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HP-UX Patch Management

A guide to patching HP-UX 11.X systems

5967-3578
September 2001
 2001 Hewlett-Packard Company

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Revision History.
January 2000, Preliminary Edition.
December 2000, Edition 1, part no. B3782-90829.
June 2001, Edition 1, new part number.
September 2001, Edition 2.

This guide’s printing date and part number indicate the current edition. The printing date changes
when a new edition is printed. Minor corrections and updates incorporated at reprint do not cause the
date to change. The part number changes when extensive technical changes are incorporated.
New editions of this manual will incorporate all material updated since the previous edition. For the
latest version, see the Patch Management sections of:
http://docs.hp.com/os/11.00/
or
http://docs.hp.com/os/11i/
For additional help with patching HP-UX systems, see:
http://itrc.hp.com/
or

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http://software.hp.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/
Please direct comments regarding this guide to:
Hewlett-Packard Company
HP-UX Learning Products, MS 11
3404 East Harmony Road
Fort Collins, Colorado, 80528-9599
You can also send your questions and comments to patchguide@hp.com. If appropriate, include page numbers
and document revision with your comments.

HP-UX Patch Management

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 Overview 1 Getting Help 3 Other Sources of Information 3 HP-UX Technical Documentation 3 HP Software Depot 3 Interex 3 HP-UX Administrators Mailing List 4 Other Web Resources 4 CHAPTER 2 Planning for Recovery 5 Recovery Planning and Patching The Root Volume Group 5 5 Separating Volatile Data from Stable System Data 6 Preserving Configuration via NIS or DHCP 6 File System Guidelines 7 Ignite-UX 7 Plan for Reinstallation Have a Wish List 8 CHAPTER 3 8 Acquiring Patches 9 The Patch Database 10 Searching for HP-UX Patches by Keywords 11 Searching by Patch IDs 12 Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database 14 HP Patch Bundles 15 Obtaining Patch Bundles from Software Depot 15 Support Plus Media 15 Custom Patch Manager 18 About CPM 18 Using CPM 18 Step 1: Collect Configuration Informations 18 Step 2: Perform Patch Analysis 20 Step 3: Conflict Analysis 21 Step 4: Package and Download Your Patches 23 Custom Patch Notification 23 The Fulfillment Server 25 Accessing the Fulfillment Server via ftp 25 Web Access to FFS 25 The FFS Directories 27 Downloading the patch 27 Patch Recommendation Ratings About Patch Notes 29 Resolving Patch Conflicts 30 HP-UX Patch Management 28 5 .

47 Patch Mechanics 47 Ancestors and Patches 47 Patch Supersession 48 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .00 35 Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i 36 Depot Access 36 Depot Registration 36 Access Control Lists (swacls) CHAPTER 5 Patch Installation System Preparation 36 37 37 Back-ups Back-ups! 37 A Note on Change Management 37 System Activity 38 Patch Committal Prior to Depot Installation 38 Committed Patch Removal 39 Planning for System Reboot When is a Reboot Needed? Timing of the Reboot 41 Installation 41 41 41 Using the SD-UX Matching Operations 41 Installing to a Committed Patch State 43 Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles 43 Step 1: Mount the CD 43 Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information 43 Step 3 (Optional): Set Up Sharing for Remote Systems Step 4 (Optional): Set Up Hard Disk Access 44 Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles 45 Usage Tip 46 Finishing Touches 44 46 The swverify command 46 Checking the Logs 46 Appendix A Basic Patch Concepts. .X Depots 32 Patch Depots 32 Periodic Patch Depot 32 Critical Fix Patch Depot 32 Patch Hubs 33 Creating a Patch Depot 34 Preparation Tasks 34 Copying Existing Depots 34 Combining Patch Depots 34 Removing Superseded Patches 35 Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. . 11.CHAPTER 4 Depot Management 31 Custom Depots 31 Benefits of Creating Depots 31 Types of Depots 32 HP-UX 10. . . . . . .X vs. .

.Patch Rollback 48 Patch Commitment 49 Patch Dependencies 49 Dependency Types 50 Enforced Patch Dependencies 50 Viewing Dependency Information 51 The HP-UX Patch 51 Patch Status 51 The Critical Patch 52 Patch Identification 52 The Patch Shar File 53 Appendix B SD-UX Tools & Objects . . . . . . . . 55 The Basic SD-UX Object Types 55 The Fileset 55 The Product 56 The Bundle 56 The Depot 56 Patch Related Object Attributes 56 ancestor 56 applied_patches 56 applied_to 56 category_tag 57 is_patch 57 is_sparse 57 is_reboot 57 patch_state 57 readme 58 software_spec 58 state 58 supersedes 58 superseded_by 58 Introduction to the SD-UX Commands The swinstall Command 59 59 Synopsis 59 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 59 Patch-Related Options 60 Examples 62 The swcopy Command 62 Synopsis 62 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 63 Examples 64 The swremove Command 62 64 Synopsis 64 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 65 Patch Related Options 65 Examples 66 The swlist Command 66 Synopsis 66 Patch Related Command Line Arguments HP-UX Patch Management 66 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. .Patch Related Options 68 Examples 68 The swreg Command 69 Synopsis 69 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 69 Examples 69 The swmodify command 69 69 Synopsis 69 Patch Related Command Line Arguments Patch Related Options 70 Examples 70 The swpackage command 70 71 Synopsis 71 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 71 Patch Related Options 71 Examples 72 The cleanup Command 72 Synopsis 72 Patch Related Command Line Arguments 72 The show_patches Command 72 Synopsis 72 Patch Related Command Line Argument: 72 Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands 73 Software Specifications 73 Session Files 73 Setting Default Values for Command Options 74 Appendix C The Patch Text File . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OS Releases Products 76 Filesets 76 Automatic Reboot? 76 Status 76 Critical 76 Path Name 76 Symptoms 77 Defect Description 77 SR 77 Patch Files 77 what(1) Output 77 Patch Conflicts 77 Patch Dependencies 77 Hardware Dependencies 77 Other Dependencies 77 Supersedes 77 8 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 The Patch Text File Fields 75 Patch Name 75 Patch Description 75 Creation Date 75 Post Date 76 Hardware Platforms . . . .

Equivalent Patches 78 Patch Package Size 78 Installation Instructions 78 Special Installation Instructions HP-UX Patch Management 78 9 .

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The first 11i release was introduced in December of 2000. it is usually found piecemeal in the back sections of various manuals. Patch depots are a mechanism through which systems can be managed as groups rather than as individual systems. • Chapter 5: Patch Installation Once a depot has been created. its contents must be installed on the target systems. • Chapter 3: Acquiring Patches Patches are available from a wide variety of sources. The current set of chapters and appendices are: • Chapter 2: Planning for Recovery The first rule of system management should be to expect the best. Overview This document is built around the concept of the patch depot. This document is intended to pull together all the technical information required to understand HP-UX 11. This release has a uname -r value of 11. the types of patch depots and their use are covered. This chapter describes an array of patch sources and how they may be used to acquire patches. • Chapter 4: Depot Management However patches are acquired. Planning for recovery can create a virtual “Undo” button that allows a system to return to a previous state. While some documentation exists.CHAPTER 1 Introduction HP-UX system patching is one of the most confusing areas for new system administrators. This chapter discusses the basic requirements and some options for system recovery. The 11. but plan for the worst. This chapter describes the recommended steps to execute and verify patch installation. this is the tag that you will see whenever you access the online resources and the patch text files addressed in this document. but by limiting risk it can also provide the confidence needed to support a proactive patching methodology.X operating systems include 11.X patching. HP-UX Patch Management 1 .11.00 and 11i. The chapters provide information regarding the steps required to create and use patch depots. In this chapter. a patch depot should be created to use them efficiently. and patch management has its own motivations and methods. Patching has its own terminology and tools. Some sources may require certain levels of support while others are free. each with different abilities. while supporting information is provided in the appendices. Not only does it protect systems from the unexpected.

This appendix lists all of the fields within the . For example: To change to your account’s home directory. • Appendix B: SD-UX Tools & Objects While Software Distributor (SD) has a wealth of documentation available. Computer Computer font indicates literal items displayed by the computer. computer text indicates literal items that you type. you can enter any of these three items in this syntax: ls [-u | -x] Enter 2 Text in this bold. Patches have a terminology and operations all their own.Overview • Appendix A: Basic Patch Concepts Patches are different from other types of HP-UX software. • Appendix C: The Patch Text File The patch text file can be found in a variety of locations.text file with a brief description. For example. Introduction . the sections that are of specific interest to patching are not always readily apparent. For example: file not found User input Bold. This appendix provides SD information related only to patching. you would substitute an actual directory name for directory_name in this command: cd directory_name [ ] and | Brackets [] enclose optional items in command syntax. but remains the core documentation of each patch. A notation of Ctrl-Q indicates that you should hold the Ctrl key down and press Q. enter: cd Italics Manual titles. This appendix provides a basic understanding of patch concepts. The vertical bar | separates syntax items in a list of choices. sans-serif font denotes keyboard keys and on-screen menu items. Typographical Conventions This guide uses the following typographical conventions: Boldface Important concepts defined for the first time appear in boldface. For example. variables in commands and emphasized words appear in italics.

org) to learn about the benefits of membership.org/tech/9000/index. many products (such as Ignite-UX and the Support Plus patch bundles) are free. While some require purchase. and white papers. known as Interex.hp. and software products is available for browsing.interex. contact HP’s IT Resource Center (ITRC): http://itrc. Design and Implementation—guidance to manage changes to your IT environment Other Sources of Information HP-UX Technical Documentation All HP-UX technical documentation is available at: http://docs. Interex. and electronic patch management services. which is not a part of HP. Information on particular hardware platforms. HP-UX Patch Management 3 .com The HP Software Depot.hp. HP-UX releases. or purchase.interex. maintains this list of technical resources for HP-UX systems. is also noted for the yearly Interworks and HPWorld trade shows and for regional users groups. guides.Getting Help Getting Help For technical support.html The International Association of Hewlett-Packard Computing Professionals.hp. Review the main page (http://www. software management. which provides a variety of HP-UX software. download. HP Software Depot http://software. Interex http://www.com Use the ITRC to: • Quickly access customized support tools • Make informed decisions with proactive information • Access a rich knowledge database to quickly self-solve problems • Submit hardware and software calls online • Identify and download patches quickly and accurately • Get one-stop access to software updates for your entitlements • Take advantage of ITRC resources across the IT life-cycle: — Forums—a community where you can collaborate and tackle IT questions with peers — Training—including online seminars and self-paced web-based training — Planning.com This source provides online access to HP-UX manuals.

hp. Japan.dutchworks.0/ http://docs.hp.hp.edu/ or http://hpux.edu/ Mirrored sites are available for Canada.com/SD_AT_HP/ • European information: http://itrc. send email to majordomo@dutchworks.com/operating/ • Latest Ignite-UX information: http://software. Netherlands.hp.hp.nl/htbin/hpsysadmin Another resource outside of HP is the HP-UX Administrators Mailing List.com/hpux/os/11. France.com/products/IUX/ • Software Distributor (SD): http://software. This URL provides an interface to the list archives dating back to 1995. Germany. and the UK. 4 Introduction . Other Web Resources Additional help with HP-UX patching and related resources is available on the Web: • Support Plus information: http://software.nl and include the following command in the body of the message: subscribe hpux-admin-digest See also the Software Archive and Porting Centre for HP-UX at this URL: http://hpux.hp. including STM and EMS Hardware Monitors: http://docs.com/hpux/os/11i/ • HP-UX 11i features and news: http://unix.hp.hp.utah.com/ Select the link to the European site.X manuals and white papers: http://docs. To join the list itself.com/hpux/diag/ • Latest HP-UX 11. South Africa.Other Sources of Information HP-UX Administrators Mailing List http://www. Italy.cs.wisc.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/ • Latest hardware support tools (diagnostics) information.cae.

and change carries potential risk. The documentation for each patch lists all of the defects or enhancements that the patch addresses. usually named vg00). These concepts also apply to users of whole-disk HFS root disks. • Proactive maintenance—fixing known problems before they appear on a system—can reduce the cost of a system failure. Recovery Planning and Patching • Establish a recovery plan and do all necessary pre-work. and so on. A volume group is a group of one or more physical volumes or disks. The physical volumes in a volume group form a pool of disk space which may be allocated to one or more logical volumes. selecting a recovery technique. and keeping a “wish list” of changes you want to make to a system when it is down. A prudent system administrator manages risk by planning for system recovery. This chapter presents an overview of recovery planning and techniques. HP-UX Patch Management 5 . You can weigh the known cost of returning to an original system state against the documented conditions of a patch. You can use any naming convention that you wish. but volume groups are usually named as follows: • /dev/vg00 • /dev/vg01 • /dev/vg02.CHAPTER 2 Planning for Recovery A patch introduces change into a system. • Use more than one recovery technique to protect yourself from events such as a bad tapes or network failures. This includes setting up the root volume group. To enable the recovery options discussed in this chapter. you must properly set up the volume group that contains the core system (also known as the root volume group. • Use patches as a form of proactive maintenance. planning for system re-installation. The Root Volume Group The Logical Volume Manager (LVM) lets you subdivide a single disk or treat a group of disks as a single unit.

• For more information on NFS. These and related documents are available on http://docs. See also “File System Guidelines” on page 7 for more information TIP: Do not break these rules of data separation except to meet a specific need.com/ 6 Planning for Recovery . and other user and application data. can simplify restoration. vg00 is a special volume group known as the “root volume group” which typically contains the default boot disk and the majority of the HP-UX operating system. An NIS client gets configuration information from the master server or a slave server instead of from its local configuration files. If you do break these rules. Separating Volatile Data from Stable System Data You can preserve a known system state by creating an image of the root volume group. The master server may distribute copies of the maps to NIS slave servers to provide load balancing and reliability. make sure you have some kind of alternate recovery methods. see Installing and Administering NFS Services • For more information on DHCP. and /etc/services. see the Ignite-UX Administration Guide and Installing and Administering Internet Services. Ignite-UX may not be able to save critical data if you have relocated parts of the directory structure.hp. You may have other volume groups on your system for applications. /etc/hosts.The Root Volume Group By default. You can then return to that image after a failure. or maps. you must place some restrictions on the root volume group: • Limit the size of the root volume group — Reduces the size of recovery images — Reduces the cost of disk mirroring • Do not place volatile data on the root volume group — Avoids loss of data when you restore the root volume image — Saves an additional recovery step • Keep all system data within the root volume group — Avoids unexpected recovery problems. This off-system storage of system information that changes frequently (such as networking configuration and password files). NIS allows centralized management of common configuration files. For example. An NIS master server holds master copies of the configuration files. Preserving Configuration via NIS or DHCP Network Information Services (NIS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) let you maintain data off of your system. To preserve the root volume group as a whole. like /etc/passwd.

To download the latest version and to browse Ignite-UX documentation. • Chapter 3 tells you how to use configuration files to set up system recovery information.hp.Ignite-UX File System Guidelines To best support recovery. use these guidelines to organize your file system: • /.com/products/IUX The Ignite-UX Administration Guide provides complete information about using Ignite-UX. is expected to hold dynamic user data and should be isolated from both the root volume group and /usr. They must exist completely within the root volume group.hp. • backup & recovery tool In the event that additional data will need to be restored from backup media. time can be saved by including all of the backup and recovery software (such as Omniback) within the system image. including: — make_tape_recovery(1M) — make_net_recovery(4) — Expert (manual) recovery procedure using Core media tools The Ignite-UX Administration Guide is also available on the Instant Information CD and at http://docs.com HP-UX Patch Management 7 . Ignite-UX HP’s Ignite-UX is a set of tools for system installation. recovery. While not required to be included within the root volume group. • /usr The /usr directory tree contains those elements of the Core System that support the post-boot system functionality. (Ignite-UX will preserve these areas regardless of the parent volume group. This is often accomplished via NIS and the NFS automounter. /stand. normally used to hold the login or home directory for each user. • Chapter 2 tells you how to install and administer an Ignite-UX server.) • /home This directory. go to http://software.) • /opt and /var Only certain parts of /opt and /var (such as /var/adm/sw) can be considered to be part of the Core System. and duplication. and /etc These directories contain the critical parts of the Core System required for booting. • Chapter 11 tells you how to use the Ignite-UX system recovery tools. Ignite-UX is available free of charge. (The Ignite-UX recovery tools will preserve the full contents of the volume group that includes the /usr directories. /sbin. it should not be placed within a volume group that includes volatile data. /dev.

