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You are on page 1of 40

MECHANICS OF

SOLIDS

Pure Bending

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Pure Bending

Pure Bending

Other Loading Types

Symmetric Member in Pure Bending

Bending Deformations

Strain Due to Bending

Beam Section Properties

Properties of American Standard Shapes

Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section

Sample Problem 4.2

Bending of Members Made of Several

Materials

Example 4.03

Example 4.07

Sample Problem 4.8

Unsymmetric Bending

Example 4.08

General Case of Eccentric Axial Loading

4-2

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Suggested Problem

Chapter 4

4.4, 4.8, 4.9, 4.15, 4.18, 4.19, 4.22, 4.26, 4.31,

4.33, 4.3, 4.39, 4.42, 4.55, 4.65, 4.66, 4.100,

4.102, 4.104, 4.106, 4.102, 4.127, 4.129,

4.140, 4.145, 4.146, 4.148, 4.149.

4-3

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Pure Bending

subjected to equal and opposite couples

acting in the same longitudinal plane

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4-4

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Other Loading Types

Eccentric Loading: Axial loading which

does not pass through section centroid

produces internal forces equivalent to an

axial force and a couple

Transverse Loading: Concentrated or

distributed transverse load produces

internal forces equivalent to a shear

force and a couple

Principle of Superposition: The normal

stress due to pure bending may be

combined with the normal stress due to

axial loading and shear stress due to

shear loading to find the complete state

of stress.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4-5

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Symmetric Member in Pure Bending

Internal forces in any cross section are equivalent

to a couple. The moment of the couple is the

section bending moment.

From statics, a couple M consists of two equal

and opposite forces.

direction is zero.

The moment is the same about any axis

perpendicular to the plane of the couple and

zero about any axis contained in the plane.

These requirements may be applied to the sums

of the components and moments of the statically

indeterminate elementary internal forces.

Fx x dA 0

M y z x dA 0

M z y x dA M

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4-6

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Bending Deformations

Beam with a plane of symmetry in pure

bending:

member remains symmetric

cross-sectional plane passes through arc center

and remains planar

length of top decreases and length of bottom

increases

a neutral surface must exist that is parallel to the

upper and lower surfaces and for which the length

does not change

stresses and strains are negative (compressive)

above the neutral plane and positive (tension)

below it

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4-7

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4-8

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Strain Due to Bending

Consider a beam segment of length L.

After deformation, the length of the neutral

surface remains L. At other sections,

L y

L L y y

x

m

L

c

or

y

c

x m

4-9

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress Due to Bending

For a linearly elastic material,

y

c

x E x E m

y

m (stress varies linearly)

c

y

Fx 0 x dA m dA

c

0 m y dA

c

plane is zero. Therefore, the neutral

surface must pass through the

section centroid.

y

M y x dA y m dA

c

I

M m y 2 dA m

c

c

m

Mc M

I

S

y

Substituti ng x m

c

x

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

My

I

4 - 10

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Beam Section Properties

The maximum normal stress due to bending,

Mc M

I

S

I section moment of inertia

I

S section modulus

c

will have a lower maximum stress

Consider a rectangular beam cross section,

3

1

I 12 bh

S

16 bh3 16 Ah

c

h2

sectional area, the beam with the greater depth

will be more effective in resisting bending.

Structural steel beams are designed to have a

large section modulus.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 11

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Properties of American Standard Shapes

4 - 12

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 13

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Deformations in a Transverse Cross Section

Deformation due to bending moment M is

quantified by the curvature of the neutral surface

1 Mc

m m

c

Ec Ec I

M

EI

1

when subjected to bending moments, in-plane

deformations are nonzero,

y x

z x

contraction below it cause an in-plane curvature,

1

anticlastic curvature

4 - 14

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 4.2

SOLUTION:

Based on the cross section geometry,

calculate the location of the section

centroid and moment of inertia.

