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What is an EMS

An Environmental Management System is that facet of an organization’s
overall management structure that addresses the immediate and long
term impact of your company’s product, services, and processes on the
environment.

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

EMS Model
Start

Management
Review

Checking /
Corrective Action

Environmental
Policy

Continual
Improvement!

•Monitoring & Measurement

Planning
•Environmental Aspects

•Nonconformance & Corrective & Preventive

•Legal & Other Requirements
•Objectives & Targets

•Records-

•Environmental Management Program

Action

•EMS Audits
Implementation
•Structure & Responsibility
•Training, Awareness, Competence
• Communication
• Documentation
•Operational Control
•Emergency Preparedness /
Response

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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS



Environmental Policy
Identification of the environmental Aspects and impacts
Identification of the legal and requirements
Identification of priorities and set appropriate environmental
objectives & targets
• Establish a structure and a programme for implementation
• Facilitate the different processes to ensure that policy is
complied and EMS remains appropriate
• Be capable of adapting to changing circumstances

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
• Top management shall define the organization’s
environmental policy and ensure that it:
– Is appropriate to the nature, scale and environmental
impacts of its activities, products or services
– Includes a commitment to continual improvement and
prevention of pollution

– Includes a commitment to comply with relevant
environmental legislation and regulations, and with other
requirements to which the organization subscribes

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

PLANNING
A) ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
• The organization shall establish and maintain (a)
procedure(s) to identify the environmental aspects of its
activities, products or services that it can control and
over which it can be expected to have an influence, in
order to determine those which have or can have
significant impacts on the environment.

• The organization should also consider normal abnormal
and emergency conditions .

ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
• Normal operations – daily operational activities or processes that are
currently being carried out.
• Abnormal operations – periodic routines that may occur in addition to the
daily process and activities. These may include preventive maintenance,
plant upgrades, shutdowns or silent periods.
• Emergencies – at best, when the unexpected happens, this may be a
• small, localised spill or breakdown

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

PLANNING: ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS
Element of an organization's activities or products or services
that can interact with the environment

Transportation

Generation

Raw Material
Acquisition

Disposal
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Use

Environmental Aspects

Emissions to atmosphere
Raw
Materials
& energy

site
activities

Product use
and
disposal

Waste disposal
Landfill
Incineration

Spillage contaminating the land

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Discharges to water or sewers

created by Dr. Salma Farooq

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS
Any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial,
wholly or partially resulting from an organization's
environmental aspects

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

EXAMPLES OF IMPACTS
• General
– depletion of natural
resources
– destruction of habitats

• Water
– pH
– oxygen level
– toxicity

• Air



Air Toxicity
Smog
Global Warming
Ozone Depletion

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

ASPECT AND IMPACT MATRIX

Item

Activity/product/ Environmental Aspect Environmental
service
Impact

Effect

1

Pigment printing

Metals in a pigment

Health issues

negative

2

Caustic recovery

Low PH of water

No neutralising
required to the
mercerising waste

positive

3

Stenter fixation

Exhaust fumes

Air pollution

negative

4

Looming

Excessive Noise

HS of a worker

negative

5

Recycling of
combing waste

Minimum waste

Less land pollution

positive

6
7
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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

Some Techniques for Identifying and Evaluating Environmental Aspects
and Impacts
Process Hazard Analyses
Used to identify and assess potential impacts associated with unplanned
releases of hazardous materials. Methodology in common use due to
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) Process Safety Management
regulations.
Failure Mode and Effects Analyses
Commonly used in the quality field to identify and prioritize potential
equipment and process failures as well as to identify potential corrective
actions. Often used as a precursor to formal root cause analyses.
Process Flow Diagrams
Process flow diagrams are a tool that allows an organization to visualize and
understand how work gets accomplished and how its work processes can be
improved. Process flow diagrams can help an organization understand its
environmental aspects, reduce wastes and pollution, and reduce operating costs
by identifying and eliminating unnecessary activities.
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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

Environmental Impact Assessments
Used to satisfy requirements of National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
regarding the evaluation of environmental impacts associated with proposed
projects.
Life Cycle Assessments
Used to assess the cradle-to-grave impacts of products or processes, from raw
material procurement through disposal. Life-cycle methodologies are somewhat
subjective and can be resource intensive.
Risk Assessments Used to assess potential health and/or environment risks
typically associated with chemical exposure.
Emission Inventories Used to quantify emissions of pollutants to the air.
Pollution Prevention or Waste Minimization Audits
Used to identify opportunities to reduce or eliminate pollution at the source and
to identify recycling options. Requires a fairly rigorous assessment of facility
operations. These audits typically do not examine off-site impacts.

