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Name: Emeline Chen YueXin

Student Number: 22017787
Module Code: MM1F12 (Markets, Marketing and Strategy)
Programme: BA Business and Management
“Leadership is the art of getting others to do something you want done because
they want to do it.” (Dwight D. Elsenhower). Critically evaluate this statement and
explain how it differs from management.

Ralph Stogdill (1974) once said, "[there are] almost as many definitions of leadership
as there are persons who have attempted to define the concept."
One famous leader who has defined leadership as the ‘art of getting others to do
something you want done because they want to do it’ is Dwight D. Eisenhower. As a
World War II Supreme Allied Commander, he is said to have assumed one of the most
demanding leadership roles in the American History. Following that, he was elected as
the 34th President of the United States, further emphasizing his leadership capabilities.
Holding such affluent positions throughout the years, one might suggest that he alone
could define the concept of leadership. Apart from critically analyzing Eisenhower’s
take on the subject, I will also be delving into the theories and concepts of leadership,
management and the way they both differ.
Psychologist Martin. M Chemers (1997) agrees with Eisenhower and defines leadership
as “a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of
others in the accomplishment of a common task”. However, there is no tried and tested
way to determine what is indeed the true meaning of the term ‘leadership’. Over the
years, many theories and definitions of leadership have been identified in different
studies. Three of the most commonly analyzed were theories based on personality or
character traits, the individual’s behavior or style and situational or contingency models.
(Needle, 2010)
Critically analyzing Eisenhower’s definition of leadership, one may infer that for an
individual to possess leadership qualities, he or she has to be influential and persuasive.

2010) Similarly. L. the company might have . is what changed the face of the airline industry in Europe. This study is presented in Stogdill and Coons (1957). which suggests that leadership is based on an individual’s behavior or style. it done not accurately define it. ‘self-confidence’.’ honesty and integrity’. is the most effective one. Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. (Nwagbara. it is asserted that the airline’s success stems not only from O Leary’s entrepreneurial expertise and strategic leadership but also from the positive economic outlook at that period.500 individuals whom were a mixture of managers and leaders. ‘desire to lead’. ‘intelligence’ and ‘jobrelevant knowledge’. derived even more differentiating character traits between leaders and non-leaders which encompasses ‘ambition and energy’. situational variables do play a part in defining leadership. included traits such as ‘strategic-thinking’. Another pair of researchers. is backed up by a study done at the University of Iowa where leadership styles were monitored in boys clubs. An example of a successful use of Stogdill and Coons’ theory is RyanAir’s CEO Michael O’ Leary. Revisiting the example of Ryanair’s success story. Schmidt (1973) had further taken the above-mentioned University of Iowa studies and determined influences on the process of a leader’s decision-making. It is further learnt that the democratic style of creating interpersonal relations with people. Ryanair is currently Europe’s most popular low cost. 2011) However. His leadership style. identifying leaders as “authoritarian. ‘inspirational’.Horne and Stedman-Jones analyzes the first theory of leadership and conducted a case study in 2001 amongst 1. ‘honest’. They had believed that the most prominent influence on leadership style was the “function of the situation”. as the third theory proposes. The results determined that the ideal characteristics of a leader. Fred Fielder’s (1967) contingency theory of leadership effectiveness “postulates that the manager’s contribution to his work group’s performance depends upon the interaction between the manager’s style of leadership and the favorableness of his work situation. These traits simply provide a suggestion as to what leadership is seen as. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991). (Needle. 1967) Fielder held the notion that different kinds of leaders would perform greatly under different situations. which transited from an autocratic to a democratic one. no-frills airline and has been thriving under O’ Leary’s leadership. democratic and laissez-faire”. ‘fair-mindedness’. The second theory.” (Kanuk. It is arguable that if the situation had been different.

leaders are more likely to be respected. either positional or personal as derived from John French and Bentram Raven’s (1959) Five Forces of Power. Kuhnert and Lewis (1987) have identified two different types of leadership approaches – transactional and transformation. leadership is also sometimes seen as power. be it by enticing a reward or exercising authority. Rooplekha Khuntia and Damodar Suar (2004) assert. . inspiring and motivating followers to realize the organization’s vision. One example would be Oprah Winfrey. Ryanair’s success is said to be “built upon the situation of that moment”. Although it isn’t always the case.” Positional power operates by influencing individuals to get something done. They argue that good leader posses positional power which encompasses coercive power. Despite the difficulties of entering the entertainment industry due to her ethnicity. An example of a transactional leader would be Eisenhower who triumphed in his position as the president by effectively executing policies. Transactional leaders operate almost like managers. reward power and legitimate power. “leadership relies more on personal power than positional power. They do not possess any particular leadership traits and simply carry out routine duties such as designating work. When possessing these traits. none of which applies to Eisenhower’s personal statement of “leadership is the art of getting others to do something you want done because they want to do it. who has changed the lives of many people and organizations across the globe. This tells us that transformational leaders have the abilities to identify the need for change and formulate the method to carry it out. she garnered audience favoritisms and has become one of the most famous transformational leaders in our generation today. (Nye. Its central concern is coping with change. J. 2013) Transformational leaders are interpreted as “…one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality’ (Burns.” This may be seen as a more effective approach when individuals look up to leaders because they are perceived as an expert or have charisma. (Nwagbara. 2011) In more recent studies. 1978). monitoring performance and making general decisions. This approach usually works well in a working environment where every day tasks are straightforward and invariable. These transformational leaders tend to work most effectively under conditions of ambiguity.performed differently.

