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Mikroba Dalam Dunia Tanaman

Sejarah dan Kini
I Nyoman P. Aryantha
SITH ITB

Asal mula Kentang

1840s

Phytophthora infestans changed the
course of history

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Great famine .

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Coffee Rust in Ceylon .

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1870-1892 .

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Bunchy top banana .

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virus .

• Produksi pisang NSW Australia • 2226 hektar 1922 menjadi 607 hektar 1925 .

Chestnut blight .

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• US 1904-1950s • 80% pohon chestnut mati .

Dutch elm disease .

Jepang. China dll .• Dutch Elm pohon pelindung dan penghias sangat terkenal di Eropa dan USA • Penyakit oleh Ophiostoma ulmi • 1930s USA 90% pohon (40 juta pohon) mati • 1970-1980s 22 juta pohon di UK • Belakangan di Victoria Australia (70000 pohon mati) • New Zealand.

Jarrah Dieback .

Phytophthora cinnamomi • • • • 1922 Pertama di Sumatra Cinnamomum burmanni 2009 : 60-80% (1 juta ha) hutan eucalyptus Stirling Range National Park WA terinfeksi .

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This sclerotium contains poisons that are very harmful to man and animals. ERGOTISM OFTEN RESULTS IN DEATH. made into bread and is eaten by people. Eating the contaminated bread results in a disease called Ergotism.Ergot of Rye Caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea The pathogen produces a structure called a sclerotium that grows in place of the rye kernel. The grain is ground into flour. The sclerotium is harvested with the rye grain. .

Ergot of Rye (note dark sclerotia) .

People that eat ergot often see Fire. THIS PLANT DISEASE IS STILL KILLING PEOPLE IN THE WORLD TODAY .Ergot of Rye The scelotia also contains hallucinogenic compounds. Anthony’s Fire Ergotism can also cause abortions and gangrene. people called the vision of fire induced by Ergot Holy Fire or St. In the middle ages.

Black Stem Rust of Wheat 1916 - Destroyed 300 million bushels of wheat in the United States and Canada 1935 - Destroyed 135 million bushels in Dakotas and Minnesota SPORATIC EPIDEMICS STILL COST NORTH AMERICAN FARMERS BILLIONS OF DOLLARS .

Black Stem Rust of Wheat .

if fed to cattle.Southern Corn Leaf Blight 1970 .An epidemic caused a 15% loss of the U. it would make 30 BILLION HAMBURGERS . This was enough corn that. corn crop. This resulted in a one billion dollar loss in the United States.S.

Southern Corn Leaf Blight Susceptible Plants Resistant Plants .

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it was described as the first aerobic. .Azotobacter The azotobacter was discovered in 1901 by the biologist/botanist Martinus Beijerinck. Martinus Beijerinck was one of the founders of environment micro biology. free living organism with the ability to fix nitrogen. and when he discovered it.

or parasites. with help from Hermann Wilfarth. and that these bumps were creating fixed nitrogen. He discovered Rhizobium inside the nodules in 1888. • Later a German Scientist named Hermann Hellriegel. . He thought that the bacteria were insect’s eggs. a man named Malpighi observed Rhizobia in his drawing of a plant. recognized that the nodules in the root were the actual reason for the bumps.Rhizobium • In 1679.

Azospirillum • Johanna Liesbeth Kubelka Döbereiner (28 November 1924 in Ústí nad Labem .5 October 2000 in Seropédica) was a Brazilian agronomist. Her early work includes studies of Azospirillum and other bacteria that could be useful to Brazilian soil.[2] .[1] • She later played an important role in Brazil's soybean production by encouraging a reliance on varieties that solely depended on biological nitrogen fixation. She received her degree from the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. but settled in Brazil and became a Brazilian citizen in 1956. • Her family were German Czechoslovakians who left the country after World War II.

http://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/biological-nitrogen-fixation-23570419 .

com/scitable/knowledge/library/biological-nitrogen-fixation-23570419 .http://www.nature.

• This symbiosis was studied and described by Franciszek Kamieoski in 1879–1882.[42] . However early observers simply recorded the fact without investigating the relationships between the two organisms.Mycorhiza • Associations of fungi with the roots of plants have been known since at least the mid-19th century. who introduced the term mycorrhiza in 1885.[41] Further research was carried out by Albert Bernhard Frank.

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Types of Biofertilizers Rhizobium Azotobacter Azospirillum Mycorrhiza PSB PGPR Effective microorganisms .

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PERKEMBANGAN PRODUKSI TEBU DAN GULA INDONESIA Data diambil dari Pusat Penelitian Energi-ITB .

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000 1000000 500000 0 Jagung 500.600.000 Sapi .500.000 1500000 Gandum 1.000.200.000 1.ANNUALY IMPORTED FOOD (TON) 4.100.000 4500000 Beras (1) 4000000 3500000 Gula (2) 3000000 Kedelai 2500000 2000000 2.000 1.