HPs GlancePlus can help identify opportunities for kernel tuning. • Hardware Modifications Time will limit the extent of the hardware changes you can make during a system outage. Keep a “wish list” of desired changes so you can take advantage of a failure. you can accomplish some performance optimizations—such as adding another SCSI controller or replacing an older root disk with a larger.Plan for Reinstallation Plan for Reinstallation Complete reinstallation of a system should not be your preferred method for system recovery. For example: • File System Layout If your recovery method requires you to recreate the root volume group. you may want to use the opportunity to make some system changes that you can’t make at any other time. 8 Planning for Recovery . but sometimes you have no other options. you may want to adjust partitions if any filesystems such as /var are too small. • Kernel Tuning Consider tuning any kernel parameters that you can alter only by rebooting the system. use performance tools such as HPs GlancePlus. use the opportunity to change the number and size of logical volumes. Do you need to reinstall multiple systems? Network depots let multiple systems share installation information. To identify performance bottlenecks caused by slow hardware.com/products/). faster model—at a relatively small incremental cost.hp. • Ignite-UX: Can you use Ignite-UX to reinstall? Ignite-UX lets you use multiple network depots and archives of system “golden” images together as a part of a single installation.hp.com) and HP OpenView (http://openview. see the HP Software Depot (http://software. while media works best for single systems at a time. For more information. Have a Wish List When you are forced to perform a system recovery. For example. can you identify the person currently using the media that you need? — Do you have an index that lists which systems require a given set of media? (Remember to account for systems and peripherals that require a specific patch level!) • Network Depots: Are your installation media too slow to quickly recover your critical systems quickly? A network depot has faster performance. Consider these questions when creating a plan: • Your most critical systems: — Can you reinstall those systems right now? — How long would reinstallation take? • Media Library: — Where are the tapes and CDs required to rebuild the system? — If your media is kept in a central library.

Follow the screen instructions. Click on the my profile link. To sign up to use the ITRC: 1. (Optional) For those with the higher levels of system support. others are available only if you have an HP support agreement. HP provides proactive patch analysis in which HP monitors and selects the correct patches for your systems. c.CHAPTER 3 Acquiring Patches These are the primary sources for acquiring patches: • The patch database from the ITRC (ITRC) (page 10).hp. b. 3. Click on the link a support agreement to your user id link. HP-UX Patch Management 9 . Click on the register now! link. Go to the ITRC web site at: http://itrc. • HP patch bundles from Support Plus media or Software Depot (page 15) • Custom selection from the ITRC (page 18) • The ITRC Patch Fulfillment Server (FFS) (page 25) HP’s ITRC is a web-based support environment.com 2. To sign up for additional services: a. Please consult your local HP sales representative for more information about additional services. Some services are available at no cost.

The Patch Database The Patch Database Use the patch database as your primary mechanism for searching for and acquiring individual patches. Click on the hp-ux link. 2. 4. Click on the maintenance and support link. Enter your user name and password.com Click on the log in link. 6. The patch database search page appears (Figure 2). The main ITRC page appears. Click on the log-in link.hp. Go to the ITRC web site: http://itrc. 5. 10 Patch Database Main Screen Acquiring Patches . Click on the individual patches link. 3. This document discusses two ways of finding HP-UX patches from the search page: • Searching by keyword • Entering specific patch names FIGURE 1. The log-in screen appears. To access the database: 1. 7. The patch database main page appears (Figure 1).

Patch Database HP-UX Search Screen (search by keyword) Select the hardware by clicking on a radio button (for example. 10. Select Search by Keyword from the pop-up menu. Select an OS from the pop-up menu (for example. 4. Select a search criteria: • all words • any word • exact phrase • boolean — Boolean search results are limited to 200 results. — The precedence of boolean operators in a search are: a. Series 700). Expressions inside parentheses ( ) b. Expressions inside parentheses are evaluated following the HP-UX Patch Management 11 . 2.The Patch Database Searching for HP-UX Patches by Keywords To conduct a keyword search: FIGURE 2. 1. 3. NOT. OR — Expressions are processed from left to right. AND c. Enter one or more keywords in the text field. 5.20).

size in bytes. “The Patch Text File. (See Appendix C . Click SEARCH. which documents the patch. Each patch name is a clickable hyperlink to the patch text file. — A mixed case search string yields a case-sensitive search. — An all UPPERCASE or all lowercase search string yields a case-insensitive search.The Patch Database same order of precedence. 6. See also “Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database” on page 14. Click on the DOWNLOAD button beside each listed patch to save it to your system. Figure 3 shows the results of a keyword search on “LVM” and “mirrored. and a one line description of each patch. A list of all your selected patches appears along with any dependent patches (Figure 4). 3.”) FIGURE 3. 2. Searching by Patch IDs To search by patch ID from the patch database search screen (Figure 2): 12 Acquiring Patches . Click Add to Selected Patch List when you have made all your selections. Patch Search Results--The Candidate Patch List To download a patch from the search results: 1. (You can also use the Select All or Deselect All buttons.” Listed are the patch name. Click on the check box next to the patch to select it.

10. Enter one or more patch ID numbers in the text field. Click SEARCH. Click on the DOWNLOAD button beside each listed patch to save it to your system. Selected Patch List Automatically selected dependencies 1.The Patch Database FIGURE 4. Select Search by Patch IDs from the pop-up menu. A list of all your selected patches appears along with any dependent patches (see “Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database” on page 14). Select an OS from the pop-up menu (for example.20). Select the hardware by clicking on a radio button (for example. Series 700). 4. 5. 2. 6. HP-UX Patch Management 13 . 3.

(This is because a patch may support more than one architecture and HP-UX release. Select the dependencies link. FIGURE 5. 14 Patch Description (PHSS_21980) Acquiring Patches .) This analysis takes superseding and recalled patches into account. the patch database automatically analyzes their dependencies and lists any other patch that you require. 2. you had to manually check each patch text file for dependency information. This automatic dependency analysis does not occur when you search for a single patch.The Patch Database Dependency Analysis and the Patch Database When you select a group of patches. Display the patch description (Figure 5). (Previously.) To find out about dependencies for an individual patch: 1.

com/ACE • Hardware Enablement (HWE) for 11. see: http://www. (Although you can download the software for free. Software Depot provides a number of patch products. For more information. but physical media is only available to customers with an HP-UX Software Support contract.software. or functionality. Support Plus Media HP-UX Support Plus CDs deliver diagnostics and HP-UX system patches to you on a quarterly basis. Each ACE release extends HPUX to support new hardware and software features for HP workstations. ACE software also corrects any critical or serious defects discovered since the original system release.hp. Obtaining Patch Bundles from Software Depot The HP Software Depot (http://www.HP Patch Bundles HP Patch Bundles HP provides pre-packaged bundles of patches designed to be installed as a unit.hp. which support both workstations and servers. • Product Updates Some HP-UX products release a new version rather than a patch.com/products/HWE • Unified ACE/Hardware Extensions (HWE) For HP-UX 11i. You can obtain HP patch bundles from the HP Software Depot on the web or (if included in your support contract) from the quarterly Support Plus media.software. For more information on Support Plus see “Support Plus Media” on page 15 and: http://www. This patch software enables new hardware and fixes known defects. Some products available at this time include Ignite-UX and Software Distributor.hp. • Specialty Patch Bundles Occasionally. the bundles are available within Software Depot earlier than on media. you may have to register with Software Depot first. HP unified the ACE and HWE bundles to form the HWEnable11i bundle.00 HWE bundles enable new hardware or enhance OS performance. Y2K defects or support for the European currency). special needs dictate the creation of a unique patch bundle (for example.com) is an online store that provides you with instant access to HP software for free trial or purchase. See: http://www.com/SUPPORT_PLUS • Additional Core Enhancements (ACE) An ACE bundle is a collection of enhancements to the HP-UX Operating System.software. As an added benefit. These patch products are generally available at no charge and are found in the enhancement releases area of Software Depot. reliability. HP-UX Patch Management 15 .hp. The contents of each Support Plus release is freely available from Software Depot. The support contract restrictions related to the actual media do not apply to electronic access.) • Support Plus Bundles The patch bundles and diagnostic utilities of the Support Plus CDs are also provided for free download from Software Depot.software. These can be downloaded from Software Depot. These bundles are subjected to stringent levels of testing to assure a high level of reliability and are periodically updated.

graphics. in which a new Hardware Enablement (HWE) bundle will replace the current Hardware Enablement/Critical (HWCR) bundle.00: • Diagnostics (OnlineDiag).00. EMS hardware monitors. • Quality Pack (QPK) bundle. HP has made this change to speed the transition to a simplified bundle strategy in which: • Fewer bundles are delivered.) As needed Install critical patches or enable new add-on hardware Hardware/Critical (HWCR) bundle: XSWHWCR1100 Quarterly Prepare your server to use new iCOD functionality iCOD Client Product (from the OnlineDiag depot. including hardware monitors Diagnostic bundle: OnlineDiag Quarterly Install all stable defect fix patches Quality Pack (QPK) bundle: QPK1100 for core HP-UX. which provides patches required for new systems and for add-on hardware supported on HP-UX 11. including Support Tool Manager (STM) for online diagnostics. which includes all stable defect fix patches for core HP-UX. • The bundles for all 11. EMS Kernel Resource Monitor. The notification letter includes a request form for physical media. and systems. and successful completion of tests by HP testing centers. (See “Changes for September 2001 Support Plus Release” below for more information. located in the QPK1100 directory. and the Instant Capacity on Demand (iCOD) client product. As of September 2001. The QPK bundle now includes all stable defect fix patches for core HP-UX. and key networking drivers. the General Release (GR) bundle has been consolidated with a new Quality Pack (QPK) bundle. • Servers and workstations use the same bundles. Predictive Support. based on patch distribution. HP plans to complete these changes in the December 2001 release. GR bundle users should now use the QPK bundle. ODE (off-line diagnostics). the former General Release (GR) bundle has been consolidated with the QPK bundle. and key networking drivers. and key (HP strongly recommends that you networking drivers. devices. Use this table to determine which bundle you need to install. combining the best features of both. • Each bundle focuses on a clear task—defect fixes and hardware enablement.) • Hardware enablement/critical (HWCR) bundle. The new HWE bundle will contain only those patches needed to operate cards.HP Patch Bundles Requesting Support Plus CD-ROMs HP notifies these customers when each Support Plus release becomes available.x platforms are consistent. graphics. B9073AA bundle) As needed Changes for September 2001 Support Plus Release: As of the September 2001 Support Plus release. If you want to: You should install: Updated: Update or install all the latest diagnostic tools. graphics. Support Plus Patch Bundles for 11. include the latest Quality Pack as part of the OS environment for end-user systems. age. Install this bundle 16 Acquiring Patches . These patches have the highest confidence rating.

) Getting More Information For detailed information about Support Plus bundles and installation instructions. Support Plus Patch Bundles for 11i: • Diagnostics.20 or 11.hp.PDF HP-UX Patch Management 17 . which contains: — Gold Base patch bundle. Bundles in this depot are subjected to stringent levels of testing to assure a high level of reliability and are updated every six months. • Gold Quality Pack depot. ODE (off-line diagnostics). and the Instant Capacity on Demand (iCOD) client product.HP Patch Bundles in exactly the same way that you would install the GR bundle. combining the best features of both. and key third-party application providers. which contains defect fixes for the Operating Environment applications. (If you have used Support Plus on HP-UX 10. including Support Tool Manager (STM) for online diagnostics. If you want to: You should install: Updated: Update or install diagnostics and hardware monitors required for supported hardware Diagnostic bundle: OnlineDiag Quarterly Install defect fixes for the core OS Gold Base bundle: or the network or graphics drivers GOLDBASE11i included on the OE Every six months Install defect fixes for HP-UX OE application software Gold Applications bundle: GOLDAPPS11i Every six months Enable new hardware or add-on hardware Hardware Enablement bundle: HWEnable11i Quarterly Prepare your server to use new iCOD functionality iCOD Client Product (from the OnlineDiag depot.) Use the following table to determine which bundle you need to install. • Hardware enablement patch bundle. HP application groups. EMS Kernel Resource Monitor.00: the Gold bundles replace the Quality Pack and former GR bundles. see the Support Plus User’s Guide.com/hpux/os/10. — Gold Applications patch bundle. The Gold Quality Pack depot contain those patches recommended by HP Support.x/ • The HP Instant Information CD • The Support Plus CD in the file: /cdrom/USRGUIDE. B9073AA bundle) As needed (The GOLDQPK11i depot contains the GOLDAPPS11i and GOLDBASE11i bundles. EMS hardware monitors. required for new systems and add-on hardware. which contains defect fixes for core OS files. You can obtain this guide from these sources: • The HP documentation web site: http://docs.

HP recommends that you download the script on a regular basis to ensure you have the latest version of the script. Go to the ITRC web site (http://itrc.sh script.This lets you update the collection script and perform an analysis on a regular schedule. Consult the ITRC for details. you can perform a monthly check for new critical patches. Both services require the phone-in level of support agreement or above and may not be available in all geographic locations. 2. 3.) About CPM Custom Patch Manager (CPM) is a tool for selecting and downloading patches that are appropriate for a target system. Click on the maintenance/support link. This takes you to the custom patch manager main page (Figure 6). 2.fs suffix. (This directory is subject to space limitations. Click on the customized patch bundles (custom patch manager) link. • Once connected. Follow the instructions in the “upload results to IT resource center” section to return the data file to the ITRC via ftp: • The ftp system to use is identified on the same ITRC page used to download the collection script. This takes you to the maintenance and support page. For example. To use the script: 1. • CPM patches and patch information are updated daily. place the data file in the incoming subdirectory on the ftp server.hp. Click on the Collect Configurations link on the main CPM page. (You can also use CPM on a pay-per-use basis. a pay-per-use notice appears. Follow the instructions in the “collect system configuration” section to download and execute the script on the system you want to patch (Figure 7). Click on BUY NOW and fill out the payment form to continue. which reduces the need for lengthy review of the patch documentation. This shell script collects the names and revisions of all the products installed on your system.Custom Patch Manager Custom Patch Manager The HP ITRC offers custom solutions for getting patches or informing you about them: Custom Patch Manager (CPM) and Custom Patch Notification. • Automatic dependency and conflict analysis. This displays the system information collection page. Using CPM To access CPM: 1. 3.) 18 Acquiring Patches .) Step 1: Collect Configuration Informations This step requires that you download the cpm_collect.com) and log in. • Use your ITRC user name and password to log in. The script requires no special privileges and creates a data file using the name of the system followed by a . which could help identify a system risk before it is seen in production machines. (If your profile indicates you do not have the appropriate support agreement.

fs.. The file /tmp/patchsvr.sh Copyright (c) Hewlett-Packard 1995-1998.fs Creating list of patches in /tmp/patchsvr. Executing the cpm_collect.fs for subsequent transfer to Hewlett-Packard.sh script patchsvr> ../cpm_collect.fs. Creating list of products and filesets in /tmp/patchsvr. cpm_collect. Do you wish to continue. CPM main page FIGURE 7.Custom Patch Manager FIGURE 6.03.fs has been created. [Y] or N ?y removing /tmp/patchsvr.. All Rights Reserved. HP-UX Patch Management 19 .sh version: A..04 This script will collect information about filesets and installed patches from your system in the file /tmp/patchsvr.

(The search and filter options appear above list. Click on the Perform Patch Analysis link. Descriptive search Boolean search Critical patches only Fileset filtering Command patches Kernel patches Network patches Subsystem patches Click on the tips for setting filters and searching link for more information about using these search options. Options include: • • • • • • • • 5. Candidate Patch List The candidate patch list displays: 20 Acquiring Patches . you analyze your system configuration information to determine what patches you need. (Optional) Use the search and filter options at the bottom of the page to reduce the number of patches displayed. This displays the candidate patch list (Figure 8). return to the custom patch manager main page. 4. Using these options regenerates the display to show only the patches that match the filter or search criteria. 2. Click on the DISPLAY CANDIDATE PATCHES button. Click on the radio button beside the appropriate configuration file in the list. This displays a list of the current configuration files found within the incoming directory. 1.Custom Patch Manager Step 2: Perform Patch Analysis In this step. 3. After you have uploaded the configuration information (Step 1).) FIGURE 8.

