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№1.The division of flow of speech.

The study of speech sounds constituting all morphemes and words of the language
occupies an important position in phonetics. All these sounds ovariants
“allophones” of this or that phonem. In phonological analysis of phonemes there
are two main problems:
1. The identification the phonemes of the language. [ ] in transcription is used
in different variants.
2. The establishing of phonemic composition of those words which contain one
or more sounds and which phonemic status is uncertain. E.g. was, had,
teachers. He teaches German. Some of the teachers are German.

№2. The notion of the phoneme.
What is the (phoneme) morpheme? There are several conceptions of the phonemes, but
linguists have not arrive at the definition of the phoneme acceptable to all. It is so, because
a phoneme has several aspects and functions. The flow of speech neither in articulation nor
in perception flows into separate sounds.
When listening to any strange language we can understand only this sounds which exist in
our mother-tongue on the foreign language which we know. We can guess all the separates
sounds of the strange language.
Worker, teacher, writer, workers, teachers, writers. Here we find the morpheme er [Ə] it is a
phoneme. The semantic value of this is a great importance but as for the sounds of speech
here the matter is more complicated. Invalid we find such sounds which have semantic
value. In all this cases these sounds, are words or morphemes. (I, you, or, are, etc) The
absence of independence doesn’t mean that they nothing to do with senses. This
connection is found in the presence of a certain phoneme is a certain position. From all
above we may conclude that the division into separate sounds in speech becomes possible
not due to semantic connection. The segmental phoneme is the smallest language unit
(sound-type) that exist in speech of all members of a given language community as such
which are capable of distinguishing one word from another word or one grammatical form
another in the same language. (I go to school) It comes natural that all the phonemes of
certain language differ from another one. Even in untiquenty there was a linguists
who were able to analyze the spoken language and separate it into definite sound units, but
no real theory was formulated until the 19 C. Professor Henry Swave must have understood
the phenomena of phonemic substitute. In the system of transcription that he had created
there are Separate symbols for the “brought” and for the “narrow” types of transcription
which had never been interpreted as a phonemic or linguistically brought description which
is based on principal – one symbol prophoneme. And linguistically brought which is based on
the principal phoneme on allophone. There is another term for the last type, which

№3. Professor Baudouine de Courtenay.
The phoneme theory came into existence in Russia. Its originator was Professor Baudouine
de Courtenay – the founder of the Kazan linguistic school. We may see 2 stages in the
development of his phoneme theory. At first he was interested in “entity” of the morpheme.
He noticed that the same morpheme isn’t it always represented in the combination of
sounds. In the Slovenic languages there is altanation of voiced and voiceless consonant with
it morpheme. Intonation of the “speaker” and physical nature of sound do not always cown

. any phoneme may be realized. №4 Scerba. Due to different sound surroundings. syllable and melody. But under some morphological facts it may be changed so the altanation takes place (ex. The theory of phonemic variants 2.milkmƆn] bord – blackbord). The notion of the phoneme is connected with the sense: “The phoneme is the shortest generic phonetical (unit) perception in a given language capable of being associated with the semantic perception. On the position of phoneme with the regard of stress. 2. foot-feed.g. Correlates [kąrilætz] are sounds which are different in character (arising on the phonetic lows) Man-men. They may be found due to individual qualities of the speaker. man-milkman . The main principals of his theory are: 1. род [t]. In such cases they are called positional variants . His “divergence and correlates” represent phonetic and historical altanation. This variants called obligatory. z]. Divergence which means variants of the same sound arising from the phonetic lows of the language existing at the present time (men – milkmen [men . This complex perception is what he calls “phonemes”. In this case there are called non-obligatory variants. The obligatory variants may depend: 1. of distinguishing words and of being easily isolated from a world”. on the other hand we differentiate everything that maybe associated with different meaning. He distinguished 2 kinds of homogenes (однородных членов): 1. The second period was marked by search of a unit which would not be found by the limits of a morpheme. [a æ]. лоб [ЛОП]. the most talented pupil of Baudouine created a materialistic phoneme theory. “Дети-детки” [T’][T] mild neutral t’ and t are considered to be different phonemes so as they may differ other words: одет-одеть. One of the same phonemes may be found in different phone…. This theory was not complete and later it has be developed by some linguist of Moscow school of phonetics Trubezkoi by influence by him.inside. Scerba. But his sicological approach from creating and adequate phoneme theory so he decided that a speech sound is a fictions unit in invention of the scientist but what ready exists and it being constantly is the perception of the sound. Such notion of the phoneme existed in 1917. хлеб-хлеба) Homogenes (составляющие) of the sound which make up a morpheme. It is a complex perception of the articulatory movements and the muscular sensation connected with them resulting acoustic impression all of which react the simultaneous. The “speaken” thinks that he uses the same morpheme and is going to pronounce it in the same way. So. E. [s. The theory of phonemic independence “We perceive as identical all that which is more or less alike acoustically and is associated with the same meaning.

