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H gh Vo tage
Eng neer ng
Lecture # 1

Basics of High Voltage, Electric
Field, its Estimation &
Electrode Configurations
 
    

Hidaytaullah khan
Phd Scholar CIIT
Islamabad

Course Books
 

0

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High Voltage and Electrical Insulation Engineering
(June 2011 Edition) by Ravindra & Wolfgang (IEEE Press)
High Voltage Engineering Fundamentals (2nd Edition)
by E.Kuffel, W.S.Zaengl, J.Kuffel

 

 

Reference Books
 

 

• Advances in High Voltage Engineering (IET) Edited by
A.Haddad & D.Warne
 High Voltage Engineering by C.L. Wadhwa
0 High Voltage Engineering by M.S.Naidu (4th Edition)
 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Why High Voltage (Engineering)?
 

 
 

It’s the knowledge of the behavior of dielectrics
(insulator) — electrical insulation when subjected to
high voltage
 

 

No concept of a complete Insulator – Even a good
Insulator can conduct under High Voltages
 

 
 

Result is to minimize the volume of the electrical
insulation requirements and trouble-free life of high
voltage apparatus.

 

 
 

A totally different Domain (Engineering) when High
Voltage are applied. Stray Capacitances &
Inductances come into play.

pk/pt_ac.html       • List of HVDC Projects http://en.com.HVAC & HVDC Transmission • Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) based on High Power GTO and IGBT’s       • Examples of FACTS system include Fixed Series Capacitors (FSC) Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) and STATCOMS • Link for FACTS devices http://www.org/wiki/List_of_HVDC_projects .siemens.wikipedia.

Basic Definitions to Start With             • • • • • • • • • • Electron Proton Ion Ionization Electric Charge Space Charge Volume Charge Density ρv Electric Discharge Electric & Magnetic Field Electromagnetics .

Di-Electric & Electric Material     0 What the difference between these ?       • Electric Material – capable of developing (conducting) electric charge or current     • Di-Electric Material – not capable of developing (conducting) electric charge or current but admits electrostatic and magnetic lines of force   • Di-Electric Material Properties– Relative Permittivity εr . Type of Material & Amplitude of Voltage Applied .

    Electrical Breakdown       0 Failure of Electrical Insulation Properties (flow of current) of an Insulator or Di-electric                               Local Breakdown Global Breakdown confined locally to a part of an Insulator complete rupture or failure of insulator properties (Partial Breakdown) (Electrical Breakdown) .

  Corona: Partial Electrical Breakdown (discharge)           0 Stable Partial Breakdown (PB) in Gaseous Di-electrics     • Types: Audible & Visible Corona               Streamer:     Extension of Corona at Distance   Shower of Discharge (Streamer Corona) Example: Discharge of Cloud (Lightning) .

  Aurora:   Luminous phenomenon consisting of streamers or Arches of Light at Polar Regions       • Explained under “Faraday’s Glow Discharge”   • Atoms in Ionosphere stuck by High Energy Electrons Coming from Sun (cosmic Radiation)     • Aurora Australis (Southern Hemisphere)   • Aurora Borealis (Northern Hemisphere) .

  Aurora:       .

Di-electric Property: Capacitance                 0 Is the field between the plates of a Capacitor Uniform?         • Permittivity of a Di-electric is Constant ?       Stray Capacitance       • How to minimize it? .

Electric Field                       • Electric Charge is considered static when there is no movement of charge   • Field produced by Static charge or Direct Voltage is known as Electro-static field   • Field produced by power frequency Alternating voltage is known as quasi-stationary Electric field .

presence of impurities imperfections in the dielectric Pressure Humidity Temperature Electric field configuration (shape of the electrodes.Dielectric Breakdown depends on         &   &   &   &   &   &   &   & Composition of dielectric material. their size and gap distance) Electrode material Duration Magnitude and the waveform of the applied voltage .

Electric Field Lines & Equipotential Lines                                                                               Field Between Sphere or Cylinder and Plane .

