equipment used to measure the count i.e. Grains of the Sliver being produced.
67 grains is the standard unit to measure the thickness.
The sliver is rolled on the wrapping drum and six rounds of the wrapping drum are taken. Once six rounds
are completed the sliver is cut and weighed. The grains of the sliver are then computed by
the application of a formula.

The Strength Machine: The strength machine is used to measure the strength of the yarn. 120 yards of yarn are
required to measure the strength of yarn. 120 yards of yarn equals to one “Lie”. A 30-
count yarn has strength of 72 pounds. There are other standards to measure other counts
as well.

Auto Sorter: Auto sorter is device, which inspects the count of both the Yarn and the Hanks.

UT4: This devise is used to run similar detailed tests, which inspects the Sliver and the Yarn.

Spectro Gram: This device detects the technical fault in the machinery operational in the mill.


W eaving is method or process of interlacing two yarns of similar materials so that they
cross each other at right angles to produce woven fabric. The warp yarns, or ends, run
lengthwise in the fabric, and the filling threads (weft), or picks, run from side to side. Weaving
can be done on a power or handloom or by several hand methods. At Gul Ahmed Textile
Weaving is done on both Air Jet Looms and Sulzer Looms. There are separate facilities for
weaving for both markets i.e. Local as well as Exports.

In case of Weaving for Exports the facility has been established in GTM 5 and for Local facility
has been setup at GTM 4. The process is initiated from the Yarn Warehouse. Yarn is separated in
the Yarn warehouse where the Yarn to be utilized in the Warp and the Weft are segregated.

WARP: It’s the set of yarn in all woven fabrics, that runs lengthwise (veridical ) and parallel
to the selvage and is interwoven with the weft.

WEFT: In a woven fabric, the yarn running from selvage to selvage (Horizontal) at right
angles to the warp threads .Each Vertical thread is called a pick or Weft.

BEAMING (Warping): The operation of winding warp yarns onto a beam usually in
preparation for slashing, weaving, or warp knitting. Also called warping. Once the Warp ends
are separated they are brought to a machine where these warps threads are aligned on the beam
for the purpose of weaving. The size of the beam may vary and infact the width of the fabric is
dependent of the width of the beam. Beam sizes and number of ends per beam. Currently at the
Export Weaving facility the Warping Machines have a capacity of Warping 704, 800 and 1040
threads on once beam. Where is

SIZING: A generic term for compounds that are applied to warp yarn to bind the fiber
together and stiffen the yarn to provide abrasion resistance during weaving. Starch, gelatin, oil,
wax, and manufactured polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, polystyrene, polyacrylic acid, and
polyacetates are employed. Beams containing the Warp ends are then put on the sizing machine
where the warp ends are passed through chemical compounds so that strength of the yarn is
increased. Several Beams can be loaded on the Sizing machine at a time. Currently the sizing
machines at the export facility have two capacities i.e of 24 and 28 beams. Depending upon the
quality of weave required. New beams are created out of the beams loaded on the Sizing
machine. Example if it’s a quality of 76 x 68 with a width of 100” then the number of warp ends
required on one beam shall be 76 x 100 i.e. 7600. However the Warping machine can only Warp
1040 threads on a beam at a time. Thus to get 7600 threads 8 beams shall have to be made. All
these 8 beams are then put on the sizing machine and then the Warps ends of all the eight beam
are passed through the chemical at the same time and collected on one beams.
WASTE RECYCLING: Waste is recycled at both the Warping as well as the Sizing
stage. All waste which is acculate is then send to the rewinding.

DRAWING: Drawing is a very important and time consuming process in the weaving of the
fabric. It is infact a process in which the texture of the fabric is shaped. Setting the pattern of
intersection of the Warp shapes the texture of the fabric and Weft ends. However the patterns is
set up by the dropper, dropper rod and the frame which shall be important in shaping the texture
of the cloth. Once the Drawing of the Beam is completed the beam is ready for being passed on
to the loom shed.

LOOM: The Loom is the actual machine for weaving fabric by interlacing a series of
vertical, parallel threads (the warp) with a series of horizontal, parallel threads (the filling). The
Yarn separates in the beginning for the Weft is directly brought to the loom shed. The warp
yarns from a beam pass through the heddles and reed, and the filling is shot through the “shed”
of warp threads by means of a shuttle or other device and is settled in place by the reed and lay.
The woven fabric is then wound on a cloth beam. The primary distinction between different
types of looms is the manner of filling insertion. Mainly there are two types of looms being used
in Gul Ahmed i.e. the Air Jet Loom and the Sulzer Loom however Air Jet is only used for the
purposes of Export Weaving.

KNOTTING: Knotting is a process in weaving when the beam is replaced by a fresh new
beam. This is done when an existing quality of the fabric is being produced on a loom and the
Warp thread on the beams are about to be fully consumed the Machine is stopped and the
existing beam is replaced by a new beam however the Warp ends are knotted together with the
ends of the previous beam so that the production is continuous.

GETTING: When once particular quality is manufactured and is completed the complete set
of the beam, rod, and dropper etc is removed and a new set is loaded for a different quality. This
process is called the Getting.

INSPECTION AND FOLDING: Once the fabric is weaved it is rolled in 150 to 200
meter length rolls. The fabric is then inspected and folded. The Main purposes of the inspection
is to check the weaving defects that arise during the weaving process. The fabric once inspected
is folded and passed on to the packing department for packing. Once packed the fabric is kept in
the fabric godown.

The Unit of Measures.
The Count:

The Count is mainly the twist of the yarn. 1 pound of Yarn containing 840 yards of thread is
equal to 1 single count. The a count of 80 is 80 x 840 yards of thread in one pound of
.(if you need complete report pls contect me… tauqeerrajput@gmail or