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DECLARATION

I do hereby declare that the work reported in this dissertation was exclusively carried
out by me under the supervision of Ms. Hemani Gunathilake. It describes the results
of my own independent research except where due reference has been made in the
text. No part of this dissertation has been submitted earlier or concurrently for the
same or any other degree.

Date: ....

.
Signature of the Candidate
Faculty of Science & Technology
Uva Wellassa University
Badulla

We/I endorse the declaration by the candidate.

...

Ms. Hemani Gunathilake

Ms. Maheshi peries

Supervisor

Supervisor

Date:

Date:

..
Dr. K.B Wijesekara
Research Coordinator
Date: .

Abstract
The aim of this study was determine the optimum levels of enzymes (amylase, glucose
oxidase, Lipase, xylanase) for bakers flour which containing hard and medium wheat
flour in chosen proportions. In order to have general over view of enzyme effect on
wheat flour, enzymes were chosen in different concentration levels (low, medium,
high) and supplemented with flour. The effect of different enzymes on, gluten quality,
gluten amount, gluten index, dough rheology, water absorption, falling number and
final quality of bread was investigated with control. The effect of enzymes on gluten
quality was evaluated concerning amount of wet and dry gluten. Water absorption,
stability, development time, was analyzed using farinograph test. Dough rheology
(extensibility, resistance) was analyzed using extensograph.
It was found that water absorption and development time of wheat flour was
decreased when adding amylase enzyme and water absorption was increased with
xylanase, glucose-oxidase. Development time was increased with glucose-oxidase
concentration. According to farinograph stability of wheat flour was increased with
glucose oxidase and decreased with amylase. Extensibility of wheat flour was
decreased with glucose oxidase and increased with amylase, lipase and xylanase. Also
it was observed flour with enzymes was shown no significant difference on gluten
quality and amount and it was observed with amylase and xylanase enzymes were
reduced the falling number on wheat flour.
In order to find optimum levels of enzymes for hard and medium flour blend, flour
was treated with four enzyme combinations in recommended dosage levels. Enzyme
combinations activity was evaluated by the measurement of loaf volume and in
addition to that sensory analysis was done for evaluate bread quality with reference.
Enzymes had positive effect on wheat flour by dough strengthening, conditioning
dough rheology and water absorption. Regarding the effect on final baked product,
enzymes improve the quality of bread by improving volume and other sensory
characteristics (overall appearance, crust colour. symmetry of form, texture, grains,
mouth feel, and overall acceptability.).Except treatment1 all other enzyme treatments
were shown no significant difference from the reference. So that according
comparison cost of treatments it was found that amylase 6ppm, glucose-oxidase
15ppm, lipase 25ppm and xylanase 40ppm combination was the cheapest and best
enzyme treatment for hard and medium flour blend.

Key Words: Wheat flour, Enzymes, dough rheology, water absorption, bread flour

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would sincerely like to express my most profound thanks to my supervisor Ms.
Hemani Gunathilake at Serandib Flour mills (pvt) Ltd, for her dedicative continuous
support, guidance, encouragement, expertise, and invaluable advice throughout the
research period without her the work would never have been undertaken.
Grateful thanks are also extended to Dr. Kolitha B. Wijesekara, Ms. Maheshi peries at
Uva Wellassa University for help and suggestions throughout the research period.
Also my thanks go to all other academic staff members of Science and technology
faculty.
I would like to thank Mr.Pethum Eranga, Mr.Ajith Priyankara, Ms.Laavanya
Siththapalanadan, laboratory staff and all the members at Serandib Flour Mills (Pvt)
Ltd who helped me to succeed my research.
I deeply appreciate the helps of my friends and colleagues who have not been
mentioned here individually for being my side in making this task a success.
I will be ever grateful for the unconditioned love of my heroic parents for being with
me throughout this research period.

