14 views

Uploaded by Faizan Ahmad

hve

save

You are on page 1of 34

H gh Vo tage

Eng neer ng

Lecture # 1

**Basics of High Voltage, Electric
**

Field, its Estimation &

Electrode Configurations

Hidaytaullah khan

Phd Scholar CIIT

Islamabad

Course Books

0

0

**High Voltage and Electrical Insulation Engineering
**

(June 2011 Edition) by Ravindra & Wolfgang (IEEE Press)

High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals (2nd Edition)

by E.Kuffel, W.S.Zaengl, J.Kuffel

Reference Books

**• Advances in High Voltage Engineering (IET) Edited by
**

A.Haddad & D.Warne

High Voltage Engineering by C.L. Wadhwa

0 High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu (4th Edition)

**Why High Voltage (Engineering)?
**

**It’s the knowledge of the behavior of dielectrics
**

(insulator) — electrical insulation when subjected to

high voltage

**No concept of a complete Insulator – Even a good
**

Insulator can conduct under High Voltages

**Result is to minimize the volume of the electrical
**

insulation requirements and trouble-free life of high

voltage apparatus.

**A totally different Domain (Engineering) when High
**

Voltage are applied. Stray Capacitances &

Inductances come into play.

pk/pt_ac.html • List of HVDC Projects http://en.com.HVAC & HVDC Transmission • Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) based on High Power GTO and IGBT’s • Examples of FACTS system include Fixed Series Capacitors (FSC) Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and STATCOMS • Link for FACTS devices http://www.org/wiki/List_of_HVDC_projects .siemens.wikipedia.

Basic Definitions to Start With • • • • • • • • • • Electron Proton Ion Ionization Electric Charge Space Charge Volume Charge Density ρv Electric Discharge Electric & Magnetic Field Electromagnetics .

Di-Electric & Electric Material 0 What the difference between these ? • Electric Material – capable of developing (conducting) electric charge or current • Di-Electric Material – not capable of developing (conducting) electric charge or current but admits electrostatic and magnetic lines of force • Di-Electric Material Properties– Relative Permittivity εr . Type of Material & Amplitude of Voltage Applied .

Electrical Breakdown 0 Failure of Electrical Insulation Properties (flow of current) of an Insulator or Di-electric Local Breakdown Global Breakdown confined locally to a part of an Insulator complete rupture or failure of insulator properties (Partial Breakdown) (Electrical Breakdown) .

Corona: Partial Electrical Breakdown (discharge) 0 Stable Partial Breakdown (PB) in Gaseous Di-electrics • Types: Audible & Visible Corona Streamer: Extension of Corona at Distance Shower of Discharge (Streamer Corona) Example: Discharge of Cloud (Lightning) .

Aurora: Luminous phenomenon consisting of streamers or Arches of Light at Polar Regions • Explained under “Faraday’s Glow Discharge” • Atoms in Ionosphere stuck by High Energy Electrons Coming from Sun (cosmic Radiation) • Aurora Australis (Southern Hemisphere) • Aurora Borealis (Northern Hemisphere) .

Aurora: .

Di-electric Property: Capacitance 0 Is the field between the plates of a Capacitor Uniform? • Permittivity of a Di-electric is Constant ? Stray Capacitance • How to minimize it? .

Electric Field • Electric Charge is considered static when there is no movement of charge • Field produced by Static charge or Direct Voltage is known as Electro-static field • Field produced by power frequency Alternating voltage is known as quasi-stationary Electric field .

presence of impurities imperfections in the dielectric Pressure Humidity Temperature Electric field configuration (shape of the electrodes.Dielectric Breakdown depends on & & & & & & & & Composition of dielectric material. their size and gap distance) Electrode material Duration Magnitude and the waveform of the applied voltage .

Electric Field Lines & Equipotential Lines Field Between Sphere or Cylinder and Plane .

Electric Field Lines & Equipotential Lines Field on a Bundled Conductor Cross Section .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress Electrostatic Force per unit positive test charge q placed at a particular point p in a dielectric Electric Field Intensity E = F / q [N/C] or [V/m] More commonly used unit are KV/cm or KV/mm Potential Difference between two points a an b? How to find it in terms of Electric Field E .

Ub Uab = <a .<b Uab = Work done in moving a Unit positive charge from point b to point a Uab is positive if Work is done which means <a is at a higher potential .Electric Field Intensity or Stress Uab = Ua .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress Electric Field intensity E is given by the rate of change of potential with distance Maximum value of the rate of change of potential is obtained when the direction of E is opposite to the direction in which potential is increasing rapidly The maximum magnitude of the Field Intensity can there be obtained when the direction of the increment of the distance is opposite to the direction of E .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress Electric Field intensity E is numerically equal to the potential gradient .

Partial Breakdown in Di-electrics • Gases: CORONA (Stable) • Solid and Liquid: INTERNAL BREAKDOWN Surface Breakdown or Tracking When Partial Breakdown takes place on the surface of a solid or a liquid its called as Surface Breakdown or Tracking Partial Breakdown Inception Voltage Ui .

Classification of Electric Fields η is Schwaiger Factor (Dimensionless Quantity) .

Classification of Electric Fields Dielectric Between Parallel Plates .

Classification of Electric Fields Sphere-Sphere Electrodes .

Classification of Electric Fields Needle-Needle Electrodes .

Degree of Uniformity of Electric Fields 1 Schwaiger Factor .