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Having prepared a list of the company’s activities and
processes(aspects) and having identified the environmental
impacts (both positive and negative) of these, it is useful to
introduce a measure to determine their significance . Those
aspects that have a significant impact upon the environment
will need to be identified and prioritised.

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• A significant environmental aspect is an environmental aspect
that has or can have a significant environmental impact.
• Significance could be tied to:
– Environmental concerns
– Natural resource concerns
– Regulatory or legal exposure
– Business or mission concerns
– Concerns of interested parties

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Filters of Significance
NO

YES

International Issues
Local Issues / interested parties
NO

YES

Legal and other requirements

YES
YES

NO

Lack of knowledge
NO

Severity of Impact

Non-significant aspects

YES

Significant Aspects

START

ASPECT CLASSIFICATION AND RATING
Rating

Aspect classification

Aspect criteria

1

Minimal

No emissions and no use of resources
No hazardous material usage

2

Low

Low emissions and low usage of resources
Occasional use of hazardous materials

3

Moderate

Moderate emissions and use of resources
Moderate use of hazardous materials

4

High

High emissions and high use of resources
High use of hazardous materials

5

Major

Major emissions and major use of resources
Major use of hazardous material

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IMPACT CLASSIFICATION AND RATING
Rating Impact classification Impact criteria
1

Minimal

No noticeable environmental effect
Effective control system already in place
Well within discharge consent levels

2

Low

Low environmental effect
Substantial control measures in place to limit impact

3

Moderate

Known effect upon the environment
Limited measures in place to handle impact
Infrequent monitoring undertaken

4

High

Noticeable effect upon the environment
Minimal measure in place to handle impact
Haphazard monitoring undertaken

5

Major

Highly noticeable effect upon the environment
No measures in place to limit impact
No monitoring undertaken

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

METHODS FOR DETERMINING SIGNIFICANCE
• Risk Assessment
• Decision Matrices
• Significance Set by Management

20

RISK ASSESSMENT
• Estimate exposure, severity, and probability of occurrence for
each aspect
• Prepare relative rank for each aspect
• Compare ranking to determine significance

21

A SIMPLE RISK ASSESSMENT
R = (P) x (S)
R = Environmental risk
P= Probability of occurrence
S = Severity of effect (consequence)
Rating (probability of occurrence

Probability %

1

81-100

2

61-80

3

41-60

4

21-40

5

0-20

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

RISK ASSESSMENT MATRIX

Item

Activity

Aspect

Impact

severity Probability of
occurrence

Total score

1

Pigment
printing

Metals in a
pigment

Health
issues

4

4

16

2

Stenter
fixation

Exhaust
fumes

Air
pollution

3

4

12

3

Looming

Excessive
Noise

HS of a
worker

3

5

15

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

DECISION MATRICES
• Identify key criteria
• Determine relative ranking
• Evaluate significance

25

KEY CRITERIA FOR DETERMINING SIGNIFICANCE
SET BY THE DEPARTMENT/ORGANISATION







Legal and other requirement
Toxicity
Consequence / Magnitude
Cost
Impact on natural resources
Health and safety
disposal

26

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SIGNIFICANCE MAY BE DEFINED BY MANAGEMENT
• Environmental Goals
• Management Priorities

28

WHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION
• Set of guidelines, rules and standards that are to be followed
while performing any action to least disturb the balance in the
ecosystem and to protect the resources

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LEGAL REQUIREMENTS
• National or international legal requirements
• State/provincial/departmental legal requirements
• Local Governmental legal requirements

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Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (PEPA) Act 1997

• An Act to provide for the protection, conservation,
rehabilitation and improvement of the environment,
for the prevention and control of pollution, and
promotion of sustainable development.