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Table of Contents

DECLARATION

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ABSTRACT

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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Table of Contents
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List of Tables

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List of abbreviations

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
1. Review of the Literature ............................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 Wheat .................................................................................................................... 2
1.1.2 Types of Wheat ..................................................................................................... 2
1.1.3 Wheat Flour ........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
1.1.3.1 Types of Wheat Flour ................................................................................ 4
1.1.4 Bread ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.1.5 Additives for wheat Flour ..................................................................................... 6
1.1.5.1 Enzymes as an additive .............................................................................. 7
1.1.6 Major Enzymes used in bakery industry and their functionality .......................... 8
1.1.6.1 Amylases .................................................................................................... 8
1.1.6.2 Xylanase ..................................................................................................... 9
1.1.6.3 Glucose Oxidase ...................................................................................... 10
1.1.6.4 Lipase ....................................................................................................... 11
1.1.7 The synergetic effects of enzymes ...................................................................... 11

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1.1.8 Other ingredients in bread making ...................................................................... 12


1.1.8.1 Yeast ........................................................................................................ 12
1.1.8.2 Fat / Shortening ........................................................................................ 13
1.1.8.3 Water ........................................................................................................ 13
1.1.8.4 Salt ........................................................................................................... 14
1.1.8.5 Ascorbic Acid .......................................................................................... 14
1.1.9 Water Absorption ........................................................................ 16
1.1.10 Summary ........................................................................................................... 16
1.2. Objectives ............................................................................................................. 17
1.2.1 Main objective ............................................................................................ 17
1.2.2 Specific objectives ...................................................................................... 17

Chapter2
MATERIALS AND METHADALOGY .................................................................. 18
2.1 Flour ....................................................................................................................... 18
2.2 Enzymes ................................................................................................................. 18
2.3 Ingredients .............................................................................................................. 18
2.4 Analysis of flour samples....................................................................................... 18
2.4.1 Moisture (ICC no. 110/1) ............................................................................ 19
2.4.2 Protein (kjedal method)............................................................................... 19
2.4.3 Wet gluten (ICC.13.7; AACC-3812.A) ...................................................... 19
2.4.5 Ash (AACC-8.03) ....................................................................................... 20
2.4.6 Falling number ............................................................................................ 20
2.4.7 Farinograph ................................................................................................. 20
2.4.7 Extensograph (ICC Standard No. 114/1). ................................................... 21
2.6 Methodology .......................................................................................................... 22
2.6.1 Bread making procedure ............................................................................. 24
2.6.2 Loaf volume ........................................................................................................ 25
2.7 Sensory Attributes .................................................................................................. 25
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2.7.1 Sensory Evaluation of bread ............................................................................... 25

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Chapter3 ................................................................................................................... 26
RESULTS AND DISSCUSSION
Sensory characteristic .......................................................................................... 36

Chapter 4.................................................................................................................. 37
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION ..................................................... 37
REFERENCES..........38

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List of Tables

Table 1.1: Annual wheat consumption patterns04


Table 2.1: Enzymes concentration levels supplemented with flour..21
Table 2.2: Enzyme combination for Bread preparation.23
Table 2.3: Bread formulation.24
Table 3.1: Test results of current bakers flour and chosen proportion of
Hard and medium wheat flour blend26
Table 3.2: Water absorption of flour for each enzyme in different level..27
Table 3.3: Farinograph results....29
Table 3.4: Extensograph results.32
Table 3.5: Amount of wet and dry gluten for each enzyme level..35
Table 3.6: Falling number for each enzyme level and control sample...35

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List of Figures

Figure 1.1: Wheat kernel............................................................................ 03


Figure 1.2: The effect of shortening and mono-glycerides on the firming
Rate of Bread . 13
Figure 1.3: Representation of disulphide-sulfhydryl interchange.. 15

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List of abbreviations

Degree Celsius

G: O

Glucose Oxidase

ppm

part per million

cm

Centimeter

FU

Farinograph unit

BU

Brabender unit