Individual Patch Details (PHCO_21040) Click the ADD TO SELECTED PATCH LIST button to display the selected patch list (Figure 10).) Step 3: Conflict Analysis In this step. dependencies. (Click the Add button to add the patch to your list and go to the selected patch list. Select one or more patches from the candidate list by clicking on the check box next to the patch listing.) FIGURE 9. size. HP does not have a patch that is better than the patch (if any) that is already on your system.Custom Patch Manager • • • • A brief description of the patch The date it was installed on your system A link to a full description of an installed patch A link to the description of the corresponding HP-recommended patch. (Optional) Click on the patch name to display detailed information on the patch (Figure 8). CPM analyzes the selected patches for conflicts. A link to the description of the corresponding latest patch. 7. (This step is optional but highly recommended. 8. This list includes additional information on reboot requirements. (To remove a patch from the list. This patch may have a lower patch rating than the recommended patch. — Always use the recommended patch unless the latest patch explicitly fixes a problem on your system. You can also use the select all recommended or select all latest buttons at the bottom of the list. and patch age. • 6. deselect the check box beside the patch and click the REMOVE button. — If the recommended column is blank.) HP-UX Patch Management 21 .

This examines your list of patches for conflicts and displays the results (Figure 11). You can add or remove patches from your list if necessary. Click on the Analyze button below the selected patch list. Selected Patch List 1. 2.Custom Patch Manager FIGURE 10. See “Resolving Patch Conflicts” on page 30 for additional information. (Optional) Follow the links from the conflicts display to get more information about how to resolve the conflict or to view other patches. 22 Results of Conflict Analysis Acquiring Patches . FIGURE 11.

• You may create up to 10 notification profiles • Profile names may only contain alphanumeric characters (a-z. These fields can be changed and the report re-loaded if you want to view the same report with different filters set. select the User Info link at the top of the screen. simply select the radio button next to the configuration file on which you want your notifications to be based. The first character of name must be a letter. Custom Patch Notification Custom Patch Notification is a an optional feature of Custom Patch Manager that provides you with weekly or monthly e-mail notification of newly posted patches that apply to your system.sh script and uploading the results as described in “Custom Patch Manager” on page 18. • A profile may be based off either a Custom Patch Manager configuration file or a platform and OS revision. 2. NOTE: Custom Patch Notification does not work with depot configuration files. You receive an e-mail if the ITRC has posted new patches that apply to any of your profiles. and the underscore). Profiles. Profiles specify the kinds of reports you want to receive. and view the full reports on the Custom Patch Notification main screen. One of the scripts delivered in the shell archive is used to place all of these patches into a common depot for future installation. • You can add new configuration files by downloading the cpm_collect. go to the Custom Patch Manager main page. select the custom patch notification link from the custom patch manager main page (Figure 6 on page 19). Reports. You have the ability to specify which fields are displayed in the report by selecting the Patch Report Fields. 0-9. HP-UX Patch Management 23 . • To modify this address. by keywords. You can specify whether you want to receive your reports on a weekly or monthly basis.) To set up Custom Patch Notification. A-Z. •To use a current configuration file. (CPM directs you to the appropriate server. • Profiles are processed weekly or monthly. The preference screen lets you verify the e-mail address to which your notifications are sent. • You can have only one ITRC e-mail address. log in to the ITRC. • Reports are not cumulative from week to week or month to month. The selected patches are transferred individually to your system. After you have selected all patches. This generates a script and places it in the outgoing subdirectory for your account on one of the FTP servers.) The script is a shell script that extract scripts and provides instructions for downloading your selected patches. (This tool differs from the ITRC Support Information Digests by using configuration files and filters to narrow down the list of patches about which you are notified and by customizing the report contents. click the Package button. • You can also specify what patch text fields are displayed when you view your on-line report. • To get more information about a new patch. Configuration Files. This notification includes applicable patch names and one-line descriptions. • You may also select one or more filters for your notification list. so changing it affects all e-mails you receive from the ITRC. Follow the instructions delivered with your script to run the script on your HP-UX system.Custom Patch Manager Step 4: Package and Download Your Patches 1. Monthly reports are generated on the last day of each month. • Weekly reports are sent out on Sundays. or for different patch categories. Preferences. such as filtering for critical patches.

9000/855) and OS revision (e.g. 24 Acquiring Patches . • Selecting a category options and the Critical filter acts as a logical AND operator.20) for a profile. you need to click the Reset button to clear the configuration file table so only the platform and revision fields are filled in.g. type: uname -r (If you go from a configuration based profile to a profile based on platform and OS revision. Use the uname(1) command on your system to determine what values to enter in these fields: To determine the platform. Subsystem). •Custom Patch Notification can filter patch notification lists based on these categories: — Critical: Lists all patches tagged as critical by the HP (independent of the actual patch categories listed below) — Command — Kernel — Network — Subsystem • All HP-UX patches are included in one of the four patch categories (Command. if you pick the Command and Kernel options. Network. For example. you are notified of all Command patches or all Kernel patches that fit your profile. Kernel and Command filters. CPM notifies you of all patches tagged as Critical AND all Command patches OR all Kernel patches that fit your profile. Kernel. type: uname -m To determine the OS revision. For example.Custom Patch Manager • You can also specify configuration by platform (e.) Filters. • CPM does not let you deselect all categories. B.. 9000/735. if you pick the Critical.10. • Selecting more than one category acts as a logical OR operation..

hp.external.com (Americas and Asia/Pacific) • ftp://europe-ffs.external. entering ftp://us-ffs.hp.hp. • The FFS server limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections. You do not need an ITRC account.com into your browser creates an anonymous ftp connection to the Americas/Asia/Pacific FFS system. The password used is the user’s e-mail address. However. the FFS offers these advantages • You can access patches from any system that supports the ftp command and has direct access to the Internet. Two FFS systems are currently available: • ftp://us-ffs. Accessing the Fulfillment Server via ftp Figure 12 shows how to use the /usr/bin/ftp command on an HP-UX system to connect to the Americas/Asia/Pacific FFS system. Because the FFS server limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections. You may have to make several attempts if the server is busy. You can perform multiple downloads without having to re-establish a connection each time. direct ftp access has an advantage over web ftp access. HP-UX Patch Management 25 . Simply enter an ftp address as you would a URL (Figure 13). Note that the response supplied for the name prompt is anonymous. For example. Disadvantages: • Does not work well for finding groups of related patches.external.) • Access is anonymous.The Fulfillment Server The Fulfillment Server The fulfillment server (FFS) is the patch repository used by the patch database.com (Europe) HP recommends that you use the other techniques discussed in this chapter as your primary patch acquisition method. • Works well for finding and downloading a known patch. (No web server is required. • Disadvantage: FFS limits the total number of simultaneous ftp connections. although you can also use FFS via the web. Web Access to FFS You can also access the FFS from your web browser. and you web browser must re-establish the connection each time you change directories or download files. • Advantage: you can browse the FFS directories graphically. You can use ftp to directly access all patches on the FFS.

access restrictions apply. Establishing an anonymous FTP session patchsvr(103)-> ftp us-ffs.com. and there is a limit of 200 simultaneous accesses.external.The Fulfillment Server FIGURE 12.hp. send email to: 220220support_feedback@us-ffs.hp.com 230 Guest login ok. 220220-If you are a user of other HP ESC services. and other platforms. Password:username@hp. log in with your 220-HP ESC User ID and password to deposit or retrieve your files.4. Name (us-ffs. ftp> FIGURE 13. HP ASL.external. send your complete e-mail address as password. Remote system type is UNIX. 220220-Welcome to the HP Electronic Support Center ftp server 220------------------------------------------------------220220-You are user 0.hp. Using binary mode to transfer files. w/CNS fixes (277) Wed Jun 24 18:02:04 PDT 1998) ready.com Connected to hpcc933. MPE/iX.com:username): anonymous 331 Guest login ok. 220220-If you have questions.external.com 220220 hpcc933 FTP server (Version wu-2.hp.external. 26 Connecting to the Fulfillment Server via Netscape Acquiring Patches . 220220-Log in as user "anonymous" (using your e-mail address as your password) 220-to retrieve available patches for HP-UX.

The Fulfillment Server

The FFS Directories
These are some of the more useful FFS directories for HP-UX patching:
• /hp-ux_patches/ARCHITECTURE/OS_RELEASE/
(HP-UX patches)
All active HP-UX patches are grouped by architecture (s700, s800, and s700_800) and the version of HP-UX
supported (10.X, 11.X). For example, patches for Series 700 workstations on HP-UX 10.20 are found in the
/hp-ux_patches/s700/10.X subdirectory. Patches common to both architectures are found under
s700_800.
• /firmware_patches/hp (Firmware patches for HP Hardware)
This directory contains patches that supply firmware updates to HP hardware. Subdirectories exist for firmware
specifically for CPUs, Fibre Channel, graphics cards, and I/O cards.
• /superseded_patches/ (Patches that have been superseded by newer patches)
This directory contains patches that have been replaced by newer patches. Use them only if you must revert to an
earlier version of a patch to resolve a specific problem.
• /export/patches (data files)
This directory does not deliver any patches, but provides useful data files, including:
— hp-ux_obs_patch_list, which contains a full list of every patch that has been superseded with the name
of the active superseding patch.
— hp-ux_patch_matrix, which lists all patches that address known security issues for each release.
— hp-ux_patch_sums, which contains the checksum for the .depot file of all HP-UX patches.
Patch directories contain the full shar(1) archive and the patch text file. The text file contains the patch location within
the FFS hierarchy as the Path Name field. See Appendix , “Patch Text File Fields,” on page 120 for more
information on the text file.

Downloading the patch

To download by ftp:
1. (Optional) Enter bi to specify a binary transfer. (The shar archive may deliver 8-bit binary data, but is
encoded to contain only 7-bit characters. When files of this type are transferred through other systems such as
personal computers they may be treated as text and undergo a translation step.)
2. Use the get patch_name command to download specific files, in which patch_name is the file you wish to
download. (Use mget for downloading multiple files.)

To download by your web browser:
1. Click on the file you want to download.
2. Right-click on the patch link and select the appropriate save option from the pop-up menu (Save Link As...
for Netscape, Copy to Folder... for Internet Explorer). This downloads the shar file of the patch to your
system or displays a dialog to select a location to which to download.
3. Unpack the shar file by typing sh filename

HP-UX Patch Management

27

Patch Recommendation Ratings

Patch Recommendation Ratings
The “best” of the currently available patches covers a broad spectrum. HP rates patches along a three-point scale as
shown below. The higher the rating, the lower the risk of side-effects and the more suitable the patch is for mission
critical environments.
Table 1: HP Rating
HP rating

Description

1

Functional testing by HP to verify that a patch fixes the problem that it purports to fix.
No unwanted side effects were discovered. Also, HP has verified that the patch will
install and de-install in its target environments.

2

Patch has been installed in a certain number of customer environments with no problems reported.

3

Patch has been stress- and performance-tested by HP in simulated customer missioncritical environments using common application stacks. Not all patches undergo this
testing.

R

Patch is known to introduce another problem and has been recalled. It is no longer recommended by HP. (Not every recalled patch causes problems for every customer. Read
the patch description to determine why it was recalled.)

In the interest of timeliness, HP releases a patch after it meets HP’s minimum patch quality standards. Patches are
assigned a rating of 1 upon initial release.
Subsequently, patches undergo testing both in customer environments and within HP. The patch’s HP Rating is then
updated accordingly as HP’s confidence in the patch increases.
The patches displayed in the candidate patch list (Figure 3 on page 12) are the best available patches. These are the
most recently released patches having the highest HP Rating.
If the patch has a rating of 1, HP recommends that you defer fixing the problem until more is known about the risk of
the patch. Having said that, only defer installing the patch if the problem is not critical or in the case that you can not
tolerate any risk to your system.
Patches undergo testing for promotion to an HP Rating of 3 on a quarterly basis. The HP Rating of a qualifying patch
is upgraded to 3 on or shortly after, February 1, May 1, August 1, and November 1. If you defer installing a patch
because it is “Not yet HP Recommended”, re-check it after one of the quarterly dates below to determine if it has
passed further testing and the status has changed.
The Rating of a patch may be updated from 1 to 2 on a daily basis.

28

Acquiring Patches

About Patch Notes

About Patch Notes
Patches may include descriptive notes to help you determine the status or risk of a patch, and any
impact to your environment. These are displayed in the Notes section of patch lists. Most notes are
self-explanatory (such as, “Fixes critical problem” or “Reboot required after installation”). Other notes
include:
• Not yet HP recommended
All patches adhere to certain HP quality standards. Patches are assigned an HP Rating of 1, 2, or
3 based on how many quality standards they meet. As a matter of course, it purposely takes time
to meet the higher standards. Upon their initial release, patches are assigned an HP Rating of 1
and are labeled “Not yet HP Recommended”. These patches may fix the problem, but also may
contain some element of risk. As patches advance on the patch confidence scale, the higher the
rating becomes. Patches with ratings of 2 or 3 are denoted by the term “HP Recommended” in the
Notes field.
These patches are available to give you the option of obtaining a fix sooner if you can tolerate some
risk to fix a critical problem. Whenever the patch database suggests a patch that is not yet
recommended by HP, you must make an informed assessment of these trade-offs based on your
own situation.
If you are not facing a critical problem, HP recommends waiting for a patch to gain a higher HP
Rating.
• Recalled
A patch may be labeled as recalled when it is known to introduce another problem. However, not
every recalled patch causes problems for every customer. Click on the one line patch description to
view the patch details to determine why it was recalled.
The patch database recommends a replacement patch when you search by patch ID and find a
recalled patch.
• Patch not available
A patch might be unavailable if, for instance, it has a dependency that requires the installation of
a product that needs to be purchased separately.

HP-UX Patch Management

29

Resolving Patch Conflicts

Resolving Patch Conflicts
These are the possible conflicts that can come up during an analysis and how to resolve them:

• Behavioral conflict: A behavioral conflicts generally means a selected patch should not be installed with a patch
installed on your system. You must choose between the new patch and the existing one. View the details for each
patch to decide which you want. If you choose to leave the existing patch installed, remove the conflicting patch
from your selected patch list and perform another analysis.
If two selected patches conflict, view the details for each patch and decide between them. Generally, you should
select the patch with the highest rating unless a newer patch fixes a specific problem.

• Structural Conflict: A structural conflict indicates that both patches will replace the same software file on your
system. Check the revision numbers descriptions When two patches have structural conflicts, you should verify
the revisions and install one or both of the patches as needed. This is a rare occurrence that when encountered can
lead to unexpected behavior when a patch is effectively partially superseded. A structural conflict may not exclude
the selected patch, but it will generally imply special handling.

• Dependency Conflict: A selected patch or a patch already on your system requires another patch to be installed
with it. This kind of conflict may be common. For example, you may select critical patches that have dependencies on noncritical patches. To resolve dependency conflicts with selected patches:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Click on the dependent patch.
Review its description and any superseded patches listed.
If appropriate, add the patch to your selected patch list.
Analyze for conflicts again to verify that the conflict is resolved.
If you don’t want the patch, de-select and remove it from your selected patch list. Analyze for conflicts
again to verify that the conflict is resolved.

• Recalled A Recalled patch has been removed from distribution. To find an alternate patch:
1.
2.
3.

30

Click on the patch name to view its details.
Look for a recommended alternate patch, usually explained in the Warning/Description field or the final
patch listed under Predecessor patches.
Add the recommended alternate patch. If you do not find information about an alternate patch, it might
still be in development. Continue checking the ITRC to check for updates.