resource allocating and controlling. He came to a conclusion that most successful managers spent most of their time networking and most effective managers spent their time communicating with staff. Henri Fayol (1841-1925) derived core management tasks to be “planning. budgeting. organizing. networking and human resource management. Fred Luthans (1988) tries to measure the effectiveness of a manager based on their activities and successfulness by promotion. what is management then? Theorist such as Philip Sadler (2003) argues that the terms ‘leadership’ and ‘management’ can be used interchangeably. influencing and inspiring. To put it simply. According to John Kotter (1992). Likewise. organizing. Although both terms share similarities. Kotter further defines management as “a set of processes that keep complicated systems of people and technology running smoothly with key focus on planning. “management rests more on positional than personal power and deals with organizing. ‘leadership is an ageless topic and management is largely the product of the last 100 years’. and problem solving” and leadership as “a set of processes that create organizations and adapts them to significantly changing circumstances. budgeting. The four activities recorded were communication. controlling. In a study done by the Chartered Institute of Personal Development (CIPD) in 2012 amongst 500 employees and 120 managers across 7 institutes. time scheduling.” Khuntia and Suar (2004) agrees with Kotter’s definition and continues to add that with regards to personal and positional power. it can be argued that whilst leaders establish goals and solutions to problems.” Delving deeper into understanding managers and managements. we cannot confuse management with leadership. which focuses on motivating. He identified four main activities that managers carry out by monitoring 44 real-life managers from various walks of life. Tony Watson (1986) defines managing as “organizing: pulling things together and along in a general direction to bring about long-term organizational survival”. coordinating and controlling”. researchers Rachel Lewis and Emma Donaldson-Feilder found that motivation is best sustained amongst employees if managers paid attention to their . staffing. managers are the ones who implement them.If leadership is seen as power to influence individual into getting something done. This is vastly different from leadership. traditional management. commanding.

” Rost J. We revisit Chermers (1997) quote that reminds us leadership is one of ‘social influence’. whereas leadership has the goal of promoting change and fluidity within organizations. “while managers think incrementally. are wired to retain consistency and manage structure in the organization.C (1993) claims.” This sentence alone tells us that there is arguably a difference between leaders and managers. They are the ones to manage a team of individuals who will implement the ideas and solutions the leader comes up with.” He further adds that it is the role of a manager to drive uniformity in an organization. Kirkpatrict and Locke (1991) agree with Kotter and derived leaders to have ambition and energy hence. leaders are continually implementing change to improve an organization. if managers effectively assume interpersonal roles. As concluded by Lewis and Donaldson-Feilder. Managers on the other hand. are adaptable to changes around them. Leaders are the problem solvers and frontrunners in an organization. leadership is doing the right things. In contrast. In this case. According to Professor Henry Mintzberg (1973). leaders think radically. This further affirms the notion that a . Similar to the research above. eventually leading to its maximum efficiency. how does management differ from leadership and to what degree? In the words of Drucker (2007).wellbeing. interpersonal role and decision role. the informational role. Richard Pascale (2007) further backs this up by stating. This corresponds with Dwight D’s quote that tells us that leadership is the art of influencing an individual to want to do something on their own and not because of authoritative command. the leader will ask questions like “What?” and “Why”. constantly seeking new and innovative ways to improve and maximize efficiency. there are 3 managerial roles that a manager can assume. Bennis asserts that “while the manager asks questions like “How?” and “When?”. “leaders often have influential relationships and managers take on authoritative relationships”. they will be able to reap good employee relations and motivation. “management is doing things right. John Kotter (1992) states “management tries to establish security and order. Psychologist Warren Bennis (1989) also comments that there are clear differences between management and leadership.

A manager is somebody who follows that leader and sees how to structure things to create value for the company”. influence and enable individuals to contribute to the organization of which they are members. A good leadership coupled with effective management can almost always produce positive results. The individuals who are most effective these days are those who are both managers and leaders. This alone is a distinctive difference between leaders and managers. She draws the difference by adding that. managers need leaders.leadership role is one that influences individuals instead of exerting authority on them.D’s belief that “leadership is the art of getting others to do something you want done because they want to do it”. Agreeing with Sadler is Michael Fullan (2001) who states. 2013) In conclusion. “For clarity of goals and direction. The .” (Burke. They can do it. which deduces that there are overlapping similarities between managers and leaders.” The GLOVE project (House et al. leaders need managers. “I have never been fond of distinguishing between leadership and management: they overlap and you need both qualities. (Deborah Blagg and Susan saying.” This affirms the point that leaders will find it hard to be as strong a manager as they are a leader. For indispensable help in reaching goals.” Similarly. 2001) Annmarie Neal (2013) was quoted on Forbes. It deems that leaders assume influential roles and possesses personal power. the above evidence suggests that the many leadership theories studied are conclusive with Eisenhower. 2004) defines leadership as “… the ability to motivate. 1986) It is essential for any organization to have both a good structure and balance of leadership and management to operate efficiently. Sadler (2003) provides an alternate view.. but they have a way of [thinking about the issues] at another level. the role of a manager is to ensure that the individuals under his or her authority carries out the work they were tasked to. “a leader is somebody who sees opportunity and puts change in motion. “I’ve found that the best leaders weren’t really good managers. Managers on the other hand. It is said to be most effective for an organization if good leadership and management is implemented – it can’t just be one or the other. (Neal. possess positional power and take on authoritarian roles when managing their subordinates.

multiple studies mentioned in this analysis distinguishing between the leadership and managerial roles have found both differences and similarities. it would be impossible concur the definite differences between manager and a leader. . the topic of leadership and management has been and will continue to be debated in the years to come. With the various opinions and definitions undertaken. Summarizing the evidence.

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