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ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF EPA’S
EPA has been established under act 5 of PEPA ACT, 1997. Main
functions of an EPA are:



Monitoring and regulating agency
Responsible for enforcement of PEPA 1997
Enforcement NEQS
Advise and coordinate with the government , NGOs on preventive
measures to abatement of pollution
• Advise government departments and local authorities to implement
schemes for proper disposal of waste to ensure compliance with
standards
• Enhance awareness among general public
• Attend public complains on environmental issues

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NEQS
• Maximum Level Of Concentration For A Pollutant To Be
Discharged Legally Into The Environment (Air And Water)
• Priorities parameters for industrial liquid discharge are:

Temp.

pH

COD

BOD

TSS

TDS

EFFLUENT
FLOW

COPPER

CHROMIUM

PHENOLIC
COMPOUNDS

SULPHIDES

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OIL AND
GASES

LEAD

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ZINCE

• Priorities parameters for industrial gaseous emissions are:
Oxides of
nitrogen (NOx)

CO

Oxides of
sulphur (SOx)

Metal
Contamination

Particulate
matters

Smoke

• Based on pollutant level industries has been classified into
following categories:
– Category A, B, C and D for liquid effluent
– Category A, B for gaseous emission
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Category A submits EMR (env. Monitoring reports) on monthly basis
Category B submits EMR (env. Monitoring reports) on quarterly basis
Category C submits EMR (env. Monitoring reports) on biannual basis
SPECIAL INDUSTRIES (With High Pollutant Load)

• EMR includes liquid Effluent monitoring report and gaseous
emission monitoring report
• Liquid effluent monitoring report should address all those
priority parameters which are set by PEPA
• Gaseous emission monitoring report should address all those
priority parameters which are set by PEPA
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• Industries Were Provided With Smart Software (Self
Monitoring And Reporting Programme) In March 2006
• Under This Programme Industries In Pakistan Will Be
Responsible
For
Systematically
Monitoring
Their
Environmental Performance And Reporting The Data To EPA’s
• Textile processing industry, dyes and pigment industry,
synthetic fibre industry, tanning and leather industry belong to
category A for liquid effluent monitoring purpose
• Woolen mills in category B
• Textiles in category B for gaseous emission monitoring

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Maximum Effluent level of the Textile Industry













Parameter
pH
BOD5
COD
TSS
Oil and grease
Pesticides (each)
Chromium (total)
Cobalt
Copper
nickel
zinc
phenol
sulphides

Temperature increase

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Maximum value milligrams per liter (mg/L)
6-9
50
250
50
10
0.05
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
2
0.5
1
less than 3°C

created by Dr. Salma Farooq

TABLE OF OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS
• After knowing the legislation requirement for each and every
aspect, now the objectives and targets will be set
• After setting the objectives and the methods now it is a time to
generate an environmental plan

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

TABLE OF OBJECTIVES AND TARGETS

Item

Aspect

Total
RA

Objective

Target

Operation/ Method

1

Metals in a
pigment

16

To minimize the use
of those pigments
containing metals

Alternative to pigments with
metals will be encouraged to
apply.

Substitute the
dye/pigment.
change the supplier

2

Exhaust
fumes and
high energy

14

Reduce energy
consumption.
Excessive fume
emissions will be
controlled

Energy consumption will be
reduced by 20 % . Minimum
possible Fume emissions
baseline will be suggested with
the consent of the concerned
department

Economisers will be
installed. Better insulation
will be practised.
Smoke absorber and filters
will be installed

3

Excessive
Noise

15

Noise pollution will
be controlled

Workers will be exposed to
maximum of 80db

Machine maintenance.
Barriers in in the noise
travelling path. Ear plugs
to the workers

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq

CORPORATE ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN
Item

Objective

Target

Operation/ Method

responsibility

status

date

ongoing

30th
June
2015

1

To minimize the use of
those pigments
containing metals

Alternative to
pigments with metals
will be encouraged to
apply.