Acquiring Patches

combining all software into a single depot allows for a single installation session to load everything.CHAPTER 4 Depot Management Depot management is a method used to simplify systems management by defining a common reservoir of software to be shared by a group of systems. the combined depot would result in a single reboot regardless of the number of patches installed. Custom Depots A depot is a software container present on disk. For more information on registering depots. • Separation of Patch Management From System Management Patch management requires a number of unique skills and is an ongoing task. • Remote Administration It may be that the system is in a remote location. tape. the work of defining and testing a new configuration of software can be centrally managed. By creating registered depots. By defining a depot. installations can take place without the need to mount media. For patches that cause kernel rebuilds. • Streamlined Installation When software is acquired as multiple depots and/or media. Adding the overhead of patch management to system administrators limits the number of systems that each can control. and are a powerful tool for managing software. While the mechanics of system administration remain. It is not uncommon to want to administer a system without ever seeing it. see “The swreg Command” on page 69. Benefits of Creating Depots There are many reasons to create customized depots. or network that is used as a software source for the swinstall installation utility. HP-UX Patch Management 31 . Custom depots can be constructed in a number of different ways. or maybe it is just far enough away to be annoying. a centralized team can define and support a standardized configuration to be used by many administrators. CD-ROM.

0.X systems. it often represents a significant investment in testing and analysis. monthly to ensure a more timely inclusion of critical fixes. Creating dedicated patch depots is a great way to avoid duplicating this effort.Patch Depots Types of Depots There are two types of depots: directory and tape. as well as infrastructure. 32 Depot Management .X vs. and it is recommended for HP-UX 11.X system to provide software for use on HP-UX 10. Critical Fix Patch Depot When a periodic patch depot has been created. and no dependencies are missing.0. Both styles are common and while the basic function of each is identical there are advantages to each in certain situations.X system or layout_version=0.8 on an HP-UX 11.X depots identified by the value 0. Patch Depots Patch selection. it can be assumed that a directory depot is implied unless specified otherwise. patching was significantly enhanced by extending the abilities of the SD-UX tools.” on page 9). production systems need only install with an matching operation to load the required patches.X depots marked by 1. When the term depot is used in this document.X Depots Beginning with HP-UX 11. with 10. “Acquiring Patches. It is possible to use depots of layout_version=0.00 that you install patch PHCO_20078 (or current replacement) before creating the depots. A directory depot contains each packaged file. While this format is not readily transferable like the tape depot. analysis. data will be lost and the depot corrupted.X depot is copied to an HP-UX 10. Several different kinds of patch depots are valuable: Periodic Patch Depot A periodic patch depot is created to define the current recommended patch level. The price of these new abilities was to introduce several new attributes to the objects. Tape media is also a convenient method to allow a depot to be transferred over a network without using the swcopy command. or just in advance of any scheduled system downtime to take advantage of the opportunity. but it is also true that there is always the possibility that a system will encounter a problem requiring a new patch. It may be done quarterly to match the availability of the Support Plus media.X have been identified. The layout_version attribute is used to differentiate between the old and new.8 depot.X from HP-UX 11. If an HP-UX 11. Several problems related to serving depots for HP-UX 10. HP-UX 10. The format is specifically designed to support software delivery on tape media but it can be stored on other types of media as well. There are many arguments against changing such a depot after it has been released. this type of depot is recommended when creating a depot to be accessed from remote systems.depot file delivered within any patch shell archive from the Patch Database or Fulfillment Server (see Chapter 3.8 and 11. The best example of this is the . 11. A tape depot is a single data file that is accessed in a serial manner. Periodic depots are generated on a regular basis that will vary according to the needs of a user. The critical aspects of such a depot are that they have been tested on the target configuration. Also known as a network depot. and monitoring are some of the more difficult administrative tasks required for HP-UX systems. Once created. as distinct files in a directory hierarchy. it is much better suited to parallel access.

See Chapter 6. or as a local resource to ensure local access to any needed patch. Patch Hubs While not recommended for general use. dependencies of the patches in the depot should also be included.00 the user still has the responsibility of including all dependencies. but provides the system administrator with a variety of ways to perform an incorrect operation that could leave a system in an unknown state. Session files provide the additional ability to specify options in addition to the software list. To define the P2000_Q1 category used above. This depot can be used to update any system that encounters a known failure. • Patch Bundles Patch bundles may be acquired from HP directly. it may be useful to create a depot that contains fixes to known problems in the current environment. The swmodify command can be used to add an arbitrary category tag to existing patches. such as the lack of a working mechanism to delete them. Such a patch hub is no longer suitable for general use and the result of an matching operation does not produce a defined or necessarily tested environment. it may be advisable to place a newer patch in both the periodic and the critical fix depot. but numerous issues exist. The swmodify command is used to create new category tags. “Patch Installation” for more on this topic. As with the periodic depots.*. • Category Tags Introduced to patches in HP-UX 11. Both a software file (specified with the -f option) and a session file (specified with the -C option) provide a mechanism to explicitly select a set of software.00. swinstall -s /hub -x patch_match_target=true -x patch_filter=*. The advantage of category tags over patch bundles or software/session files is that they may be used with the patch_filter and a matching operation to avoid the problems of explicit selection. Creating Custom Patch Bundles by Dominguez & Scott in the Interworks 1998 proceedings or at http://www. it is not uncommon to desire a “kitchen sink” depot that contains every patch that may ever be needed. HP-UX Patch Management 33 . alternate mechanisms may be used to define subsets of the full patch hub. It may be used as a method to conserve disk space. or created using the Ignite-UX make_bundles command or externally available tools such as those available through the Interex Users Group (see the paper. Such a bundle can be explicitly selected for installation. For example. as well as a starting point for the next version of the periodic depot. Providing direct access to a patch hub can be done.list issue the command: swmodify -a category_tag=P2000_Q1 -f P2000_Q1. This can be particularly useful when working with bundle wrappers.interex.list @ /hub Category tags had some initial problems. see“The swinstall Command” on page 59 and the“The swcopy Command” on page 62. • Software/Session Files Software and session files can be used to select patches for installation (with swinstall) or to copy (with swcopy) from a patch hub.Patch Depots In these environments. This problem was corrected with patch PHC)_22526. It is recommended that a patch hub is unregistered or be given restricted access (see “Depot Access” on page 36). after listing all selected patch filesets in the file P2000_Q1. Depending on the severity or probability of a given failure. category tags are attributes that can be used to mark a patch.org).c=P2000_Q1 selects all of the patches in the /hub depot that include the category tag P2000_Q1. If the risks are understood and are acceptable. For 11. This responsibility is handled by the SD-UX tools in 11i. For more information.

Preparation Tasks There are a number of issues to consider before a depot is put into production. location within the network should be considered. • Depot Access When a depot is created using swcopy. the superseded patches will never be used and are a waste of disk space. and depots involved. • Compression Depots are created in an uncompressed state by default. • Naming a depot One of the features of the interactive user interfaces is the ability to select from a list of available depots on a system. As this document will not address the creation of a patch. high availability storage solutions such as disk arrays or mirroring should be considered. 34 Depot Management . creating the right environment today can help support any changes the future may bring. each is simply copied in turn. Combining Patch Depots You may want to combine patch depots so that you can perform a single install and reboot for a given session. Disk space must be available. For example. The following example shows how a depot on the default tape drive could be copied as /depots/testdepot to the current system while ensuring that all files are compressed: swcopy -s /dev/rmt/0m -x compress_files=true \*. Both disk space and network bandwidth can be conserved by setting the swcopy option compress_files to true. This may result in the depot containing patches and their replacements together. and if the depot usage is expected to be high the performance of the disk devices and interface cards must be taken into account. • Network Considerations Not only should the performance of the networking interfaces be taken into account. When multiple patch depots are combined.\* @ /depots/testdepot The swcopy command is described in more detail within the swcopy(1m) man page or in “The swcopy Command” on page 62. Both the performance of the server and the impact on others are to be addressed. If the final form of the depot will require more than a single swcopy. If the availability of the depot is critical. creating mirror depots may be a valuable option. /depots/order_db/Y2000Q1 might contain the periodic patch bundle for the first quarter of the year 2000 to be used on systems hosting the order entry database. While an installation using such a depot should be successful. Copying Existing Depots All packaged software exists in a depot. it can be assumed that an initial depot is always available. • Disk Considerations Depot operations can involve a significant amount of disk activity. or to a tape depot via the swpackage command.Creating a Patch Depot Creating a Patch Depot Once the decision has been made to create a patch depot and the patches have been selected and acquired. it is time to create a depot to house them. systems. The more individuals. It is particularly useful to specify a depot path that identifies the contents if several different depots and/or depot revisions are present. it is automatically registered. the depot should be made inaccessible during the creation process. If groups of remote systems are accessible only via a congested or expensive link. Even if you are the only person that will use the depots. This can be done by setting the option register_new_depot to false during the initial swcopy session. the more time and energy should be devoted to preparation. A depot can be copied to a directory depot using the swcopy command.

and you are prompted before the command removes them.00 systems. For testdepot created above. HP-UX Patch Management 35 . Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. but it has been superseded by PHNE_19899. 1. See “The cleanup Command” on page 72 for more information. two supersession chains are shown that have a mutual dependency. When given the -d option and the full path to a depot. In Figure 14. For example. the PHNE_17051 file lists a dependency on PHNE_17017.Creating a Patch Depot Removing Superseded Patches For HP-UX 11. The supersession chains are each in a vertical column. This section describes how to analyze dependencies. FIGURE 14. they are listed. Example of Inter-Patch Dependencies PHNE_18972 PHNE_19899 Patch Dependency PHNE_17662 Supersession Chain PHNE_17051 PHNE_17017 For example. with the older patches on the bottom. suppose that you need a critical fix found in patch PHNE_17051. For example. searching for PHNE_17017 shows that the patch is recalled and is not available. cleanup will remove any superseded patches within the depot. 2. you may occasionally have to perform the analysis manually. this would be done via: /usr/sbin/cleanup -d /depots/testdepot If any superseded patches are found. Read the PHNE_17051 text file. Search the patch database for any dependent patches.00 Although the patch database and the SD-UX tools perform automatic dependency analysis. A patch dependency is indicated by a dashed arrow pointing from a patch to the patch it is dependent on. superseded patches can be removed from a depot via the cleanup utility (delivered by patch PHCO_19550 or current replacement).

text file for PHNE_19899 shows a dependency on PHNE_18972. 36 Depot Management . 2. At this point. The patch and all of its dependencies are in the depot from which you are installing or copying your patch. consult the swacl(1m) man page or the SD-UX documentation available from http://docs.text file or the patch database) shows that PHNE_18972 has replaced PHNE_17051. The patch contains a manual_dependency tag. “Acquiring Patches” has more information about using the patch database and dependency analysis. This tag indicates that the patch has one or more dependencies that cannot be resolved by SD-UX. this is usually sufficient for most needs. Even though you did not install the original patch (PHNE_17051). the cumulative nature of HPUX patches ensures that the replacement patches include the needed functionality. Chapter 3. depot registration and access control lists. The rights can be further divided by the type of access granted. no unresolved dependencies remain. Depot Registration A registered depot is visible and accessible to remote systems. even if you only selected one of them. Two mechanisms exist to restrict access. This could be due to entitlements.com/. which you already selected. PHNE 18972 also has a dependency on PHNE_17662. You then need to follow the analysis outlined in “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. the . For example. For a full description of swacl. You must go through the dependency analysis as outlined above. and you can install patches PHNE_18972 and PHNE_19899 onto the system. This means that the SD-UX commands for installing and copying patches automatically include patch dependencies. (This capability results from the requirement that every patch with a dependency enforces or records that dependency in its product specification file.hp. Check the dependency information for any superseding patches.) For example.00” above. Access rights can be specified for individual products within a depot and given to individual users on specific systems. swinstall or swcopy detect the patch dependency on another patch and automatically include the dependent patch in the install or copy operation.Depot Access 3. For patch depots. Access Control Lists (swacls) If complex access control is required. See “Enforced Patch Dependencies” on page 50 for more information. You copy or install a patch from a depot that does not contain the dependent patches. Depot Access It may be desirable to restrict access to depots. or example. swcopy or swinstall would automatically copy or install PHNE_18972 and PHNE_19899 together. The Supersedes field (in the patch .20 and 11. if all the patches in Figure 14 are in the same depot. These are the possible scenarios for 11i patch analysis: 1. Registration tasks are done using the swreg command (see “The swreg Command” on page 69). PHNE_17662 itself has been replaced by PHNE_19899. 3. HP enabled “enforced dependency” functionality for the HP-UX 11i release. a depot remains accessible on its own system without being visible to remote systems. Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i The 10. the swacl command provides the ability to restrict access to a high level of granularity. suppose that you need a critical fix found in patch PHNE_17051. or the depot not being prepared for production.00 process of manually analyzing patch dependencies is time-consuming and cumbersome. training. geography. When unregistered. For this reason.

it provides a general checklist of tasks that can be used as a starting point for a local process. software failures and operator error are not hindered in their destructive ability.CHAPTER 5 Patch Installation This chapter describes a basic process for performing the installation of patches onto an HP-UX system. it can be easy for confusion to lead to mistakes and/or complicate analysis of system failures. While disk arrays and mirroring provide terrific protection from hardware failures. While not the only method available. the costs can be huge. If there is any question regarding the stability or reproducibility of the user data it must be resolved before proceeding. this is not meant to infer that data is not important. Computer systems are complex environments and system administrators are often driven by constant and critical interruptions. Some of the aspects of such a process include: HP-UX Patch Management 37 . Back-ups Back-ups! While this document only addresses issues involving system software. In a large environment it may be beneficial to create a formal change control process for critical systems. there is more to be done to prepare for any system modification. A Note on Change Management When working with multiple systems and system administrators. It is assumed that prior to installation the following tasks have been completed: • A current system recovery image has been completed • Patches have been selected and acquired • The installation depot contains all dependencies System Preparation Even when the depot is ready. While the risks may be small.

libraries. it is not uncommon for some of the patches to already be present or superseded on the target system. • Centralized Change Database By keeping change records on a central system. system files. This is not meant to indicate that updates should take place on active systems from beginning to end. System Activity The Software Distributor tools rely on the Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) and networking support for even the most basic functions. One method that can be used to avoid these issues is to perform a system-wide commitment of all patches prior to the installation of the new set. but to the system being left in a partially installed and corrupted state. Both the initial state prior to the installation and the final state upon completion should be supported and stable environments. The installation of large numbers of patches might create unwanted side effects on your system. Scripts may kill and restart daemons. This can result in the removal of a patch that fulfills a dependency. the individual responsible for executing the change can quickly be identified. a growing data center should consider implementing a change control process before it is needed. The system will be between supportable configurations. senior administrators and management can provide guidance and ensure that business needs are not controlled by technical decisions. However if you don’t perform a committal before the installation of the new patches. and the current patch level becomes a low-water mark. Experience and recovery planning should be your guide. The committed patches cannot be removed. they are not lost when a system failure is encountered. An attempt to remove all active patches can only delete those that are newly delivered. HP strongly recommends that you create a recovery image. Remember that the risk is not only to the failure of an application. The database can be constructed to provide access to the experience of other administrators as well as visibility of upcoming changes to system users. to commit all patches on your system: swmodify -x patch_commit=true \* Before you commit patches. Patch Committal Prior to Depot Installation When installing a large number of patches. However. such as a Support Plus patch bundle. you may inadvertently remove patches that were installed on the system before the bundle installation. • Change Review and Approval By requiring a period of review and authorization. The recommended method for performing a system-wide patch committal is to use the SD-UX swmodify command. By requiring a formal handoff to any new owners. This image can be used to return to the uncommitted state. and no new processing should be started. Applications that are not critical should be halted. If this is the case. during the installation process.System Preparation • Clear Ownership of each Change The submitter of a change request becomes the initial owner of a task. Patches should also never be committed without an immediate need such as reclaim- 38 Patch Installation . For example. These are multi-user states that are usually associated with active systems. For this reason. Commands and libraries may not match the currently running kernel. While less valuable in smaller operations. most documentation has recommended that the system be in run-level (init) 2 or higher. it becomes necessary to return to the initial state by removing the new patches. This causes the initial patched state to become the minimum system environment. and commands are gradually changed.