We can analyze any word into phoneme in our mother-tongue. It this sounds that we have in mind when discussing speech sound. though it is express in speech in a number of variant these makes it very complex from the acoustic and physiological point of view. A problem is a phonemic unit. In the Russian language: плакала. We recognize sounds of our mother-tongue in unfamiliar or invented words (for example: леди. Their independence can be proved in 2 ways: 1. свитер. д. f-v. Cybernetic approach to the phoneme. On the combination with some other phonemes which influence with first or second one. in every language this sound are united in a comparotirly number of sound types which are capable of distinguishing the meaning and the form of words. Among the variants of the phoneme there are which due to different circumstances in the most difficult. Phonemic variants are very important because they may developed into new phonemes . L. In the second post revolutionary period Scerba revised phoneme theory. 2. Each in old English. 1. s-z were variants of one and the same phoneme. V. he says: “In actual speech we outer a much greater variety of sound were awearen or which we know. Such sound called phonemes. are independent phoneme. The development of the phoneme theory in USSA. The three pairs of consonants such as f-th. №5. 4. In many languages. Professor Zinder further develops Scerba theory of phonemic independence. 3. A word is analyzed phonetically without comparing it with other words. on the other hand phoneme may stop fastening as such and may become a phonetic variant. Explanations like “Oh”. 7. He has given some proves to it. Scerba’s school. consist representious of phoneme is “weak” position which are distinguished from phonemes in strong. 3. свитер). P-speak. that is way they served the purpose of into change. читала и т. L-love. A phoneme is capable to express the meaning of its own. A representative of Moscow Linguistic school of Avanasow has adopted a conceptional of Baudouine variations. 2. . If phonemes were not independent. №6. бегала.2. The creation in our mother-tongue of the new words (ВУЗ) 6. 5. Phonemic independence is a fact of great importance. “Ah” etc express different emotions. we shouldn’t be able to construct borrowed words by means of Russian words: леди. Variants include all the altanations series which can be found in the same morpheme. but in present day English the each of these ……. Everyone is able to recognize phonemes in his mother-tongue.

For example. phonemes can be perceived by members of all the same linguistic community. General phonology studies the typology of concrete languages. on the contrary. They seems to be prove of the fact that the scholars who invented that alphabet and who used them to denote in writing must have perceived the phonemes of the language they spoke. all English people know that those who use the coskney dialect pronouncing “I” instead of “a”. that has for its object “the study of the nature.A. Chowmyan has created a two-level theory of phonology. Chowmyan who was adherent of the morphological theory. Strictly speaking the “two-level” theory of phonology is not a theory of phonology. which he shares with Jacobson are development of sensual points of these 2 systems. They pronounce [I. The native population of any linguistic community never have any difficulty in understanding each other speech. but who had revised the view under the influence of L. Linguistic schools. Trubeckoy first become acquainted with the phoneme theory through the work of Baudouine and Scerba. Trubeckoy attracted the attention of most linguists. the phonological reality. This can be proved by the fact that several alphabets have existed for many centuries. Of these the works of A. Theoretical phonology is a new science. Criticism of cybernetic view. e] [heƏ: ] instead of [eƆ: ] phonemes are real linguistic facts. The main point of Trubeckoy theory are: . it may applied to many science.S. a) Prague school The phoneme idea was further developed by linguistic society of Prague. it studies the structure of concrete lang.Last century a new stand point arose. for which it works out the conceptional operators. Chowmyan ‘s new approach to the phoneme may be called cybernetic. Chowmyan’s opinion is that the phoneme cannot be preserved by means of the direct observation method. That is to say. Hyelmslev. but a new epistemology (theory of method of grounds of knowledge) “epistema” means knowledge. which he was studying in university of Moscow and as a member of a Moscow linguistic society. The cybernetic conception is based upon the mistaken assumption that phonemes cannot be perceived by our senses. Phonemes of all the languages of the word have been perceived for centuries by people speaking one or another concrete language of one or another country. It’s originator was S. 2. №7. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that phoneme function in words which they have to recognize and which indouded with meaning. He himself sais the following: that although has deviated (отклонился) from the systems both from of Baudouine and Scerba doesn’t approve the definitions of the phoneme as formulated by them yet he admits that his present point of view. The phonemes of concrete languages were denoting with great precision by means of letters. Among the linguists of this society were are number of well-known scholars who’s works is specially those which were published between 1929 and 1939 created quite a revolution in linguistics. or the shift the [h] phoneme in initial position in word. 1.