Y

yA

A

I x I A d 2

find the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses.

m

by a 3 kN-m couple. Knowing E = 165

GPa and neglecting the effects of

fillets, determine (a) the maximum

tensile and compressive stresses, (b)

the radius of curvature.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

Mc

I

1

M

EI

4 - 15

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 4.2

SOLUTION:

Based on the cross section geometry, calculate

the location of the section centroid and

moment of inertia.

Area, mm 2 y , mm

yA, mm3

1 20 90 1800

50

90 103

2 40 30 1200

20

24 103

3

A 3000

yA 114 10

3

yA 114 10

Y

38 mm

3000

A

1 bh3 A d 2

I x I A d 2 12

12

12

I 868103 mm 86810-9 m 4

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 16

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 4.2

Apply the elastic flexural formula to find the

maximum tensile and compressive stresses.

Mc

I

M c A 3 kN m 0.022 m

A

I

868109 mm 4

M cB

3 kN m 0.038 m

B

I

868109 mm 4

A 76.0 MPa

B 131.3 MPa

1

M

EI

3 kN m

20.95 103 m -1

47.7 m

4 - 17

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 18

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 19

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Bending of Members Made of Several Materials

Consider a composite beam formed from

two materials with E1 and E2.

Normal strain varies linearly.

x

1 E1 x

E1 y

2 E2 x

E2 y

section centroid of composite section.

Elemental forces on the section are

Ey

E y

dF1 1dA 1 dA dF2 2dA 2 dA

My

I

1 x

2 n x

dF2

nE1 y dA E1 y n dA

E

n 2

E1

4 - 20

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.03

SOLUTION:

Transform the bar to an equivalent cross

section made entirely of brass

Evaluate the cross sectional properties of

the transformed section

Calculate the maximum stress in the

transformed section. This is the correct

maximum stress for the brass pieces of

the bar.

Bar is made from bonded pieces of

steel (Es = 29x106 psi) and brass

(Eb = 15x106 psi). Determine the

maximum stress in the steel and

brass when a moment of 40 kip*in

is applied.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

steel portion of the bar by multiplying

the maximum stress for the transformed

section by the ratio of the moduli of

elasticity.

4 - 21

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.03

SOLUTION:

Transform the bar to an equivalent cross section

made entirely of brass.

Es 29 106 psi

n

1.933

Eb 15 106 psi

bT 0.4 in 1.933 0.75 in 0.4 in 2.25 in

1 b h3 1 2.25 in.3 in 3

I 12

T

12

5.063 in 4

m

Mc 40 kip in 1.5 in

11.85 ksi

4

I

5.063 in

b max m

s max n m 1.93311.85 ksi

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

s max 22.9 ksi

4 - 22

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 23

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Stress Concentrations

in the vicinity of points where the

loads are applied

m K

Mc

I

in cross section

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 24

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of Symmetry

Stress due to eccentric loading found by

superposing the uniform stress due to a centric

load and linear stress distribution due a pure

bending moment

x x centric x bending

Eccentric loading

FP

M Pd

P My

A I

limit, deformations have negligible effect on

geometry, and stresses not evaluated near points

of load application.

4 - 25

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.07

SOLUTION:

Find the equivalent centric load and

bending moment

the centric load and the linear stress

due to the bending moment.

Evaluate the maximum tensile and

compressive stresses at the inner

and outer edges, respectively, of the

superposed stress distribution.

bending low-carbon steel rods into the

shape shown. For 160 lb load, determine Find the neutral axis by determining

the location where the normal stress

(a) maximum tensile and compressive

is zero.

stresses, (b) distance between section

centroid and neutral axis

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 26

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.07

Normal stress due to a

centric load

A c 2 0.25 in 2

0.1963in 2

P

160 lb

0

A 0.1963in 2

815 psi

and bending moment

P 160 lb

M Pd 160 lb0.6 in

104 lb in

bending moment

I 14 c 4 14 0.254

3.068103 in 4

Mc 104 lb in 0.25 in

m

I

.068103 in 4

8475psi

4 - 27

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.07

stresses

t 0 m

815 8475

c 0 m

815 8475

t 9260psi

c 7660psi

0

P My0

A

I

P I

3.068103 in 4

y0

815 psi

AM

105lb in

y0 0.0240in

4 - 28

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 4.8

The largest allowable stresses for the cast

iron link are 30 MPa in tension and 120

MPa in compression. Determine the largest

force P which can be applied to the link.