5. The depot should include all patches desired for the final system.52.2) installed with all patches committed and that you need to remove PHKL_22759. For example. Committed Patch Removal The primary disadvantage of system-wide patch committal is that you cannot as easily roll back the committed patches. Removing any patch might cause another patch to lose a required dependency. In the example.fr=B.00. but an older patch.fr=B.C-INC.) Create a recovery depot that contains the original products as well as all required patches. staying as close as possible to the patches already on the system. You must re-install the patched products to provide the older versions of files or manage your patch depots in such a way that you can re-install a committed patch’s ancestor patches.. 2. “Planning for Recovery”.SPT2-DVR.11. Perform a dependency analysis. The remaining patches are those delivered in the QPK1100 bundle.) Reload the ancestor patches. such as an Ignite-UX recovery tape or network image.CORE2-KRN OS-Core.v=HP PHKL_22759.00” on page 35 or “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11i” on page 36 for more information.v=HP PHKL_22759. create a recovery image.00. (See Chapter 2. can fix the problem.System Preparation ing disk space or preparing for the installation of a new bundle.v=HP PHKL_22759. No newer patches are acceptable. To ensure that you can return your system to its current state.. Failure to perform this analysis for all patches to be removed may cause unpredictable results. The best way to do this is to manage your patch depots in such a way that you can re-install a committed patch’s ancestor patches..There are also disadvantages. you determine that you need to reload the OS-Core. # Contacting target "phsvr703".v=HP From the swlist output. 4. See “Committed Patch Removal” and “Patch Commitment” on page 49 for more information. # # Target: phsvr703:/ # # PHKL_22759 PHKL_22759. suppose that a system has the QPK1100 bundle (revision 11.CORE2-KRN. you must perform an analysis to ensure that the final set of patches will function correctly.fr=B.. using the swinstall preview mode: swinstall -p -s /var/tmp/REBUILD_DEPOT -x autoreboot=true \ -x autoselect_patches=true -x reinstall=true \ -x reinstall_files=true OS-Core ProgSupport SCSI-Passthru HP-UX Patch Management 39 . Therefore.00.00. PHKL_21989. All are confirmed to be in the depot.C-INC ProgSupport. (See “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. and SCSIPassthru products. ProgSupport.11.11. To remove the committed patch and reinstall PHKL_21989: 1.fr=B. this would mean copying PHKL_21989 into the recovery depot and removing PHKL_22759. 3. Use the swlist command to determine all ancestors of patches to be changed (because you need to reload all of the filesets modified by the patch): swlist -l fileset -a ancestor PHKL_22759 # Initializing.00.KERN2-RUN.KERN2-RUN OS-Core.SPT2-DVRSCSI-Passthru.11. Selected re-installation and IPD modification can be a complex and risky operation.

This is because there is either an "/etc/lvmtab" file which contains lvm configuration information on the system. TIP: SD-UX affords you a greater level of safety and error checking when you work at the product level. 40 Patch Installation . 7. use a test system to verify impacts and changes before you change any production environment systems. TIP: Whenever possible.r=B. TIP: Patches may include checkinstall scripts that do not support dependency checking and other patch management features.11.11.CORE-KRN.r=B. Use this option with extreme caution. The corequisite "OS. which turns off automatic dependency checking and increases the risk of error. ERROR: The "checkinstall" script for "OS-Core.00" for fileset "OS-Core. Preview the installation again. Whenever possible. this time with the addition of the LVM product: swinstall -p -s /var/tmp/REBUILD_DEPOT -x autoreboot=true \ -x autoselect_patches=true -x reinstall=true \ -x reinstall_files=true OS-Core ProgSupport SCSI-Passthru LVM Run the same command without the -p option to perform the actual installation. the actual usage of /var/adm/sw may increase and cause swinstall to fail. data will be lost without LVM.r=B.Core.CORE2-KRN. Because the disk space used by the reloaded products and patches merely replaces existing disk space. but this requires that you change the default behavior of additional SD-UX options including autoselect_dependencies and enforce_dependencies.11. most of which is transient use only.00" cannot be successfully resolved. Theses messages tell you that you need to include the LVM product. 8. or the command "/etc/sdsadmin" indicates that there is a multiple disk software disk striping (SDS) array on the system (or cluster). For the example. Unless you are installing patches into a committed state. TIP: Reloading of products and patches may cause SD-UX to issue a disk space analysis (DSA) error.LVM-KRN and LVM. Installing the example products causes swinstall to expect the size of /usr to increase by more than 100 Mbytes. * The software "OS-Core. You can replace individual filesets to remove committed patches and restore ancestors level. use the swinstall program’s preview mode (include a -p in the command line) to analyze the install before trying to perform it. In either case. You can avoid this error setting the enforce_dsa option to false.LVM-RUN must be selected in order to ensure that all disks will be accessible after the new kernel is put into place. but the actual increase never exceeds of 10 Mbytes.System Preparation 6. (If necessary) check the log files if errors occur.CORE-KRN.CORE-KRN" gave a global error return (exit code "11"). the following error is listed: ERROR: The filesets LVM.00" has previous analysis errors.

and some are mentioned in this document. This becomes an issue when the swinstall command line interface (CLI) is used. but it should also not be unecessarily delayed. the interactive versions of the swinstall command will display a dialog that announces the required reboot. Using the SD-UX Matching Operations In the HP-UX 10. This also made it impossible to install both the product and its patch(es) in a single step. This complicated the process of software updates and required that patches be kept in a separate depot. The CLI will not allow an installation that will require a system reboot to begin unless an override option (-x autoreboot=true) is specified. Any filesets with this attribute set to true will reboot the system if loaded. There are complex methods of patch installation. patches were generally selected and installed using the match_target option of swinstall. Patches that were superseded had to be manually removed from a depot. It should now be made clear that this ambiguous condition exists until any required system reboot and configuration steps are completed. Most kernel (PHKL) and many networking (PHNE) patches require that the kernel be rebuilt and restarted. A depot can be checked for patches requiring a reboot by using the swlist command to display the is_reboot attribute of the patch filesets. HP-UX Patch Management 41 . Unless a special need exists. In addition. but how can you tell? A flag is recorded both within the patch documentation as well as a fileset attribute within the patch itself. While solutions for the future are under investigation. • SD-UX had no way to determine whether some patches in a depot were superseded by other patches. There was no way to filter them according to their type or level of severity. Not only is a reboot often required.Planning for System Reboot Planning for System Reboot The core of the HP-UX operating system is known as the kernel.*. Installation The previous work outlined in this document was concentrated in creating the depots and with the preparation complete the installation should be simple and quick. This was an improvement over manual selection of patches but there were several problems: • The match_target option applied to both patches and non-patch software in the same depot and there was no way to ensure that the patches and non-patch software would be installed in the correct order. • All patches in the source depot that corresponded to software on the target system were selected. the autoreboot option instructs swinstall to reboot the system whenever it is required. it is certain that at times users and applications will remain active during an install and need to be prepared before a reboot can occur. While useful for automated and unattended installations. The patches in a local depot (/MyDepot) can be checked with the following: swlist -d -l fileset -a is_reboot *.c=patch @ /MyDepot | grep true Timing of the Reboot In “System Preparation” on page 37. The goal is to have all systems at a common level with the least amount of overhead.X releases. When is a Reboot Needed? Each patch “knows” if it will require a system reboot to install on a system. the fact that the system is in an unknown state until the installation process completes is discussed. avoid using these complex methods unnecessarily. Despite this and the cautions regarding system activity. it does not allow any time or warning before the system is halted. If specified. the only method currently available to restart an HP-UX kernel is to shut down and restart the system.

The benefit to the user is that a separate swinstall session is not required to install patches to a product. Non-patch software can be identified through the is_patch attribute described in “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56. Note that in HP-UX 11. Three new selection options were added to improve management of patches: -x autoselect_patches=true|false -x patch_match_target=true|false -x patch_filter=<selection> (default=true) (default=false) (default="*. they will not be handled by SD-UX. Each patch contains tags (the category_tag attribute) which characterize the patch. it does not select the dependencies for those patches. it only selects those patches which have that tag so if the dependency does not contain it. you must go through and do a manual dependency analysis. always check for the manual_dependencies tag which indicates that although the patch has one or more dependencies. Most patches contain dependency information within their PSF in the form of corequisites or prerequisites. there are exceptions to this enforcement.*") The autoselect_patches option is used when installing software. See “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. they can be applied during the initial installation or update of the software. The following command installs patches from a depot which correspond to currently installed software products: swinstall -s /mydepot -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true Finally. This is most often used to install the proper set of patches from a patch bundle.c=myTag" The patch_filter option can also be applied in conjunction with the autoselect_patches option to control which patches are selected when software is initially installed. When installing from a depot. any subset generated through a patch_filter operation in 11.X. If you want to install from a depot of patches. It must be emphasized that as with depots. you have additional control over patches selected when using either autoselect_patches or patch_match_target through the use of the patch_filter option. This simplifies the process and protects the system from careless activity.*.00.00” on page 35 for a detailed explanation of analysis. See “Enforced Patch Dependencies” on page 50 for detailed information on the manual_dependencies tag. the patch_match_target option can be used to select those patches which correspond to any product installed on the system. the match_target option was changed to select only non-patch software. This functionality has been enabled in 11i through the use of requisite tags. For 11i. the command: swinstall -s /mydepot MYPRODUCT by default also selects and installs any patches applying to MYPRODUCT that also exist in the source depot. For example. For example. they will be selected and installed with the software. If patches that apply to the software selected (by a swinstall or swcopy command) are present in the source depot.00 must not have external dependencies. However. the match_target option has been modified so that it applies only to non-patch software. patch_filter automatically selects the patches which contain myTag as a category tag in addition to their dependencies. to install only patches with a category_tag of myTag that apply to a system: swinstall -s /mydepot -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true \ -x patch_filter="*. 42 Patch Installation . when patch_filter is used to select patches which contain the myTag category tag.Installation With HP-UX 11. In other words.

The cleanup command is discussed in more detail in “The cleanup Command” on page 72. 3. available on the Support Plus CD and at http://docs. HP-UX Patch Management 43 . If necessary. (Note that the Support Plus CD has depots contained in subdirectories.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles Installing to a Committed Patch State Patch commitment may take place during patch installation. If the CD drive is external. Mount the CD drive to the mount-point directory: mount -r /dev/dsk/c1t2d0 /cdrom 7. deselect the Actions-->Save files replaced by patch for later rollback. For example. see “HP Patch Bundles” on page 31 and the Support Plus User’s Guide. enter: mkdir /cdrom 5. Open a terminal window and become root on your system. use the name you found using ioscan in Step 5 above. You can now access the CD via the mount-point directory. Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles Follow this procedure to install patch bundles from the Support Plus CD.hp. the swinstall option -x patch_save_files=false may be used. or after the fact. (From the GUI. they are not all at the top level of the CD.X releases. There are several important sources of information: • Check the HP IT Resource Center for information about recommended patches: http://itrc. Before proceeding. If the CD drive’s device-file name is not c1t2d0.) There are two different methods that may be used to commit patches after they have been installed. The file name will be something similar to /dev/dsk/c1t2d0. and the swmodify command allows the patch commitment to be managed down to the fileset level with the patch_commit=true option. identify the drive device file: ioscan -fnC disk 6.com/ Select the Maintenance and Support page. For complete information on Support Plus.) Step 1: Mount the CD 1. to define /cdrom as the mount point. For 11.hp. define a new directory as the mount point for the CD drive. This command lists all recognized CD drives and their associated device files. If it is desired that the patches be installed directly into a committed state. switch it on. 4. If necessary. the cleanup utility (delivered via patch PHCO_22044 or current replacement) provides a simple interface consistent with the version provided on HP-UX 10. then select the appropriate patching tools.00. Wait for the busy light to stop blinking. 2. HP strongly recommends that you read the documentation for each bundle or patch you wish to load. Put the appropriate Support Plus CD into the drive. For example: ls /cdrom Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information Support Plus often contains last-minute information.com.

You can enter a URL into a web browser to view these files directly from the CD. This file provides detailed information about the patch.) You can print or view these directly from the CD.readme.html (for 11i) • Diagnostic products have readme files and additional information in the /cdrom/DIAGNOSTICS directory.readme (for 11i) • Each patch has an accompanying text file in the /cdrom/TEXT_FILES directory.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles • Refer to the Support Plus web site for additional information: http://software. Install the bundles (see “Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles” on page 45). This file contains additional installation instructions. • Each patch bundle has its own readme file. For example. assuming the Support Plus CD is mounted to /cdrom: 1. Register the depot: swreg -l depot /cdrom/HWEnable11i 2. A free version of the Adobe Acrobat Reader is available at: http://www. with the CD mounted at /cdrom. a list of patches (and their dependencies) in the bundle. You can print or view these files directly from the CD. For example: more /cdrom/HWEnable11i.com/SUPPORT_PLUS/ • Refer to the Read Before Installing document that accompanies the Support Plus CD. This short document contains up-to-date information about known problems with patches in recent Support Plus releases. For example: file:/cdrom/HWEnable11i.x depots from HP-UX 10. For example. Step 4 (Optional): Set Up Hard Disk Access If more than two systems must access the depot.adobe. proceed to “Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles” on page 45. use: swcopy -s /cdrom/HWEnable11i 44 \* @ /var/tmp/MyDepot Patch Installation .20 systems. (Patch text files are also included with individual patches that you retrieve from HP. These files contain hyperlinks to the patch text files.com TIP To simplify sharing of patch information. you must register a depot on the Support Plus CD using the swreg command. or if you cannot dedicate the CD drive to the Support Plus CD. HP recommends that you copy the patch depots to a hard disk using the swcopy command. Disable remote access by unregistering the depot before unmounting the CD: swreg -u -l depot /cdrom/HWEnable11i NOTE: You cannot access or register 11. you may wish to copy the documentation files onto your own system. Step 3 (Optional): Set Up Sharing for Remote Systems To enable direct access from one or two other systems. and a listing of disk space usage. Some information is in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files. 3.hp.txt • Each bundle readme file is also available in HTML format. For example: more /cdrom/TEXT_FILES/PHSS_22540. If you mounted the CD on the system that is the target for the patch or diagnostic installation. The hyperlinks from the HTML bundle readme files to the patch text files will work as long as the HTML files reside in the same directory as the TEXT_FILES subdirectory. to register the HWEnable11i depot. changes since the last release. notes about problems in current and previous releases.

3. it is wise to recheck the readme files before installing. HP recommends that after you have selected a bundle for installation (see “HP Patch Bundles” on page 15). you install the bundle using the matching operations of the swinstall command. 11. One recovery technique is to use HP’s Ignite-UX tools (provided on HP-UX 11i Operating Environment CD1) to create recovery images. You should implement a recovery plan as an insurance policy against a system failure. you should plan the installation for an appropriate time and announce a system outage to the users ahead of time. tested. Step 5: Install the Selected Bundles The bundles on the Support Plus CD are built. To ensure greatest reliability. You may need to enter additional information or take other action. Even though the swinstall command used for installing the bundles requires that the system has networking enabled. For example. Although you should already have reviewed the patch documentation. this requires additional analysis of the readme files to ensure you do not overlook software dependencies. Notes • HP recommends that you do not merge depots created on different versions of HP-UX. Review the documentation. HP recommends that both the host system and depot should have the same major HP-UX version (for example. an unexpected condition was encountered. Also. See “Step 2: Check for Last-Minute Information” on page 43. 2.Installing Support Plus Patch Bundles This command copies the contents of the HWEnable11i depot to the local system under the /var/tmp/MyDepot directory. HP recommends the following tasks for all systems: 1. The new depot is automatically registered for use by remote systems. and intended for use as a unit. Install the patch bundles. Therefore. Some amount of risk is involved in any system modification. Although you can select individual patches from the bundles. it is prudent to limit system activity during any installation. • If the swcopy interactive user interface appears. For example: swinstall -p -s grendel:/cdrom/HWEnable11i \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true NOTE: If the swinstall interactive user interface appears. an unexpected condition was encountered and you may need to enter additional information or take other action. The bundle readme files may contain additional installation instructions and other important information. Also. to install from a CD mounted and registered on the system grendel: swinstall -s grendel:/cdrom/HWEnable11i \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true You can use the swinstall command’s preview mode (-p option) to get an idea of what to expect for the bundle you want to install. Create a system backup. Plan for system down time. HP-UX Patch Management 45 . Support Plus bundles commonly include patches that require a system reboot. 4.x).