Substitute the
dye/pigment.
change the supplier

Procurement
officer and
printing
manager

2

Reduce energy
consumption.
Excessive fume
emissions will be
controlled

Energy consumption
will be reduced by 20
% . Minimum possible
Fume emissions
baseline will be
suggested with the
consent of the
concerned department

Economisers will be
installed. Better
insulation will be
practised.
Smoke absorber and
filters will be installed

Utilities
manager.

3

Noise pollution will be
controlled

Workers will be
exposed to maximum
of 80db

Machine
maintenance. Barriers
in in the noise
travelling path. Ear
plugs to the workers

Weaving
manager and
maintenance
department

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IMPLEMENTATION AND OPERATIONS




Operational Control
Emergency Preparedness and Response
Responsibility Allocation
Awareness and Training
Communications

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OPERATIONAL CONTROLS
• Operational controls are developed and implemented to
ensure that the potential for
significant negative
environmental impacts are minimized.
• Operational Controls describe specific operations
for
controlling and managing the activities, processes, products,
and services associated with the significant environmental
aspects
• Controls may include:
– Electronic or mechanical technology to reduce emissions
– Routine preventive maintenance programs to reduce wear
and breakdown of equipment
– Monitoring and observation of equipment performance
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OPERATIONAL CONTROLS
• Operational controls may already exist for some of the
activities associated with a SEA.
• Identify which SEAs have written procedures that describe
operational controls and which need to have procedures
developed.
• It is useful to involve the people who will implement the
procedures in drafting control procedures. Designate those
people responsible for maintaining the controls and for
reviewing them to ensure that procedures are followed and
deviations are corrected.
• After operational controls are drafted, develop a training
program that ensures everyone understands the controls and
their role in ensuring that they are followed.
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EMERGENCY PLANNING AND RESPONSE
• Identify the possible
emergency situations
• Establish emergency plans
and procedures
• Review and revise
emergency plan and
procedures
• Periodically test the
emergency procedures

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Examples of emergencies
– Accidental emissions to
atmosphere
– Accidental emission to water
– Oil and gas leakage
– Flooding
– earthquakes

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TRAINING, AWARENESS AND COMMUNICATION

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CHECKING AND CORRECTION

Monitoring
and
measuring

Audits

Compliance

Control of
records

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Nonconformity

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MONITORING AND MEASURING
• Regular monitoring of Key environmental indicators
• Calibration
• Monitoring of legal and regulatory compliance

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ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT
• Compliance with environmental legislative requirements
• Air emissions (sources, composition, quantity, abatement
systems, emission points,
• receiving environment)
• Water emissions (sources, composition, quantity, abatement
systems, disposal routes,
• receiving environment)
• Waste generation, collection and disposal
• Waste management /minimization practices
• Energy usage and conservation measures
• Storage, handling and containment of hazardous/potentially
hazardous substances
• Raw material usage especially for non renewable resources
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Noise
Odour
Flora, fauna and landscape
Surrounding land use activities
Environmental sensitivity associated with the site or its
location, such as adjacency to a stream or overlying an aquifer
• Previous site uses and any residual contaminant

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TYPICAL AUDIT QUESTIONS
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

10

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Who is responsible for the identification, handling and storage of all waste?
What procedure defines the methods that shall be used for the handling, storage and
disposal of liquid and solid waste produced in the office, workshop and stores areas of
the company?
Who is responsible for documenting and managing the environmental management
system?
Where would you find information regarding the way in which spillages of hazardous
materials should be dealt with?
Who is responsible for the storage of all materials?
What is the name of the plan that is designed to be a dynamic and open-ended list of
objectives and goals for the company to achieve in accordance with ISO 14001?
What is the correct method for the disposal of waste categorized as rubbish?
Who is responsible for the storage and maintenance of all records and completed
forms that are part of the EMS?
Who is responsible for ensuring that personnel are adequately trained and are
competent before carrying out any process or operation?
What environmental documentation is required following the introduction of a new
process, product or substance within

created by Dr. Salma Farooq

MANAGEMENT REVIEW
• Actions regarding improvement in EMS
• Resources needed

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created by Dr. Salma Farooq