SOLUTION:

Determine an equivalent centric load and

bending moment.

Superpose the stress due to a centric

load and the stress due to bending.

From Sample Problem 2.4,

A 3 103 m 2

Y 0.038 m

I 868109 m 4

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

tensile and compressive stresses.

The largest allowable load is the smallest

of the two critical loads.

4 - 29

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Sample Problem 4.8

Determine an equivalent centric and bending loads.

d 0.038 0.010 0.028 m

P centric load

M Pd 0.028 P bending moment

P Mc A

P

A

I

3 103

868109

0.028 P 0.022 1559 P

P Mc

P

B A

A

I

3 103

868109

A

A 377 P 30 MPa

P 79.6 kN

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

P 77.0 kN

4 - 30

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Unsymmetric Bending

Analysis of pure bending has been limited

to members subjected to bending couples

acting in a plane of symmetry.

Members remain symmetric and bend in

the plane of symmetry.

The neutral axis of the cross section

coincides with the axis of the couple

Will now consider situations in which the

bending couples do not act in a plane of

symmetry.

Cannot assume that the member will bend

in the plane of the couples.

In general, the neutral axis of the section will

not coincide with the axis of the couple.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 31

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Unsymmetric Bending

0 Fx x dA m dA

y

c

or 0 y dA

which the neutral axis of a cross section

of arbitrary shape coincides with the

axis of the couple as shown.

The resultant force and moment

from the distribution of

elementary forces in the section

must satisfy

Fx 0 M y M z M applied couple

y

m dA

z

c

I

or M m

I I z moment of inertia

c

0 M y z x dA z m dA

y

c

or 0 yz dA I yz product of inertia

a principal centroidal axis

4 - 32

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Unsymmetric Bending

Superposition is applied to determine stresses in

the most general case of unsymmetric bending.

Resolve the couple vector into components along

the principle centroidal axes.

M z M cos

M y M sin

x

Mzy Myy

Iz

Iy

x 0

tan

M cos y M sin y

Mzy Myy

Iz

Iy

Iz

Iy

y Iz

tan

z Iy

4 - 33

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.08

SOLUTION:

Resolve the couple vector into

components along the principle

centroidal axes and calculate the

corresponding maximum stresses.

M z M cos

M y M sin

component stress distributions.

x

Mzy Myy

Iz

Iy

rectangular wooden beam in a plane

Determine the angle of the neutral

forming an angle of 30 deg. with the

axis.

vertical. Determine (a) the maximum

y Iz

tan

tan

stress in the beam, (b) the angle that the

z Iy

neutral axis forms with the horizontal

plane.

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 34

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.08

Resolve the couple vector into components and calculate

the corresponding maximum stresses.

M z 1600lb in cos 30 1386lb in

M y 1600lb in sin 30 800 lb in

1 1.5 in 3.5 in 3 5.359in 4

I z 12

1 3.5 in 1.5 in 3 0.9844in 4

I y 12

The largest tensile stress due to M z occurs along AB

M z y 1386lb in 1.75 in

452.6 psi

4

Iz

5.359in

M yz

Iy

0.9844in 4

occurs at A.

max 1 2 452.6 609.5

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

max 1062psi

4 - 35

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

Example 4.08

Determine the angle of the neutral axis.

Iz

5.359in 4

tan tan

tan 30

4

Iy

0.9844in

3.143

72.4o

4 - 36

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

General Case of Eccentric Axial Loading

Consider a straight member subject to equal

and opposite eccentric forces.

The eccentric force is equivalent to the system

of a centric force and two couples.

P centric force

M y Pa

M z Pb

combined stress distribution is

P Mz y M yz

x

A

Iz

Iy

be found from

My

Mz

P

y

z

Iz

Iy

A

GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

4 - 37

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 38

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 39

MECHANICS OF SOLIDS

4 - 40

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