Electric Field Lines & Equipotential Lines                   Field on a Bundled Conductor Cross Section .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress               Electrostatic Force per unit positive test charge q placed at a particular point p in a dielectric         Electric Field Intensity E = F / q [N/C] or [V/m]             More commonly used unit are KV/cm or KV/mm Potential Difference between two points a an b? How to find it in terms of Electric Field E .

Ub   Uab = <a .<b     Uab = Work done in moving a Unit positive charge from point b to point a     Uab is positive if Work is done which means <a is at a higher potential .Electric Field Intensity or Stress                     Uab = Ua .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress             Electric Field intensity E is given by the rate of change of potential with distance                                                     Maximum value of the rate of change of potential is obtained when the direction of E is opposite to the direction in which potential is increasing rapidly The maximum magnitude of the Field Intensity can there be obtained when the direction of the increment of the distance is opposite to the direction of E .

Electric Field Intensity or Stress                                                                           Electric Field intensity E is numerically equal to the potential gradient .

      Partial Breakdown in Di-electrics   • Gases: CORONA (Stable) • Solid and Liquid: INTERNAL BREAKDOWN             Surface Breakdown or Tracking       When Partial Breakdown takes place on the surface of a solid or a liquid its called as Surface Breakdown or Tracking         Partial Breakdown Inception Voltage Ui .

      Classification of Electric Fields                                                                             η is Schwaiger Factor (Dimensionless Quantity) .

Classification of Electric Fields                                   Dielectric Between Parallel Plates .

Classification of Electric Fields                                   Sphere-Sphere Electrodes .

Classification of Electric Fields                                   Needle-Needle Electrodes .

    Degree of Uniformity of Electric Fields           1                                         Schwaiger Factor .

Degree of Uniformity of Electric Fields       Geometrical Characteristic Factor (p) .

z) is the measure of the vector flow out of a surface surrounding that point .    Divergence           “The divergence of the vector flux density A is the outflow of flux from a small closed surface per unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero         OR             Divergence at a point (x.y.

. " -t " / - 'tep/• \         I ' / t .....t / 1 I     Imaginary Surface (S) Vector Field: D / - " I /\.. /' 1 . \ - I t J J .  Divergence for Fields (continued)     Imaginary Vector Field: A Surface (S) Vector Field: B Imaginary Surface (S) / I--.. /t' l - /   /   Imaginary Surface (S) Vector Field: C tt t"' ' I f ep f I \ 1 t....- ep--.. . \ I \ f ep !I •./ I .

p D p ap P 1 aD¢ aD.  Divergence for Fields   Vector Field: E Imaginary Surface (S) / -t-. +. dtv D =-:. + .Itn B ( pheri al) 8if> .+ a-: p a<t> cylindrical         . .( rD. . I a I a .ar r tn B ao aD + r .   \ I                                 di D   = a Dx -a Dy a- aD:. ay a-         1 a div D = -. -( mO D0 r.

  Curl for Fields   The curl of any vector is a vector. and any component of the curl is given by the limit of the quotient of the closed line integral of the vector about a small path in a plane normal to that component desired and the area enclosed. The closed path is vanishingly small.”     OR     We can describe curl as circulation per unit area. and curl is defined at a point . as the path shrinks to zero.

  Curl   .

+ ( -a-H--.-a---H=. . ) <J . c lindric             1 aHr in o a<fJ   ( pherical) ..:.      Curl for Fields Curl         curl H = ( a H..a Hx aay aa. aaHx ·) + ( a Hx .           1 aH p CJ<P Vx + aH<> a- - <p + 1 CJHP p a<P aHp aH ap a.ax 1 · ax ay .

      Maxwell’s Equation .

                                Today’s Text Covered from (Chapter 1) of IEEE Press Book (Ravindra Book) + Up-til Article 2.4 (Chapter 2)       and       Chapter 1 of Kuffel Book .