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Nondestructive Inspection

 It is an examination of an object in a manner which will not
impair the future usefulness of the object.
 Does not provide a direct measurement of mechanical
properties of the object.

 Very valuable in locating material defects that could impair the
performance of the object when placed in service.
 Common reasons for performing nondestructive inspections (NDI):




To detect faulty material before it is formed or machined into component parts
To detect faulty component before assembly
To discover defects that may have developed during service
For routine examination in service, permitting their removal before failure occurs
To improve and control manufacturing process to make products more reliable,
safe and economical.

 Five basic elements in any nondestructive inspection:
 SOURCE
provides a probing medium that can be used to inspect the item under test
 MODIFICATION
the probing medium must change or be modified as a result of the variations
or discontinuities within the object being tested
 DETECTION
a detector capable of determining the changes in the probing medium
 INDICATION
a means of indicating or recording the signals from the detector

 INTERPRETATION
a method of interpreting these indications

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 These differences in “absorption” are recorded on film. Page 3/18 .Classification of Nondestructive Inspection  Five most common nondestructive inspection methods:      Radiographic inspection Magnetic particle inspection Die penetrant inspection Ultrasonic inspection Eddy current inspection Radiographic Inspection  Radiography uses penetrating radiation that is directed towards a component. or electronically. Lec 32.  The component stops some of the radiation. The amount that is stopped or absorbed is affected by material density and thickness differences.

The part will stop some of the radiation. X-ray film  The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation reaching the film through the test object. Page 4/18 .General principle  The part is placed between the radiation source and the radiographic film. Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation. less exposure Top view of developed film more exposure Some radiographic images Lec 32.

and material density changes.  Provides a permanent record of the inspection. The radiation used in radiography testing is either X-ray or gamma-ray. Advantages  Technique is not limited by material type or density.  Minimum surface preparation required. a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves capable of penetrating relatively large thickness of metal.  Industrial radiography is often subdivided into “X-ray Radiography” or “Gamma-ray Radiography”.  Sensitive to changes in thickness.  Detects both surface and subsurface defects. voids. depending on the source of radiation used. Lec 32. cracks.  Can inspect assembled components. corrosion. Page 5/18 .

 Can detect surface discontinuities too fine to be detected by the naked eye.  Many hours of technician training prior to use. Magnetic Particle Inspection  Magnetic particle inspection can detect both production discontinuities (inclusions. Lec 32.  Expensive initial equipment cost. laps. Page 6/18 . grinding cracks and quenching cracks) and in-service damage (fatigue and overload cracks) in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel.  Orientation of equipment and flaw can be critical. seams. and will also detect discontinuities which lie slightly below the surface. tears.Disadvantages  Many safety precautions for the use of high intensity radiation.  Determining flaw depth is impossible without additional angled exposures.

How does it work?  A ferromagnetic test specimen is magnetized with a strong magnetic field created by a magnet or special equipment.  Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are applied to the test specimen. This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions (e. Lec 32.. the discontinuity will interrupt the magnetic field flowing through the specimen and a leakage field will occur. These particles are attracted to leakage fields and will cluster to form an approximate shape of the surface projection of the discontinuity. Page 7/18 . If the specimen has a discontinuity.g. ultraviolet light).

 Considered low cost compared to many other NDI methods. Lec 32.  Pre-cleaning of components is not as critical as it is for some other inspection methods. Most contaminants within a flaw will not hinder flaw detectability.  Can inspect parts with irregular shapes easily.  A very portable inspection method especially when used with battery powered equipment. Page 8/18 .Some examples Advantages  Can detect both surface and near sub-surface defects.  Method of inspection is fast and indications are visible directly on the specimen surface.

 Alignment between magnetic flux and defect is important. Lec 32. magnesium or most stainless steels. Page 9/18 . is a nondestructive testing method that builds on the principle of Visual Inspection.  Limited subsurface discontinuity detection capabilities. and porosity that are open to the surface. shrinkage.6” (under ideal conditions).  Inspection of large parts may require use of equipment with special power requirements.  Some parts may require removal of coating or plating to achieve desired inspection sensitivity. and post demagnetization is often necessary. Maximum depth sensitivity is approximately 0.  It is a very sensitive inspection method of detecting minute discontinuities such as cracks. Die Penetrant Inspection  Penetrant Testing.  Post cleaning. or PT.Disadvantages  Cannot inspect non-ferrous materials such as aluminum.  PT increases the “seeability” of small discontinuities that the human eye might not be able to detect alone.

blow holes.  Porous ceramics  Wood and other fibrous materials.  Rolled products – cracks. Page 10/18 . such as sand castings. visual indications of any discontinuities present become apparent. laps.  Excess penetrant is removed from the surface. shrinkage. porosity. laminations. porosity. seams.  Welds – cracks. lack of penetration What CANNOT be tested using PT?  Components with rough surfaces. The penetrant “penetrates” into surface breaking discontinuities via capillary action and other mechanisms.  Components with coatings that prevent penetrants from entering defects. external bursts. hot tears.  Castings – cold shuts. that trap and hold penetrant. lack of fusion.How does it work?  In penetrant testing.  Forgings – cracks. overlap.  A developer (powder) is applied to pull the trapped penetrant out of the defect and spread it on the surface where it can be seen.  Plastic parts that absorb or react with the penetrant materials. Applying penetrant Washing of excess penetrant Applying developer  With good inspection technique (under Inspection UV light). a liquid with high surface wetting characteristics is applied to the surface of a component under test. Lec 32. What CAN be tested using PT?  All defects that are open to the surface.