46 Patch Installation .Finishing Touches Usage Tip Using the swlist command on an HP-UX 11. The cleanup command can also help you manage SD-UX log files. The swverify command can be used to verify a patch bundle or even a single patch. Finishing Touches Once the installation has completed. For example. For depot operations...) A swagent process performs the actual operations for each of the many SD-UX commands. The swverify command is provided as a method to compare the data within the IPD with the actual system directories and files. # Contacting target "hpfclc1". (You can specify a different logfile by modifying the logfile option. The swverify command Software Distributor maintains a database of software that it controls known as the Installed Products Database or IPD. swcopy. See “Cleanup Command” on page 22 or “The cleanup Command” on page 72. including swinstall.log). WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 64. When verifying installed software.. file existence and integrity. which would not be in the command log file for swinstall. WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 142. but it is recommended that a wildcard be used to verify all products and patches on the system. This log file is much more complete. swverify checks software states. the swagent log is a good place to look for more information. If you experience problems with one of the SD-UX commands. /var/spool/sw/swagent.log beneath the depot directory (for example. This contains a terse summary of command activity. See the SD-UX manual for more information. a few final steps are required. it includes the output from installation scripts.log. where task is the name of the command. This log is located at /var/adm/sw/swagent. These verify the actions taken and begin the preparations as the next cycle begins. swagent logs messages to the file swagent. This can be done using: swverify \* Checking the Logs Each SD-UX command logs messages to /var/adm/sw/sw<task>.. dependency relationships.00 system to list bundles on an HP-UX 11i system may generate warnings. WARNING: Ignoring unknown keyword "hp_mfg" at line 229. For example: swlist -d -l bundle @ 11isys:/cdrom/HWEnable11i/GOLDAPPS11i # Initializing. and swremove.log.

A patch may be loaded in reaction to a system failure. For a patch that delivers a new version of a single file.FSD is loaded at a later date. This indicates that the FSD fileset was not needed by that system. When PHCO_0100 is installed. A patch is an incremental change to the released software.Appendix A Basic Patch Concepts Patch management differs in many ways from standard forms of software management. and in some cases new functionality. HP-UX Patch Management 47 . performance enhancements.FSD. This fileset is given the same name as that ancestor. and will not load PHCO_0100. Figure 15 provides a simple example of the four filesets of product Prod being modified by the patch PHCO_0100. Patch Mechanics Ancestors and Patches Ancestry is one of the basic concepts of patch operations.FSD fileset actually being processed. If Prod. The specific details regarding execution are left to the following chapters. This appendix defines the basic patch terminology and concepts. It may deliver defect fixes. it would rely on external tools or people that do have an understanding. in practice ancestors are managed between grouping of files known as filesets (see Appendix B. Working with groups of files.FSD is not present. While it is possible to create a support solution without an understanding of these concepts. with only the PHCO_0100. a fileset is created for each ancestor fileset. the patch can be installed again. The importance of this can be seen through a simple thought experiment of loading PHCO_0100 onto a system that has Prod installed without fileset FSD. the system will determine that fileset Prod. While the concept of ancestry can be applied to a single file.X patches. it is possible for several patches to modify a single product or for a single patch to modify several products. Certain terms and actions exist solely within the patch space. “SD-UX Tools & Objects”). or to proactively avoid encountering a known problem in the future. the ancestor delivered the original version of that file. The ancestor of a patch is defined as the preexisting software that is being modified or replaced. For HP-UX 11.

0. If this were not the case.FS fileset contains the relocatable object files foo. HP-UX 11. Figure 17 shows the save areas for the Prod. an earlier patch could replace files with earlier or outdated versions.FSD Patch Supersession Patches for HP-UX products are required to be cumulative. it is not required to have all patches in a supersession chain installed. these saved files are restored. FIGURE 16. it remains on the system. is initially patched by PHCO_1000. Since patches are designed to be cumulative. This means that any individual patch supplied by HP must completely contain all aspects of any preceding patch.FSC PHCO_0100. In general.FS PHCO_1000 PHCO_2000 PHCO_3000 The SD-UX-packaged product Prod. it delivers a new version of foo. the patch numbers increase along a patch supersession chain. forms a supersession chain (Figure 16). When PHCO_1000 is loaded.FSD PHCO_0100. When this happens. The Prod. This patch is superseded by PHCO_2000 which is superseded in turn by PHCO_3000.o.Patch Mechanics FIGURE 15. Patch Rollback The installation of a patch differs from the installation of a product in several ways. 48 . Only the active member of a supersession chain can be removed. When a patch is loaded onto a system. but as each superseded patch returns to the active state it becomes a candidate for removal in future sessions. both having a of revision 1. the version delivered with the original product (v1. but is not active. the presence of a superseding patch will prevent the installation of any preceding patch.0) is stored in a save area associated with PHCO_1000.FSB PHCO_0100. One of the key differences is the ability to perform patch rollback to restore the pre-patched behavior. each replacing the previous patch. The newer patch is said to supersede all earlier patches.o. In fact. the default behavior is to save copies of all files patched prior to loading the new versions. If the patch is removed.o and bar. A series of patches. When a patch is superseded.X Patch and Ancestors Product Prod Patch PHCO_0100 Prod.FSC Multiple Filesets Prod. Only the top patch of the chain is in the active (applied) state. Patch Supersession Chain PROD.FSA PHCO_0100.FSA Prod.FSB One Patch Prod.FS supersession chain of Figure 16.

1 foo.0 bar.r=1.o. any prior patches lose the ability to be restored.2 bar.1 bar. and patch PHCO_2000 again becomes the active patch.o.r=1. Because patches are cumulative.o. a patch may document a dependency against patches responsible for these other areas.r=1.o.r=1. It requires disk space that may be needed for other applications or data.o. even though it did not change. How? Because the information lost is of the state prior to the installation of the patch.o. it delivers a new version of bar. When a patch is committed to the system. reinstalling the committed patch will not restore the rollback ability.o. Finally.o. the files found within its save area are restored to the system. cumulative patching ensures that the amount of change delivered by a patch will increase during the life of a supersession chain.r=1. As a cumulative patch. and the save area disk space for those patches is also reclaimed.text file field(s) used will be noted as appropriate for each type. As can be seen in the diagram.r=1. a patch may require changes in other areas of the system.r=1. Each patch could be removed in turn.0 PHCO_3000 foo.o. and in some cases multiple copies of the same file will be preserved. If patch PHCO_3000 is removed from the system. and the existing files on the system are preserved in a save area associated with PHCO_3000. The disk space used to support patch rollback may be reclaimed through patch commitment.o and bar.1 foo.r=1.r=1.r=1. “The Patch Text File” for more information. The product remains patched until updated to a new version or removed from the system. Patch Dependencies To become fully active. The.Patch Dependencies FIGURE 17.FS to the original state.FS foo. Also.o. the associated save area is deleted and the patch cannot be directly removed.r=1.1 PHCO_2000 foo. The versions of foo.0 foo. it is important that the areas affected by a single patch are limited.) HP-UX Patch Management 49 .o that was delivered by PHCO_1000. if any patch in a supersession chain is committed. eventually returning Prod.o.2 Patch Save Area When PHCO_2000 is loaded.o.o that are on the system before loading PHCO_2000 are then stored in the save area. it must also deliver the version of foo. In these cases. Patch Rollback PHCO_1000 PROD.o. (See Appendix C.1 foo.1 bar. The different types of dependencies are documented in the text file or readme attribute of each patch.0 bar.r=1. Patch Commitment The rollback mechanism is not without cost. patch PHCO_3000 delivers new version of both files.

• Other Dependencies There are dependencies that cannot be described in a simple manner. their supersessions and their dependencies and then install the appropriate patches. The ability to automatically resolve superseded dependencies for patches was not implemented because of time constraints. if a patch has a dependency on a superseded patch.00. All such miscellaneous dependencies are explained in the Other Dependencies field.) As long as the desired patch and its dependencies are loaded on the depot. 50 . Enforced Patch Dependencies The ability to manage patch dependencies was not included in the original design of the SD-UX. Three types of dependencies are used in HP-UX 11i: Table 2: HP-UX 11i Dependency Handling Dependency Type Description Corequisite A standard dependency listed in the PDep field of the patch text file and automatically enforced by SD-UX. (See “Viewing Dependency Information” on page 51. This is why SD-UX can resolve static dependencies: they don’t run the risk of being superseded. there are some cases where special types of dependencies may be encountered. The contents of these patches may be modified by subsequent patches but they are not meant to be superseded. • Ordered Dependency An ordered dependency is an installation-time software dependency without any exceptions or conditions.00. In 11. In 11. Manual dependency A dependency that is not directly enforceable by SD-UX (although patch scripts can provide indirect enforcement). These include optional dependencies that are required under specific circumstances or hardware dependencies below the system level. These are documented in the Patch Dependencies field and/or the Special Installation Instructions field. SD-UX tools acquired the ability to manage patches natively (without scripts) and thus static dependencies. swinstall and swcopy will analyze the patches. Standard dependencies are documented in the Patch Dependencies field. • Hardware Dependency Certain patches are only applicable to specific system models. Manual dependencies are indicated by the manual_dependency category tag and are listed in the PDep or Other Dependency field of the patch text file or readme attribute. Prerequisite An ordered dependency listed in the PDep field of the patch text file and automatically enforced by SD-UX. • Standard Dependency The standard dependency is an execution-time software dependency without any exceptions or conditions. An example would be that the commands in PHCO_1000 cannot be used without the kernel support of patch PHKL_1234. However in 11i. SD-UX can register and automatically manage required patch levels. but the dependency must be loaded first for the requirement to be satisfied. otherwise known as a line-in-the-sand patch.Patch Dependencies Dependency Types While the dependencies of a patch are generally quite simple. These system-level dependencies are documented in the Hardware Dependencies field. Static dependencies are those which involve a consolidated patch. there is no way for SD-UX to recognize that the latest patch in the supersession chain has to be loaded. This analysis is done by the SD-UX tools through some additional attributes within patches and by enforcing the registration of patch dependencies within each patch.

and in particular the Patch Database itself.text file is described in detail in Appendix C.text file reflects the initial state of the patch due to the static nature of the file. if the dependency relationship is more complex than the grammar for requisites can support. then for each of those patches. As the newest available patch. known as the patch status. “The Patch Text File”. HP-UX Patch Management 51 . When this happens. it will contain all known fixes to date for the target software. The following patch states are used by all patches that should be available to customers. • General Release A status of General Release indicates a patch that is approved for widespread use and is the active member of the supersession chain. can be found within the . If not then proceed with the copy or installation. Each patch includes a set of properties that are documented in an associated text file. • Special Installation Instructions—this field often includes explanatory text for patches listed in the Other Dependencies field. The following command checks for this tag in the patches within depot /MyDepot: swlist -d -l product *. Also.00” on page 35. the requirement of requisite registration is waived. The current release state.text file and is also displayed when viewing patches within the ITRC. You should check for this tag every time that you want to install from a bundle or depot to make sure that there are no external dependencies. Patch Status Almost every patch created is intended for general release to all customers. you must perform a manual dependency analysis such as the one outlined in “Dependency Analysis for HP-UX 11. This section examines some of these properties. The data within the . Any value other than those listed here denotes a patch that should be restricted and used only with full understanding and great caution. provide the current patch state. the patch will contain a category tag which states that the user must manually resolve any dependencies. This is the manual_dependencies tag.c=manual_dependencies @ /MyDepot If this command yields some patch names. If the patch is multi-release then (since 11. Viewing Dependency Information To review patches with manual dependencies. The ITRC data. or in some cases extends the original functionality. For example: swlist -d -l product -a readme PHKL_23400 @ /MyDepot The HP-UX Patch An HP-UX patch is a partial delivery of software that fixes defects found in the original.00 cannot handle the new functionality) the patch will not register its dependencies. • Other Dependencies—patches listed in this field are conditional dependencies but are not detected by the patch database. but the patch may transition into different release states. In addition. you must consult the following fields in the patch text file: • Pdep—patches listed in this field are not enforceable but can be detected and listed by the patch database.The HP-UX Patch Two situations may result in unregistered dependencies.X patches include internal readme files that you can view with the swlist command. 11. the.

Patch Identification An HP-UX patch name consists of a four-character type identifier followed by an underscore followed by a four or five digit numeric field. Patches cannot be partially recalled. • Not critical. patch supersession should not be considered in a negative manner. The currently defined patch types are: 52 PHCO Commands and libraries PHKL Kernel PHNE Networking PHSS All other HP-UX subsystems . Applicable to both General and Special Release patches. each system administrator should review the issues documented in the recall notice with the value of the current patch fixes and cost of system change. certain patches address issues of the highest priority and are considered critical. Examples of conditions that cause a patch to be marked critical include data loss. and while the generic recommendation will be to remove and replace the patch. but delivers critical content that was introduced within a patch that has been superseded within the same patch chain. • Critical The patch delivers a new fix for a critical failure. • General/Special Superseded When an active patch is replaced by a newer version. While the newer patch should contain additional fixes. Patches may be created as special release if a set of customers require nonstandard behavior or configuration-specific change that would cause problems for others. you may choose to proactively load a critical patch to avoid a possible failure. Patches are marked as being critical in response to the severity of a failure. The known qualities of an older patch may have greater value than the non-critical improvements. the correct action for a specific system may vary. a patch may be recalled and removed from general distribution. they may not be critical. Even if you take a very conservative approach to changing your system. is unique for a patch regardless of patch type. or system hang. called the patch number. but supersedes a critical patch The patch does not contain critical fixes. system panic. and not the probability that it will be encountered.The HP-UX Patch • Special Release A special release patch is an active patch that was not intended for use by all customers. • General/Special Recalled Under certain conditions. there is no reason to take any immediate action. The numeric field. While there may still be compelling reasons to install such a patch (such as a performance enhancement). data corruption. The severity of the defect is such that the patch should be evaluated for applicability to local systems and environments. A patch can be classified into one of three categories: • Not critical No part of the patch addresses a critical failure. The Critical Patch While each patch is created to improve upon the original version of the ancestor software. it enters the superseded state. As with superseded patches.

including descriptions of the symptoms and defects repaired by the patch. The . These sources are described in more detail in chapter 3. These are the . see “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56. For more information on these and other attributes. When a patch is acquired individually from the Patch Database within the ITRC or from the Fulfillment Server (FFS). The Patch Shar File The shar(1) utility is used to produce a shell archive file.text files. it is packaged as a shell archive. Shell archives are a useful and portable method to package groups of files for transfer between Unix-based systems.depot file is an SD-UX tape-style depot containing the actual patch. the patch shell archive will recreate two files within the current working directory. When exercised by the shell.The HP-UX Patch This naming convention is not recognized by the SD-UX software management tools. dependencies. The . special installation instructions (if any). HP-UX 11.text file is the complete documentation for the patch.X patches are also marked through the is_patch and is_sparse attributes and the patch category tag. “Acquiring Patches”. and the list of files contained within the patch. HP-UX Patch Management 53 .depot and .

The HP-UX Patch 54 .

