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This Lecture

Wastewater Treatment
Part B
CHNG 3804

Secondary treatment technologies


This refer to the biological removal of
biodegradable organic compounds i.e.
(BOD and COD) removal by bacterial
growth processes.

Fariba Dehghani

Treatment Ponds

Secondary Treatment
Biological removal of BOD and COD
Key Technologies
Aeration
Treatment Ponds (Aerated and Unaerated)
Activated sludge
Trickling Filter (aerobic)
High Rate Anaerobic Treatment
High Rate Aerobic Treatment

Low cost removal of BOD and suspended solids


Biological Process classified on the basis of the type of
biological activity
Pond Type

Biological Activity

Aeration

Anaerobic

Anaerobic

None

Facultative

Natural

Aerated

Aerobic and
Anaerobic
Aerobic

Oxidation

Aerobic

None

Mechanical

Anaerobic Treatment

Treatment Ponds
Different types of biological activity are defined
based on the electron acceptors used
Aerobic (O2)
Anoxic (NO3, NO2)
Anaerobic (C, SO4)

Ponds

Digester

High Rate

UASB, Hybrid, IC
Natural

Intensified

Aerobic Treatment

Electron donors: carbohydrates, proteins, fat,


etc. are BOD compounds that are oxidised.

Ponds

Aerobic

Activated
sludge

Aerated

Continuos

Moving bed
bioreactors

Intermittent

Aerobic SuspendedSuspended-Growth
Treatment Processes

Aerobic or Anaerobic?
Aerobic
Consumes Energy
~ 99% COD removal

Anaerobic
Produces Energy
~ 95-97% COD removal

Used for removal of carbonaceous organic matter

Activated sludge process

Aerated lagoons

Generates a large
amount of Biomass
(40% of COD)
Higher sludge disposal
costs
Higher N and P uptake

Generates little biomass


(5% of COD)

A sequencing batch reactor

An aerobic digestion process

Lower sludge Disposal


costs
Lower N and P uptake

Activated Sludge

Activated Sludge

Most common waste water treatment system worldwide


Invented in England by Arden and Lockett who
aerated a sample of sewage
allowed it to settle, decanted
repeated the process.

Discovered three key features of the process

Comprise of activated mass of micro-organisms capable


of stabilising a waste aerobically.
Organic waste is introduced into a reactor where an
aerobic bacterial culture is maintained in suspension.
CO2 + NH3 + C5H7NO2
COHNS + O2 + nutrients
bacteria
(new cells) + others
Qw, X

During aeration sewage is mixed with large mass of previously


grown biomass
The solids can retained by settling (tend to grow as flocs)
Liquid and solids residence times can be controlled separately

Q, S0

Enables solids to have a longer residence time than


liquids

Reactor
Qe, S, Xe

Settling Tank

X, Vr, S

Qr, Xr, S

Qw, Xr

Adapted from; Wastewater Engineering, Chapter 8

Activated Sludge - Continuous


Removes BOD and Suspended Solids, typical Effluent BOD ~ 20 mg/L,
SS ~ 30mg/L
Sedimentation tank is an integral part of the activated sludge process.
Because of the variable process microbiology that is possible, it has
been found that the settling characteristics of the biological solids in the
mixed liquor will differ with each plant.

Effluent

Influent

Return of activated sludge

Waste Sludge

Process Microbiology

Pseudomonas
Zoogloea
Achromobactor
Flavobacterium
Nocardia
Bdellovibria
Mycobacterium
Nitrosomonas
Nitrobacter
Sphaerotilus
Beggiatoa
others

Aerated Ponds (Lagoons)

Bulking in Activated Sludge Process


The presence of filamentous organisms leads to
formation of bulky flocs which do not settle well.
Examples are fungi, actinomycetes, etc..
Addition of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to
the return waste-activated sludge, control of
oxygen are alternative way to minimize the
bulking in activated sludge process.

Evolved from facultative stabilization ponds when surface aerators


were installed to overcome the odors from organically overloaded
ponds.
The aerated lagoons process is the same as the activated sludge
process (20 days).
An earthen basin is used for the reactor, oxygen is supplied from the
surface, and solid maintained in suspension.
Aerated lagoon are used in conjunction with settling facilities to
recycle the biological solids.

Complex compounds
+O2 +bacteria

CO2 + H2O +
more bacteria

Sludge

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)

Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR)


Influent

Is a Fill-and Draw activated sludge treatment system.


Aeration and sedimentation/clarification are carried out in
both systems.
Activated-sludge process is carried out simultaneously in
separate tank, however, in SBR the process is carried
out sequentially in the same tank.
The steps are (1) fill, (2) react (aeration), (3) settle
(sedimentation), (4) draw (decant), and (5) idle.