What connection there is between those distinctive elements. The American trained become more inclined to obstrectional views. whom it in habit. He prefers the original mertolistic of the phoneme but he finds it unconvinced in practiced purposes. He also speaks of different degrees of length. b) c) d) The separation of phonetics and phonology. it’s like a code. According to Trubeckoy phonology is a linguistic science and it concerned only with distinctive feature of language which are connecting with meaning. the language is a system of signs. Hjelsmlev. He express his idea of the separation between phonetic and phonology still in more clear way. 2. Its essence is revealed in a following quotation “The linguistic processes of the main as such are simply observaten and introspection (самоанализ) about linguistic processes and introspection is notoriously a fire in a wooden stone. like any other code that is used by a human community. Our only information about the mind is deright on the behavior of individual.”. American structuralism based on behaviorism. The American phonological school The phoneme theory in the US haded by Edward Sapiar and Leonard Bloomfield may be also characterized as structuralism. 1. The number of which formulate the corresponding phoneme. 3. At the same time he distinguished tone and different degrees of stress. He breaks up his phoneme into atoms as it were and considers different features of phonemes as independent phenomena. In the “monograph” the phoneme it’s nature and duce Daniel John’s writes that the idea of the phoneme was first introduce to him in 1911 by professor Scerba of Leningrad. At the same time he infacaises the fact that different members of the same phoneme are mutually explosive. The theory of phonological oppositions. For example the sound [K] that is used in word ‘keep” cannot be used in word “call”. a semiotic “a system of signs” and he might be able to understand it . His own definition runs us follows: “A phoneme is a family of sounds in a given language which are related in character and used in such a way that no one member ever occurs in a word in the same phonetic contests as any other members”. Trubeckoy writes: the only aim of phonetic is to answer the question how these or that sound pronounce. as they are pronounced and heard. The Copenhagen trained This trained is represented by L. A philologist should take into account only those feature which have a definite function in language. A language is a structure. Phonetics investigates the material sight of language. According to what rules they may be combined into words and sentences. And in this case D. The theory of arch-phoneme. The atomistic conception of the phoneme is not very convinced. Thus if we speak of different features is quell to talking about phones. Professor John’s views of phonetics are expressed in number of his works. while phonetic is a biological science with the sounds of language. Daniel John’s doesn’t mentioned the distinctive function of the phoneme but dwell open it later on. His theory may be called atomistic. What concerned phonology he says that it should investigate: Which sound feature in a given language are distinctive. 2. “A phonetician should study sounds without taking into account the meaning of what he said. John’s shows the influence of Trubetzkoy. To his. 3.1. The London phonological school The London school of phonology is headed by professor Daniel Jones of London and is considered to represent the physical conception of the phoneme.

algebraic.structure better if he knew more about it specific structure of non-linguistic semiotics. The Copenhagen trained tries to represent all linguistic phenomena as a serious of “relations” and “mathematical ratios” R. Jacobson and H. . Hjelmslev views however as well as those of the American descriptivism had considerable influence in Soviet Union. Halle turn this approach to linguistic problems.