Many patch operations involve some aspects of the SD-UX tools. It describes a unique subset of the files that make up a product. SD-UX functionality that is not appropriate for patching is not discussed. The Basic SD-UX Object Types Software Distributor uses a variety of object types. This appendix does not present a comprehensive view of SD-UX. patches are created and managed at the product level.00) • Software Distributor Administration Guide (for 11i) These manuals are available at http://docs. The Fileset A fileset is one or more related files.hp. SD-UX is included with the HP-UX Operating System and by default manages software on the local host only. This section gives you a simplified view of the object types that relate to patches. In general. consult the SD-UX manuals: • Managing HP-UX Software with SD-UX (for 11. A fileset may include scripts that control installation and removal. even though SD-UX permits this kind of selection. but you need only a small subset of SD-UX functionality for patching operations. You can also enable SD-UX to install and manage software simultaneously on multiple remote hosts from a central controller.Appendix B SD-UX Tools & Objects This appendix provides an overview of Software Distributor commands for HP-UX (SD-UX-UX) commands and concepts as they apply to patching. For in-depth information. you should avoid selecting patches at the fileset level. HP-UX Patch Management 55 . You can find formal definitions in the SD-UX manual or the sd(4) man page. This appendix does not discuss SD-UX remote operations or installations involving alternate roots. and patch filesets are delivered only within a patch product. Consult the SD-UX manual for more information. Selecting patches by fileset level may cause a fix to be only partially applied. grouped into a manageable unit. Therefore.com.

v=HP applied_patches • Applies to base (non-patch) filesets. swlist -l fileset -a ancestor PHKL_18543 # PHKL_18543 PHKL_18543. Bundles provide a convenient way to group software objects together for easy selection. (See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information on software_spec. CD or tape) or a single.fr=B.00. • The following example shows patch PHKL_18543. See “HP Patch Bundles” on page 15 for more information. Attributes control aspects of patch behavior and define patch properties and relationships.Patch Related Object Attributes The Product An HP-UX patch is structured as a single SD-UX product that contains one or more filesets.00 release.11.v=HP JournalFS. See “The swlist Command” on page 66 for more information. ancestor • Applies to filesets.X patches that require customization include SD-UX control scripts at the product level.C-INC. You can view SD-UX object attributes with the swlist command. Patch Related Object Attributes Each of the objects described in “The Basic SD-UX Object Types” has a set of properties known as attributes.VXFS-PRG ProgSupport.v=HP JournalFS. HP provides several types of standard patch bundles. The patch-related attributes are described below. HP-UX 11.fr=B. • Indicates the fileset that this fileset modifies.VXFS-PRG. The Bundle A bundle encapsulates products and filesets into a single software object.C-INC PHKL_18543.11. You can change the contents of a depot. each modifying a different fileset found on the HP-UX 11.. • Contains the software_spec of the ancestor fileset that this patch fileset modified when it was installed.00. A depot can also be a distribution media (e.VXFS-BASE-KRN. serial file that contains products or bundles.) 56 . More than one bundle can contain the same software objects. which contains three filesets. The Depot A depot is a directory that contains software products or bundles that are available for direct or remote installation. A bundle can be thought of as a virtual “configuration” of software.fr=B.VXFS-BASE-KRN PHKL_18543. • Lists all of the patch filesets that have modified this fileset.00. applied_to • Applies to patch filesets.11.g.

This attribute gets rid of the ambiguity created by the committed attribute above. The is_patch attribute is required for patches to be managed via the autoselect_patches or patch_match_target options of swinstall and swcopy. In 11i. Not committed. patch filesets exist in one of four conditions: applied: Same as above. To obtain this state in 11.00. • When set to true. committed/superseded: A committed/superseded patch is committed and superseded. A committed fileset is also in either the applied or superseded state (which state applies cannot be determined from the patch_state field). A patch in the applied state has not been committed or superseded. committed: A committed patch cannot be directly removed from the system. superseded: A patch in the superseded state has been replaced by a newer member of its supersession chain. depending on the order of the patch operation: applied: An applied patch contains the software that is currently active on the system and is the most recent member of its supersession chain (of one or more patches) to have been loaded. In HP-UX 11.00 systems. is_sparse • Applies to patch filesets. This ensures that a patch fileset cannot be explicitly selected when not appropriate. is_sparse indicates that the current fileset is incomplete and cannot be loaded in the absence of the fileset’s ancestor. patch_state • Applies to patch filesets. A committed patch is applied but not superseded. install patch PHCO_22526. is_patch • Applies to both patch products and filesets. superseded: Has been replaced by a newer member of its supersession chain. the patch_state attribute records the condition of patches. HP-UX Patch Management 57 . • When set to true. is_reboot • Applies to filesets. is_patch indicates that the object is a patch. Several tags are defined during patch creation. committed: A committed patch cannot be removed from the system. A patch in the superseded state may or may not have been committed. You may install PHCO_22526 to obtain the committed/superseded state described below. • When set to true. is_reboot indicates that installation of the fileset will cause the system to reboot. • In addition to the state attribute (also described in this section). A category_tag can be used as a selection mechanism (see “Patch Hubs” on page 33). • Provides a label for a fileset or product.Patch Related Object Attributes category_tag • Applies to filesets or products. patch filesets exist in one of three conditions. which records the installation states of software. and others may be created by customers with the swmodify command.

See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information. • Lists all prior filesets that a patch fileset supersedes. state • Applies to filesets.Patch Related Object Attributes readme • Applied to products. The software_spec contains the object name and any version or architecture information. consult the swconfig(1m) man page or the SD-UX manual for more information. An SD-UX operation leaves a fileset in one of the following states and records it in the fileset’s state attribute. or filesets. HP recommends that you move all patches left in the installed state to the configured state with the swconfig command. Although not every patch requires configuration. 58 . product. No further operations are required. Some attributes are stored in the IPD only): installed (IPD only): The software was successfully installed but not configured. but the ordering of the superseded filesets may not match the order of the supersession chain itself. superseded_by • Applies to patch filesets. and never in software depots. This attribute is only set for installed patch filesets. corrupt: Indicates that errors detected in the execution phase of a swcopy or swinstall process left the software in an unknown state and that the software should not be used. • Records the software specification of the fileset that superseded the fileset on a given system. • A fileset’s state attribute (also used for non-patch software) provides useful information about the installation state of software. (Note that 11. • The software_spec attribute (short for software specification) contains the fully qualified identifier for the bundle. products. It can be used by a swinstall or swcopy session using the depot as the source. software_spec • Applies to bundles. supersedes • Applies to patch filesets. • The readme attribute of an HP-UX patch contains the text file. or fileset. Note that all superseded filesets are included. The transient state differs from the corrupt state in that SD-UX did not detect the failure when it initially occurred. transient: Indicates that swinstall or swcopy was killed or aborted during the execution phase leaving the software in an unknown and incomplete state. configured (IPD only): The product was successfully installed AND configured. SD-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system. available (depot only): The software is ready for access. The swconfig command is not discussed in this tutorial.X SD-UX-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system.

TIPS: • Because many patches aren’t designed for individual installation.unconfigures and removes software products.modifies software product information in a target root or depot.registers or unregisters depots or roots. -p Previews the install operation without performing the actual installation. a graphical user interface is invoked. • swinstall has numerous options that you should not use for patching because they lack dependency support. swreg . swcopy. All SD-UX commands run from the command line. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. [software_selections] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. Synopsis swinstall [-i] [-p] [-v] [-s source] [-x option=value].displays information about software products.copies software products for subsequent installation or distribution. The following list shows the commands. the automatic matching options(autoselect_patches. swremove. swpackage . swremove . swcopy .packages software products into a depot (directory or tape).Introduction to the SD-UX Commands Introduction to the SD-UX Commands This appendix discusses the SD-UX commands that relate to patching. Preview mode is not enabled by default.. swinstall. The swinstall Command The swinstall command is used to load patch software from a source depot and onto a target system. Additional concepts for using the SD-UX commands are discussed in “Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands” on page 73. ordered by those most commonly used: • • • • • • • swinstall . This option affects only standard output and not the log files. HP recommends that you use only the options discussed below. -v Requests verbose mode. swlist . swmodify . HP-UX Patch Management 59 . patch_match_target) should be the preferred method for installing patches. and swlist have an optional GUI mode. The GUI starts by default if you enter swinstall without any software_selections..installs and configures software products.

autoselect_reference_bundles=true None When set to true. software_selections One or more software specifications. Patch related command options are specified below. This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and load order. enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. those that do employ them are enforcing critical requirements of content and load order. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information.0 patches exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. Since all 11i patch dependencies will be enforced by SDUX. Where appropriate. All 11i patches will contain enforced dependencies except for those that meet strict exception rules. eliminating lengthy. if the dependency is not present on the target system and is not selected for installation from the source depot. While few 11. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information Patch-Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). it is especially important that this option is taken advantage of in selecting patches and avoiding unwanted configurations. autoselect_patches=true Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Automatically select patches for software to be installed When loading a software product. overriding any other values for that option.00 patches exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. manual patch dependency analysis. autoselect_dependencies=true Actions→→Autoselect dependencies (when marking software) When software is selected for installation with an SD-UX-enforced dependency. When software is selected for installation with an SD-UX-enforced dependency. For the full set of available options. any patches within the same depot for that product will automatically be selected for installation. any bundle wrappers within the source depot that contain software selected for installation will be automatically selected if the is_reference attribute is set to true. installation will only proceed if enforce_dependencies is set to false. option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface Description autoreboot=false None (GUI waits for permission to reboot) Enables an automatic reboot upon completion of the software installation. As a result. that software will automatically be selected for installation if present in the source depot and autoselect_dependencies is set to true. While few 11. -x option=value Sets the specified command option to the value given. this option becomes even more important and helpful.The swinstall Command -s source Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be installed. consult the swinstall(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. default values are shown. Note that this does not mean all of the software listed in the wrapper will be selected. This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. only the bundle wrapper itself. 60 .

It is also an especially powerful tool for depot management in 11i since dependencies are dealt with correctly. This option is not yet recommended for general use in 11.” on page 5 for notes on other options.0 as no provision is made for dependencies.X releases to provide this functionality. patch_filter=software_specification Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Filter The patch_filter option can be used to specify a subset of software available to load. swinstall skips files that would be installed to a remote (NFS) file system (or that are already there). This is the recommended method to install patches from a managed depot (such as those provided by HP). “Planning for Recovery. This option should not be used unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. HP-UX Patch Management 61 . However. swinstall requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to installation. These scripts may issue errors to protect the system from incorrect patch usage. this option can be used for 11. patch_match_target=false Actions→Manage Patch Selection→Automatically select patches for software installed on the target Select all patches within the source depot that modify the existing system software. While on HP-UX 10. If set to true. filesets will be reinstalled. the remote files are installed. write_remote_files=false None Prevents installation of files to a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. patch_save_files=true Options→Change Options→Save files replaced by patch for later rollback If set to false. Setting this option to false removes this restriction. match_target=false Actions→Match What Target Has Selects all software within the source depot with an ancestor attribute that matches a fileset currently on the target system.X systems this option was used to select patches within a depot that applied to the target system. mount_all_filesystems=true Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist By default. source_cdrom=/SD-UX_CDROM None (default cannot be changed within GUI) Specify the device file of the CD-ROM to be used as the default.The swinstall Command enforce_scripts=true Options→Change Options→Enforce script failures Each patch may have several installation scripts associated with it. the patch_match_target option is the preferred method for HP-UX 11. See Chapter 2. reinstall=false Options→Change Options→Reinstall filesets even if the same revision exists Prevents SD-UX from re-installing (overwriting) an existing revision of a fileset. While a convenient way to control disk usage. By default. this option is not recommended unless alternative recovery mechanisms are available. source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m None (default cannot be changed within GUI) Specify the device file of the tape drive to be used as the default. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system.00 patch selection when combined with user-defined category tags. patches are loaded directly to the committed state and cannot be rolled back.

See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. -x option=value Sets the specified option to the value given. The GUI starts by default if you enter swcopy without any software_selections. For example. You do not need to use the swreg command on depots created by swcopy. 62 . Note that the swcopy command automatically registers (enables remote access to) any depot that it creates. Preview mode is not enabled by default. This can be particularly useful if software exists in several depots. the syntax is host:/directory where the host name can be a name. If you specify a host with the directory.) Synopsis swcopy [-i] [-p] [-v] [-s source] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [@ target_selection] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. domain name. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information target_selections The absolute path name (directory location) to which you want the software_selections to be copied. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. software_selections One or more software specifications. or internet address. -s source Specifies the depot (source) containing the software to be copied. Patch related options are specified below. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. For example: swinstall -p -s grendel:/cdrom/QPK1100 \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true The swcopy Command The swcopy command copies software from one depot to another. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. overriding any other values for that option. -p Previews the copy operation without performing the actual copy. (See “The swreg Command” on page 69 for more information. you can copy all of the contents of individual patches into a single depot from which the group can be loaded in a single session and with a single reboot (if needed). -v Requests verbose mode. a graphical user interface is invoked.The swcopy Command Examples • Install from a CD mounted and registered on the system grendel: swinstall -s grendel:/cdrom/QPK1100 \ -x patch_match_target=true -x autoreboot=true • Use the swinstall command’s preview mode (-p option) to get an idea of what to expect for the bundle you want to install.

that other software will automatically be selected to be copied if present in the source depot and autoselect_dependencies is set to true. swcopy requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to installation. reinstall=false Options→Change Options→Recopy filesets even if the same revision exists Prevents SD-UX from overwriting an existing revision of a fileset. The majority of 11i patches have SD-UX-enforced dependencies. See also the compress_files option. autoselect_reference_bundles=true None (default cannot be changed within GUI) When set to true. When software to be copied has an SD-UX-enforced dependency. only the bundle wrapper itself. although it may not improve fast networks.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. This option should not be set to false unless directed by an HP Support Engineer. making this option very useful. files are uncompressed before swcopy puts them into the target depot. Where appropriate. filesets will be recopied. Setting this option to false removes this restriction. . compress_files=false Options→Change Options→Compress files during transfer Setting this option to true causes swcopy to compress file before transfer to the target depot. enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface Description autoselect_dependencies=true Actions→Autoselect dependencies (when marking software) When software is selected for copying with a registered dependency on other software. source_tape=/dev/rmt/0m None (default cannot be changed within GUI) Specifies the device file of the tape drive to be used as the default. Note that this does not mean all of the software listed in the wrapper will be selected. any bundle wrappers within the source depot that contain software selected for copying will be automatically selected if the is_reference attribute set to true. uncompress_files=false Options→Change Options→Uncompress files after transfer When set to true. if that dependency is not present on the target system and is not marked for copying from the source depot the copy will only proceed if enforce_dependencies is set to false. For the full set of available options. default values are shown. mount_all_filesystems=true Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist By default. HP-UX Patch Management 63 . those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and load order. If set to true. consult the swcopy(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. This will conserve disk space and can enhance performance on slower networks (50 Kilobytes/second or less).The swcopy Command Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). While few 11.

00 system and you use swremove to remove a patch. swcopy skips files that would be copied to an NFS file system (or that are already there). swcopy -s oldsys:/depot -x layout_version=0.8 \* @ /depots/oldsys The swremove Command The swremove command deletes software that has been installed on your system.X style depot from the system oldsys to an HP-UX 11. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system.X system. • You should not use swremove to remove patch information that remains in the IPD after installing a new version of HP-UX. Synopsis swremove [-i] [-d] [-p] [-v] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [ @ target] 64 . • If you are on an 11. using the default depot at hostX as the source: swcopy -i -s hostX • Copy all patches in current directory to the depot /hub/patches (assuming root shell is /sbin/sh): for PATCHDEPOT in *. • swremove may not always be your first and best solution for error recovery. Make sure your other recovery methods are not more appropriate before you use this command. • Removal of a patch bundle does not automatically return you to the patch state prior to loading that bundle. swcopy -s /cdrom/QPK1100 \* @ /var/tmp/MyDepot • Invoke an interactive session. By default. Note that swremove has several limitations when used for patch operations: • You cannot use swremove to remove committed patches. If the patch was needed to fulfill a documented dependency then patches to satisfy the dependency must be activated via rollback or installation. copy the contents of the QPK1100 depot to the local system under the /var/tmp/MyDepot directory. files are copied to remote systems. you must make sure you didn’t “break” any software dependencies.depot do swcopy -s $PATCHDEPOT \* @ /hub/patches done • Copy a HP-UX 10. The swremove command will fail if the unwanted patch fulfills a dependency. see “The cleanup Command” on page 72. It also removes software from depots. In HP-UX 11i you cannot remove a patch that is required by another patch.The swremove Command write_remote_files=false None Prevents copying of files to a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. Examples • With the CD mounted at /cdrom.

bundles that have the is_reference attribute set to true will be automatically removed when the last of its contents is removed. consult the swremove(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. Patch related command options are specified below. Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). a graphical user interface is invoked. . those that do employ them to enforce critical requirements of content and removal order. since all 11i patches enforce dependencies. enforce_dependencies=true Options→Change Options→Enforce dependency analysis errors in agent Enforces software dependencies. These scripts may issue errors to protect the system from incorrect patch usage. For the full set of available options. Do not set this option to false unless directed to do so by an HP Support Engineer. If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. Verbose mode is enabled by default. While few 11. enforce_scripts=true Options→Change Options→Enforce script failures Each patch may have several removal scripts associated with it. Where appropriate. software_selections One or more software specifications. option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface Description autoselect_reference_bundles=true None If true. -x option=value Sets the specified command option to the value given. the target is assumed to be the system itself. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information target The depot from which software is to be removed. the bundles will not be automatically removed. -v Requests verbose mode. overriding any other values for that option. -d Operate on a depot rather than installed software. -p Previews the remove operation without performing the actual removal. This option should not be used unless directed by an HP Support Engineer.00 patches currently exist with dependencies enforced by the SD-UX tools. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. this option is very useful in maintaining patch integrity and system stability. removal only proceeds if enforce_dependencies is set to false. If false. HP-UX Patch Management 65 .The swremove Command Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Use an interactive user interface. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. When software selected for removal has a registered dependency. Preview mode is not enabled by default. default values are shown. The GUI starts by default if you enter swremove without any software_selections. if the dependency is not present on the target system or also selected for removal from the source depot. However. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. If not specified.