Degree of Uniformity of Electric Fields Geometrical Characteristic Factor (p) .

z) is the measure of the vector flow out of a surface surrounding that point . Divergence “The divergence of the vector flux density A is the outflow of flux from a small closed surface per unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero OR Divergence at a point (x.y.

. " -t " / - 'tep/• \ I ' / t .....t / 1 I Imaginary Surface (S) Vector Field: D / - " I /\.. /' 1 . \ - I t J J . Divergence for Fields (continued) Imaginary Vector Field: A Surface (S) Vector Field: B Imaginary Surface (S) / I--.. /t' l - / / Imaginary Surface (S) Vector Field: C tt t"' ' I f ep f I \ 1 t....- ep--.. . \ I \ f ep !I •./ I .

p D p ap P 1 aD¢ aD. Divergence for Fields Vector Field: E Imaginary Surface (S) / -t-. +. dtv D =-:. + .Itn B ( pheri al) 8if> .+ a-: p a<t> cylindrical . .( rD. . I a I a .ar r tn B ao aD + r . \ I di D = a Dx -a Dy a- aD:. ay a- 1 a div D = -. -( mO D0 r.

Curl for Fields The curl of any vector is a vector. and any component of the curl is given by the limit of the quotient of the closed line integral of the vector about a small path in a plane normal to that component desired and the area enclosed. The closed path is vanishingly small.” OR We can describe curl as circulation per unit area. and curl is defined at a point . as the path shrinks to zero.

Curl .

+ ( -a-H--.-a---H=. . ) <J . c lindric 1 aHr in o a<fJ ( pherical) ..:. Curl for Fields Curl curl H = ( a H..a Hx aay aa. aaHx ·) + ( a Hx . 1 aH p CJ<P Vx + aH<> a- - <p + 1 CJHP p a<P aHp aH ap a.ax 1 · ax ay .

Maxwell’s Equation .

Today’s Text Covered from (Chapter 1) of IEEE Press Book (Ravindra Book) + Up-til Article 2.4 (Chapter 2) and Chapter 1 of Kuffel Book .

- Bubble Motion in Transformer Oil Under Non-Uniform Electric FieldsUploaded byalex696
- Jawaban Soal Liquid Dielectric Santos EdunUploaded byLuthfi Arif Fadillah
- Conduction and Breakdown of Pure LiquidsUploaded byPrakash Parajuli
- D 877-02.pdfUploaded byAndres
- Dielectric Strength ASTM D149, IEC 60243Uploaded byPugel Yeremias
- Micro ValveUploaded bySunny Day
- Some Properties of Solid Liquid Composite Dielectric Systems ParkmanUploaded bydennisroldan
- Medium Voltage Swgr14Uploaded bykjfens
- 1995-A1-2.pdfUploaded bysajuaanalsa
- NEED OF TAN DELTA TEST IN POWER SYSTEMSUploaded byAdeel Raza
- MTech EEE Ist Sem_syllabusUploaded byAnkit Dubey
- Statistical Investigation of the Electrical BreakdownUploaded byMilad Karimy
- Characterization of Polyurethane Foam Dielectric StrengthUploaded byDr. Chandan Sharma
- Huang ThicknessUploaded bydaskhago
- EE 1402 - HVEUploaded byckjammy
- Power Harvesting-Could bring about the next Generation of ElectronicsUploaded byManish Sethi
- HVDC Converter Transformers - Design ReviewUploaded bySureshraja9977
- Physical Properties of GrainUploaded byMădălina Ștefan
- TransformerTestingTechniques.pdfUploaded byMarco Patricio
- Clemson LightningUploaded byMiguel Angel Sanchez Cortes
- General ElectricityUploaded byHuascar Munoz
- Transformer Oil&DgaUploaded byBasudev Patra
- CapacitorsUploaded byAlex Nb
- Insulation Testing GuideUploaded byfitriansyah.em5082
- IJAIEM-2013-07-22-075Uploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- modelovanje parcijalnih praznjenjaUploaded bydankoranko
- VIISemester2016-2017ODD Handbook EEEUploaded byTiruchengode Vinoth
- CCPS Combined GlossaryUploaded byValter Stanciulescu
- EMT NOTES 1Uploaded byB ruikar
- UNITI.pdfUploaded bysujani

- JPE 5-3-8.pdfUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- EPE Curriculum_Electrical and Allied Disciplines, FinalUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- DAE Mechanical Y1Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Trfmr ModlUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Coordination of Intelligent Controllers for Shunt AndUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Combined Ad No 01-2016Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- PlumberUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- 35ae2cf6c43d51b55587849835ada74213faUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Analog vs Digital TransmissionUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- my lec.pdfUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- New Microsoft PowerPoint PresentationUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Report Traffic SignalUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- 2. Bkgrd SnCUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- IJAPE071.pdfUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- JadadPE 5-3-8.pdfUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Combined Ad No 01-2016Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Facts ApplicationsUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- PlumberUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- lecture 1Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- New Microsoft PowerPoint PresentationUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- 218177557 Suparco KRL Test Ques for Electrical Engrz 1Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- lecture 1Uploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Piezoelectric Energy HarvestingUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Three Phase TransformersUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- KeysUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- ThyristorUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- substationl_eqptsUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- power flowUploaded byFaizan Ahmad
- Quantity SurveyorUploaded byFaizan Ahmad