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Prompt Question(s): Your reading gives 3 different perspectives on why Africans were used for

slave labor as opposed to other groups. At the heart to the discussion, is what came first, slavery
or racism? Is racism a consequence of slavery, or did slavery come from racism? Which scholars
perspective do you find most plausible and why? 

Slavery came first; it is one of the oldest institutions that have survived from the
ancient world into our more modern current world. We are often led to believe that
racism was always a part of slavery but this is not necessarily true as conquered
peoples were often sold into slavery during the Greek, Roman and Eastern empires.
Slavery as it was instituted within the United States was not the standard of slave
treatment as history often leads us to believe. Though the treatment of the Jews in
Egypt was very similar this was not the standard as can be seen by the study of
other cultures. I believe that Egyptians discovered something that created the
horrid institution that the Western world would use which was that a clear physical
distinction would make it easier to recognize who was in fact enslaved. Thus racism
came as a result of slavery rather than slavery as a result of racism.
Race/Color/Ethnicity/Nationality has always existed as a direct result of some
institutionally justified pride however it did not cause slavery.
http://www.isreview.org/issues/26/roots_of_racism.shtml

Please explain the concept of Womanism and how Maggie Lena Walker embodied it. Also, give a
contemporary example of Womanism.  

Womanism much like feminism is a movement for the upliftment of women.
However unlike feminism its roots are both in race and gender. Alice Walker coined
the term womanism as the issues of black women were different than that of white
middle class women. Maggie Lena Walker was a woman who not only fought for
gender equality but also the black women as well. One of the most
underrepresented factions in any revolution was the black woman as she was often
overlooked due to numerous stereotypes and the chauvinistic traditions of a
western world. Far too often the voices of Black men were heard and Black women
were only used to support these voices (an example of this being Rosa Parks).
Maggie’s establishment of the Richmond Council of Colored women gave voice to the
often unheard. She sought to give voice to the black woman. A contemporary
example of womanism would be Oprah Winfrey’s initiative in Africa. She has built a
school for young lady’s in which they can learn safely and have chances that would
not otherwise be afforded to them. This act of upliftment is one of great importance.
What were some of the economic, legal and social challenges faced by Blacks after the New Deal?
What were some of the strategies and ways in which Blacks resisted and how did southern whites
resist change? 

especially women of color. The economics behind this being that black men are often seen as a threat to white men. Prompt question: How does capitalism. In reality Black women were the first to lead such movements because they are the original victims of rape in this country. stereotyping. and promiscuity or open sexuality is seen as invitation to rape and often even used as a justification (much like aggression is used for violence). aggressive and violent thus making them as targets for rape easy. (acting also as one of the largest promoters of the AIDS epidemic). Black men are often seen as brutish. Black men who were lynched were not even accused of rape. Wells proved that in most cases. In most cases the motivation was economic. Capitalism uses this disparity in influencing the success of female acts. A great commentary on this can be seen in Beyonce’s Flawless where author Chimandana Ngozi Adichie discusses the unfair inequality pertaining to female and male sexual expression. They have not been a part of movements lead by whites because they haven't addressed fraudulent rape charges leveled against Black men. Racism plays a role in rape as she has always been depicted as an overtly sexual being wanting to be involved in constant sexual acts in a very primal and animalistic way. . Capitalism interestingly enough can be seen as a promoter of the objectification. Much of popular culture promotes the exploitation of women and thus rape is not discussed as many women are made to feel as if they had it coming in some way.What were some of the groundbreaking changes that occurred during reconstruction? How were Black people essentially re-enslaved in the period following Reconstruction? In what ways are Black communities still fighting the same challenges?  Many believe Black women have been absent from anti-rape movements and wondered why. and manipulation of the female’s sexuality. and sexism play a role in rape? The Black woman is rarely if ever portrayed as a victim. Sexism plays a role in rape as we live in a male dominated world in which no only sometimes means no. racism. Ida B. The myth of the Black male rapist is nothing more than an invented image to support the institution of lynching that is supported by mass media. and in the rural south were competitors for sharecropping jobs during times when jobs were scarce and hard to come by. It is important to also note that sexuality overlaps as an underlying topic that proves detrimental to rape and depictions as it is one that unfortunately is taboo as a topic of discussion.