 Large areas or large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost. fire. grinding and other operations inhibits detection. Materials may need to be etched prior to inspection. Lec 32.  Aerosol spray cans can make equipment very portable.  Parts with complex geometries are routinely inspected. Page 11/18 .  Post cleaning is necessary to remove chemicals.  Requires multiple operations under controlled conditions.  Requires relatively smooth nonporous material.  Precleaning is critical.  Metal smearing from machining.  Indications are produced directly on surface of the part providing a visual image of the discontinuity.  Can be used on a wide range of material types. Contaminants can mask defects.  Chemical handling precautions necessary (toxicity.  Initial equipment investment is low. Disadvantages  Only detects surface breaking defects. waste).Advantages  Relative ease of use.

Sound waves travel through materials by vibrating the particles that make up the material. How does it work?  Ultrasonic waves are introduced into a material by a transducer where they travel in a straight line and at a constant speed until they encounter a surface. Lec 32.Ultrasonic Inspection  Ultrasonic testing uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements.  The amount of reflected or transmitted energy can be detected and provides information about the size of the reflector.  The pitch of the sound is determined by the frequency of the wave.  The travel time of the sound can be measured and this provides information on the distance that the sound has traveled.  Sound is produced by a vibrating body and travels in the form of a wave. Ultrasound is sound with a pitch too high (1-5 million Hz) to be detected by the human ear.  At surface interfaces some of the wave energy is reflected and some is transmitted. Page 12/18 .

and inspections can be accomplished in either of the following ways:  Pulse-echo One transducer is used in one side of the sample. initial pulse back surface echo crack echo 0 2 4 6 8 10 crack oscilloscope.or flaw detector screen sample plate Lec 32.  The amount of reflected sound energy is displayed versus time.Testing techniques  Ultrasonic testing is a very versatile inspection method. which provides the inspector information about the size and the location of features that reflect the sound. one as transmitter and the other as receiver Pulse-echo system  A transducer sends out a pulse of energy and the same transducer listens for reflected energy (an echo) from the discontinuities (if any) and the surfaces of the test article. both as transmitter and receiver  Through Transmission Two transducers are used in both sides of the sample. Page 13/18 .

and when signal strength is weak. etc. porosity. welds. inclusions. part or coating thickness  Estimation of grain size in metals Lec 32. forgings. One transducer acts as a transmitter. 11 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 What can be tested?  Ultrasonic examinations can be conducted on a wide variety of material forms including castings. It does not provide depth information. and composites.  A considerable amount of information about the part being examined can be collected some of which are mentioned below:  Flaw detection (cracks. the other as a receiver.)  Erosion and corrosion thickness gauging  Assessment of bond integrity in adhesively joined and brazed components  Estimation of void content in composites and plastics  Measurement of case hardening depth in steels.Through-transmission system  Two transducers located on opposing sides of the test specimen are used. R R T 2  Through transmission is useful in detecting discontinuities that are not good reflectors. Page 14/18 . 11 T  Discontinuities in the sound path will result in a partial or total loss of sound being transmitted and be indicated by a decrease in the received signal amplitude.

 Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods.  Depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other methods.  Has other uses such as thickness measurements. exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.  Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results. Page 15/18 .  Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration.  Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected.  Only single-sided access is needed when pulse-echo technique is used. very small.  High accuracy in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. and characterization of flaws.  Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. in addition to flaw detection. Disadvantages  Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound.  Minimal part preparation required.  Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise.Advantages  Sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities.  Normally requires a coupling medium to promote transfer of sound energy into test specimen. irregular in shape.  Materials that are rough. Lec 32.

Coil Eddy currents Coil's magnetic field Eddy current's magnetic field conductive material The detection unit will measure this new magnetic field and convert the signal into a voltage that can read on a meter or cathode-ray tube. Page 16/18 . A varying magnetic field is produced if a source of alternating current is connected to a coil.Eddy-Current Inspection How does it work? Eddy current testing uses electromagnetic induction to detect flaws. A small surface probe is scanned over the part surface in an attempt to detect a crack Lec 32. Variations in the electrical conductivity or magnetic permeability of the test object or the presence of any flaws will cause a change in eddy current and a corresponding change in the phase and amplitude of the measured current. When this field is placed near a test specimen capable of conducting an electric current. eddy currents will be induced in the specimen.

Disadvantages  Only conductive materials can be tested. where to use.Advantages  Detection of very small surface and sub-surface cracks and other irregularities.  Samples with complex geometry can be investigated  Variations in composition and heat treatment conditions. Page 17/18 . and limitations of each nondestructive inspection method described earlier.  Measurement of electrical conductivity and coating thickness.  Surface of the material must be accessible.  Depth of penetration is limited by materials’ conductivity  Flaws lie parallel to the probe cannot be detected.8: Major nondestructive methods Indicating when to use. advantages. Nondestructive Inspection: A Summary Table 1. Lec 32.  Minimal preparation of surface.  Bad surface finish can cause bad reading.