Draw

Fill
Add Substrate

effluent
Remove effluent

React

Idle
Reaction time

5
Settle

Waste sludge

3
Clarity

Trickling Filter

Trickling Filter
Rotating Distributor

Biological unit operation


Organic material is removed by contact with
attached biomass
Some volatile pollutants are removed by transfer
to the gas phase
Consist of a
filter bed, which may be wood, plastic or mineral
distribution system - normally rotating
Support layer and effluent collection

Effluent
Influent
Design process, key parameter is surface hydraulic loading rate.
The volume is then calculated from BOD5 loading.

Trickling Filter

Issues in Trickling Filter

A highly permeable medium is provided to which


microorganisms are attached.
The filter media consists of either rock or variety of
plastic packing materials.
The depth of the rock ranges from 0.9 to 2.5 m, while
plastic media from 4 to 12 m.
Liquid wastewater is distributed over the top of the bed
by rotary distributor.
Filers are constructed with underdrain system for
collecting the treated wastewater system.
Air recirculates across the pores in the underdrain
system.

Trickling Filter
Low-rate

Intermediate
-rate

Highrate

Super highrate

High incidence of clogging


The long rest period required.
Relatively low loading that could be used.

Anaerobic
Roughing

50-190

Advantages
Produces CH4 gas
Lower sludge disposal costs

Disadvantages
Longer Start-up
Susceptible to failure

0.5-1.6

1.5-7.5

Low Nutrient Requirements

Little nutrient removal

1-2

3-10

5-10

Production of hydrogen
sulfide

0-1

1-2

1-2

1-4

Elimination of off-gas
pollution (aeration strips
VOC)

80-90%

50-70%

65-85%

60-80%

40-65%

Lower quality Effluent than


Aerobic

high

partial

low

low

none

Can degrade chemicals


which are not degradable
aerobically

Filter Media

Rock/Slag Rock/Slag

Rock

Plastic

Plastic/
Wood

Loading
(m3/m2/d)

1.2-3.5

3.5-9.4

9-38

12-70

BOD5
loading
(kg/m3/d)

0.08-0.4

0.25-0.5

0.5-1

Depth (m)

2-3

2-3

Recirculation 0
Rate
BOD5
removal
efficiency
Nitrification

Energy Production (Anaerobic)


The yield of CH4 is typically 0.35 L/g of
COD
Calorific value of methane is 33.81 kJ/L
Efficiency of Internal combustion engines
are typically 25%
Can be more efficient if used in boiler

Energy Requirements (Aerobic)


Aerobic processes require agitation and/or
aeration
Except for Large shallow lagoons

For large ponds, mechanical aerators are


preferred
For fixed geometric vessels fine diffusers
are preferred
The type of diffuser has a large effect,
different to agitated fermenters

Energy Requirements (Aerobic)


Aeration system

Maximum Aeration
Intensity (g/m3/h)

Energy Required
(kg O2/kWh)

Fine bubble static


diffuser

200

1.5-3.6

Coarse Bubble
static diffuser

100

0.9-1.2

Vertical
Mechanical
Aerator
Horizontal
Mechanical
Aerator

125

1.5-2.2

100

1.2-2.4

Exercise 1 Aerobic vs Anaerobic


A brewery discharges 50 m3/hr of waste
water with a soluble COD of 4,000 mg/L
If aerobic treatment removes 99% of the COD
estimated the energy requirements
If anaerobic treatment removes 95% of the
COD calculate the energy produced

kla Practical Considerations

Oxygen Transfer Efficiency

OTR = kl a CO2 CO2


kla is typically determined using clean water (The
procedure for calculating Kla was discussed in previous
lectures)
Need to consider effect of various parameters such as
fouling, wastewater composition, temperature
factor correspond to the type of aeration. kla waste water/kla
clean water

Typically the amount of oxygen which


dissolves per meter of height is
5-8% for fine bubble systems
2-3% for coarse bubble systems

0.6-1.2 for mechanical aeration


0.4-0.8 for diffusers

F-Factor Fouling
-Factor c* waste water/c* clean water
0.7-0.98, typically 0.95
factor for temperature other than 20C ( T-20), usually is about
1.024.

r = SOTRF T 20 ( C s C ) / C 20s
SOTR: Standard oxygen transfer rate

Anaerobic Ponds Design


Guidelines

Anaerobic Ponds

Used with relatively high organic loads


Fairly Deep Ponds (3-6 m)
Slow rate of biomass formation (5-15% of Carbon in feed)
Top of pond usually covered in layer of scum
The formation of the layer can be accelerated by covering the
pond with straw

pH needs to be 6.4-7.8
Excessive feeding causes pH to drop and Methane
formation to cease
Scum
Complex
compounds

H2S and NH4


acid
CO2 + H2

methane

Parameter

Typical Values

Units

Load

300-600

kgBOD5/ha/d

Load

0.1-0.2

kgBOD5/m3/d

Temperature

25-35

oC

HRT

6-20

days

Influent COD

1000-3000

mg/L

Effluent COD

200-500

mg/L

Sludge

BOD removal 60-80%, odour emission, need to monitor pH at 6.4-7.8

Facultative Pond Design


Guidelines

Facultative Ponds
Shallower pond than anaerobic (1.5-4 m)
Two zone environment
Top section of pond is aerobic
Lower section is anaerobic

Medium organic load, odor free


Must be careful not to overload and turn
entire pond anaerobic

Parameter

Typical Values

Units

Load (T>15oC)

40-140

kgBOD5/ha/d

Load (T<15oC)

20-40

kgBOD5/ha/d

HRT

5-30

days

Which in turn causes odor problems

Oxidation/Aerobic Ponds
Natural Oxygenation
Wind
Photosynthesis

Shallow, 1-1.5 m
Low organic loading, suitable for treating effluent
from anaerobic ponds
Must be careful not to overload and turn the
pond anaerobic

Exercise 2 Abattoir Waste Water


An Abattoir (Cow/Sheep/Pig =>Meat
factory) produces 1ML/day of effluent with
a BOD of 3,000 mg/L after primary
treatment.
What is the required volume, area and
depth of the anaerobic pond?

Which in turn causes odor problems

Design parameter 40-120 kgBOD5/ha/d

High Rate Aerobic Treatment


Processes
The productivity of activated sludge processes is
limited by the suspended solids concentration.
This concentration is limited by the settling in the
secondary settler.
This in turn limits the COD removal and the HRT
The moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) removes
this constraint by retaining the biosolids in the
reactor.
This is achieved by growing the solids as
biofilms on carriers.

Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR)


Rules of thumb

Load: 100kg COD/m3/day


HRT: as low as 1-2 hrs
COD removal up to 85%
Advantages:

Lower N and P concentration in outlet effluent


Smaller volume
More robust
Less chance of odor production

High Rate Anaerobic Treatment


Processes
Anaerobic is a complex process, including a number of
microbial processes. The stages can be physically
segregated to achieve better control
Invented in the Netherlands in 1980s
Good for

UASB
Hydrolysis
Breakdown of solids to soluble compounds

Acidogenesis
Conversion of soluble compounds to short chain fatty
acids

high strength waste water pre-treatment


highly soluble COD

Most common HRAT is called the Upflow Anaerobic


Sludge Blanket (UASB)
Consists of

Acetogenesis
Conversion of other acids into acetic acid

Methanogenesis

Acidification pretreatment
Mixing
Sludge Blanket

Generation of Methane from acetic acid and hydrogen

High Rate of Anaerobic


Treatment (HRAT)

UASB
Methane

Gas is collected
below water level
to reduce
turbulence at the
overflow

Need uniform
distribution
Channeling is a
potential problem

Treated
Effluent

Design Rules of Thumb


Loading 4-12 kg COD/m3/day
HRT 4-12 hours
85% COD removal

Gas
Collectors

Sludge
Blanket

Exercise 3 High Rate Processes


A brewery discharges 50 m3/hr of waste
water with a soluble COD of 4,000mg/L

Revision Questions
1.

Would you select aerobic or anaerobic treatment for


high strength waste water?
What are three advantages of

2.

Determine the size of a


High rate aerobic MBBR
High rate anaerobic UASB

3.

Name and describe the types of waste treatment


ponds
For the same strength waste water, which pond will
have the smallest

4.

5.

Aerobic over Anaerobic


Anaerobic over Aerobic

Volume?
Area?

What happens if a facultative pond is overloaded with


COD? How can you tell?

Continuing Project Question


From the waste water treatment processes
described in today's lecture, devise a flow sheet
and determine the size of the units based on

Flowrate of 50,000 100,000 L/day


COD 10,000 40,000 mg O2/L
pH 7.5 10.6
TS 16,800 24,000 (mg/L)
VTS 6,200 8,200 (mg/L)
SS 120 580 (mg/L)
VSS 100-560 (mg/L)

Next Week
Biological Nutrient Removal
Waste Sludge
Anaerobic Digestion

Consider factors such as odor generation and


energy production/consumption