More specifically: • • • • • See what’s installed on a system. • Remove all contents of the depot. You must specify -i to invoke the GUI. When set to true and superuser has write permission on the remote file system. swremove skips files that would be removed from an NFS file system.The swlist Command Options→Change Options→Mount filesystems in /etc/fstab or /etc/checklist mount_all_filesystems=true By default. 66 . If the environment variable DISPLAY is set to a valid X windows display. None (default cannot be changed within GUI) write_remote_files=false Prevents removal of files from a target that exists on a remote (NFS) file system. one attribute per line. By default. /depots/MyDepot: swremove -d \* @ /depots/MyDepot The swlist Command The swlist command provides information on software installed on a system or located in a depot. The attributes are listed in the format: keyword value If one or more -a options are specified. Examples • Remove only the bundle wrapper XSWHWCR1100 from the system. Synopsis swlist [-i] [-d] [-v] [-a attribute] [-l level] [-s source] [software_selections] [ @ target] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -i Invokes a GUI interface that lets you perform interactive software selections. -d Lists software depots instead of software currently installed on the target system. -v If no -a options are specified. See what software is in a depot. files are removed from remote systems. leaving any contents present (Note that the trailing period (. See what depots are available on remote systems. then list all the attributes for an object. Check attributes of software. a graphical user interface is invoked. SD-UX requires that all filesystems listed in the systems /etc/fstab file are mounted prior to removal. Browse the patch documentation.) is essential to removing the wrapper only): swremove XSWHWCR1100. Setting this option to false removes this restriction. it never starts by default. Otherwise a terminal user interface (TUI) designed for use on ASCII terminals is invoked. then list the selected attributes in the above format.

revision. and all products and filesets are listed as a comment showing revision and description before any patch fileset that apply to it. the bundles and products are listed with revision and one-line description. • fileset List all filesets recorded in the IPD (in product. -l level Specifies the detail of the swlist output. • product List all products with revision and description for each. • bundle List all bundles with revision and description for each. The listing is sorted by ancestor. As is the case with their respective levels. followed by the associated description and current patch_state. While this option may be specified multiple times.fileset format) with the associated revision and description. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information target The depot to be listed. The listing may be limited in scope by the software_selections specification. software_selections One or more software specifications. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes each block giving the name. revision. and description of the product. and description of the product or fileset to be listed. -s source Specifies the software source to list. the target is assumed to be the system itself. Each file is preceded by the product and fileset that is the registered owner of that file. A comment (marked by a leading # character) precedes each block giving the name. the ordering of the arguments does not control the format of the list. If not specified. HP-UX Patch Management 67 . swlist displays all bundles within the depot followed by any products not contained within a bundle. • depot List all registered depots on the target system. The values used include: • file List all files recorded in the IPD. • category List all category tags currently defined within the target depot. • default (no level specified) When no level is specified. You can also specify the sources as target depots and list them using the -d option. This is an alternative way to list a source depot. • patch List all patch filesets using the full software specification.The swlist Command -a attribute The named attribute is included in the listing when defined at the specified level.

depot • List all patches that have modified the LVM product swlist -l patch LVM • Display the documentation for all patches containing critical functionality swlist -a readme -l product *. Where appropriate.c=critical • List all category tags defined in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel swlist -d -l category @ grendel:/var/MyDepot Also see “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more examples.c=patch @ grendel:/var/MyDepot • List the filesets modified by installed patch PHSS_8675 swlist -a ancestor PHSS_8675 • List all of the files delivered within patch PHCO_12140 after downloading from the ITRC: swlist -d -l file @ /tmp/PHCO_12140. In 11. default values are shown. By setting this option to true the 11. Examples • List all patches in the depot /var/MyDepot on the system grendel: swlist -d -l product *. However. In 11i. swlist lists all patches in the IPD. swlist only lists those patches which are active on the system.The swlist Command Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). For the full set of available options.00 swlist functionality can be turned on in an 11i system (all patches in the IPD are listed).00 system. patch PHCO_22526 must be installed and swlist. option=default value show_superseded_patches=false Menu Path in Interactive Interface The swlist command lists the contents of the IPD. 68 . consult the swlist(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual.00 systems. to get the 11i functionality on an 11.show_superseded_patches=false must be added to the /var/adm/sw/ defaults file. whether or not they are superseded.

When a depot is registered. While other levels of SD-UX objects may be modified by swreg. Patch Related Options None. WARNING: With the exception of committing patches and creating category tags. (For the full set of available options. Unregistration of a depot can be a convenient way to limit access during development. the swmodify command lets you change the contents of these files via the command line. Although you cannot edit the IPD or catalog files directly. objects Specifies the path to the object[s] to be registered or unregistered. -v Requests verbose mode. they are not within the scope of this tutorial. Improper alteration of the information in the IPD could cause unexpected behavior during subsequent patching or system updates and leave your system in an unsupportable state. Examples • Register the patch depot QPK1100: swreg -l depot /cdrom/QPK1100 • Disable remote access by unregistering the depot QPK1100 (local access is still enabled): swreg -u -l depot /cdrom/QPK1100 The swmodify command SD-UX commands automatically keep track of software management operations by creating an Installed Products Database (IPD) and various catalog files that contain information about the software on the system. consult the swreg(1m) man page or the SD-UX manual. Synopsis swmodify [-d] [-p] [-v] ]-a attribute[=value]] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [ @ target] HP-UX Patch Management 69 . (Note that unregistered depots are still available locally. it can be accessed from remote systems.) Synopsis swreg -l depot [-u] [-v] [objects] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -l depot Perform operations on depots. -u Causes swreg to unregister the specified objects instead of registering them. the swmodify command is not recommended for general usage.The swreg Command The swreg Command The swreg command registers or unregisters an existing depot. This option affects only standard output and not the log files.

then delete the attribute from the given software_selections (or delete the value from the set of values currently defined for the attribute). This option affects only standard output and not the log files. default values are shown. The default value is false. -x option=value Sets the specified command option to the value given. this option removes the saved files for the patches specified in the software selections for the command. or delete the value of the given attribute.The swmodify command Patch Related Command Line Arguments -a attribute[=value] Add. Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). Where appropriate. If not specified. Otherwise add/modify the attribute for each software_selection by setting it to the given value. software_selections One or more software specifications. When set to true. overriding any other values for that option. -v Requests verbose mode. you cannot remove the patch unless you remove the associated base software that the patch modified. consult the swmodify(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface patch_commit=false Commits a patch by removing files saved for patch rollback. Preview mode is not enabled by default. The given target must be a depot. If the -u option is specified. Once you have run this option on a patch. the target is assumed to be the system itself. For the full set of available options. modify. -p Previews the modify operation without modifying anything. Each attribute modification will be applied to every software_selection. Patch related command options are specified below. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. -d Perform modifications on a depot. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information target The depot to be modified. Examples • Commit the patch PHKL_1234 and remove its corresponding rollback files: swmodify -x patch_commit=true PHKL_1234 • Mark all patches in the depot /depots/newpatches with a new category tag to indicate that they have been approved: swmodify -a category=approved \* @ /depots/newpatches 70 . Multiple -a options can be specified.

HP-UX Patch Management 71 . If you are creating a distribution tape. /var/spool/sw is used as the default depot directory. Without this operand. Patch Related Options The following options have the most relevance to patching (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 73). The recognized types are directory and tape. Without this operand. option=default value Menu Path in Interactive Interface compress_files=false Setting this option to true causes swpackage to compress files before packaging them. default values are shown. Synopsis swpackage [-p] [-v] [-s directory] [-x option=value] [software_selections] [@ target] Patch Related Command Line Arguments -p Previews the package operation without performing the actual packaging.8.0 (default) and 0. For the full set of available options. swpackage uses the device file /dev/swtape. -s directory An existing directory depot (which already contains products) to be used as the source. this operand names the device file on which to write the tar archive. target_type=directory Defines the type of distribution to create. consult the swpackage(1m) man page or refer to the SD-UX manual. Either method can be used to transport the contents of a depot to another system for local access. Patch related command options are specified below. this operand defines the location of the directory. this command allows the transfer of software onto a tape or into a tape depot which can then be used as a software source. software_selections One or more software specifications. layout_version=1. See “Software Specifications” on page 73 for more information target If you are creating a distribution depot (directory). The device file must exist so that swpackage can determine if the media is a DDS tape or a disk file. -v Requests verbose mode.0 Specifies the POSIX layout version to which the SD-UX commands conform when writing distributions. See “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74 for more information. -x option=value Sets the specified command option to the value given. Where appropriate. Preview mode is not enabled by default. This creates smaller depots. Supported values are 1.The swpackage command The swpackage command While primarily used to create depots from source files. This option affects only standard output and not the log files. The tape can be used in the absence of networking support. overriding any other values for that option. and the tape depot could be provided via ftp(1). Refer to the swpackage(1m) manpage or the SD-UX manual for more information.

Synopsis cleanup [-n|-p] -i cleanup [-n|-p] -d <depot> Patch Related Command Line Arguments -p Preview the cleanup task but do not actually remove any patch information.X. which may be easier to interpret than the output of the swlist command. -s Display the superseded patches on the system. but as a patch. -i Determine which patches that are included in the Installed Product Database are 10. The cleanup command is not delivered with HP-UX. It is used to remove any patches for earlier releases from the Installed Product Database after updating to a newer version of HP-UX. The cleanup utility also allows patches to be committed across the entire system. It is also used to remove patches from a software depot if they have been superseded by patches also available in the same depot. Superseded patches are those that have been replaced by newer patches on the system. These patches are removed from the IPD so that they are no longer displayed in the output of the swlist command. show_patches displays the active patches at the SD-UX product level. The cleanup command logs all information to /var/adm/cleanup. The utility uses the SD-UX patch attributes patch_state and superseded_by to determine which patches are active and which are superseded. 72 . The show_patches Command The show_patches utility displays active and superseded patches in a formatted output. -n Notify the user of cleanup tasks and request confirmation before actually removing any patch information.X patches that are remnants from an upgrade to HP-UX 11.log. -a Display the active patches on the system. -l level Display the patch information at the SD-UX product or fileset level. These superseded patches will be removed from the software depot.The cleanup Command Examples • Re-package the entire contents of the depot /var/spool/sw onto the tape at /dev/rmt/0m: swpackage -s /var/spool/sw -x target_type=tape @ /dev/rmt/0m The cleanup Command The cleanup command provides functions useful when dealing with HP-UX patches. -d Determine which patches in the software depot have been superseded by patches also available from the depot. Active patches are those which have not been superseded by newer patches on the system. Synopsis show_patches [-a] [-s] [-l product|fileset] Patch Related Command Line Argument: default If no options are specified. Currently available as patch PHCO_19550.

The following example shows how swlist can create a list of the software specifications for a patch at the fileset level.a=arch][. all products within the bundle are also selected. A software specification is a unique identifier for an SD-UX software object.c=category] (The version may also have a l=location component that applies only to installed software and refers to software installed to a location other than the default product directory. If you explicitly select a bundle.11. software selections.11. If you select a product.a=HP-UX_B.v=HP.11.a=HP-UX_B.00_32/64.r=1.last. You can also save session information from interactive or command-line sessions.11.0.00_32/64 Session Files Session files let you save your work from a command session.l=/.00_32/64.0.r=1.version] bundle[.v=HP.KERN2-RUN PHKL_18543.r=1.11.00_32/64.VXFS-PRG.11.0.v=HP.11.a=HP-UX_B.11.00_32/64.VXFS-BASE-KRN PHKL_18543.00_32/64.00_32/64 PHKL_18543. Each invocation of an SD-UX command defines a session.CORE2-KRN. This file is overwritten on each invocation.l=/.0. source information.r=1.l=/.11.v=HP.0. A session file uses the same syntax as the defaults files (see “Setting Default Values for Command Options” on page 74). and target hosts are saved before command execution actually commences. You can use the swlist command to display this information.VXFS-BASE-KRN.00_32 PHKL_18543.a=HP-UX_B.product[.VXFS-ADV-KRN PHKL_18543.sw/sessions/.fa=HP-UX_B.CORE2-KRN PHKL_18543.v=HP.a=HP-UX_B.11. product. You can specify an absolute path for a session file. For patch operations.0.r=1.r=1.fa=HP-UX_B. # swlist -l fileset -a software_spec PHKL_18543 # PHKL_18543 PHKL_18543.r=1.l=/. The software specification takes one of the following formats: product[. From a command-line session.) The software_spec attribute contains the full software specification for any bundle.v=HP.fa=HP-UX_B.VXFS-ADV-KRN. all filesets within that product are also selected. the selection is comprised of one or more software specifications.l=/.00_32 PHKL_18543. or patch (see “Patch Related Object Attributes” on page 56).a=HP-UX_B.00_32/64. This lets you re.00_32/64.00_32/64 PHKL_18543.00_32/64.00_32 PHKL_18543.11.CORE-KRN.l=/. you usually only need to refer to a patch or bundle name.00_32 PHKL_18543.C-INC. you can save session information into a file at any time by selecting the Save Session or Save Session As option from the File menu.0. The invocation options.0.version] where the version has the form: [r=revision][.fileset]][.v=vendor][.v=HP.l=/.C-INC PHKL_18543.execute the command even if the session ends before proper completion.a=HP-UX_B.fa=HP-UX_B. The software specification for the patch product appears in the output as a comment. A software specification must name either a product or a bundle.fa=HP-UX_B.fileset][. Each session is saved to the file $HOME/. From an interactive session.a=HP-UX_B. the default location for a session file is $HOME/.11.fa=HP-UX_B. save session information by executing swinstall or swcopy with the -C session__file option.fa=HP-UX_B.11. If you do not specify a directory.11. HP-UX Patch Management 73 .sw/sessions/{command}.v=HP PHKL_18543.l=/. and filesets can be specified only within a product.CORE-KRN PHKL_18543.11.KERN2-RUN.VXFS-PRG PHKL_18543.Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands Software Specifications When an SD-UX command can be supplied a software selection.r=1.

use the Recall Session option from the File menu. specify the session file as the argument for the -S session__file option of swinstall or swcopy.defaults is only usable as a template for copying to other option files.sw/defaults file affect only you and not the entire system. default values. 3.sw. Option values in a session file affect activities only for that session and revert when that session is completed. 2. NOTE: Use of session files is not recommended with swremove because the session file could include software selections that you do not want included in the removal operation. The /usr/lib/sw/sys. and the resulting system behavior for each. after changing daemon options. type: /usr/sbin/swagentd -r 74 . For system-wide policy setting. Option values in /var/adm/sw/defaults file affect all users in a system. They can also be changed using the GUI Options Editor. all other allowable values. the daemon must be restarted for these options to be recognized. Note that when you re-execute a session file. Because the daemon is already running. Values in these option files are specified using this syntax: [command.defaults file is a template that lists and explains each option. Option values changed on the command line affect only that activity. use the /var/adm/sw/defaults file. These options are listed as comments that you can copy into the system defaults file (/var/adm/sw/defaults) or your personal defaults file ($HOME/. the values in the session file take precedence over values in the system defaults file. Altering option values and storing them in a defaults file can help when you want the SD-UX command to behave the same way each time the command is invoked. Option values in /usr/lib/sw/sys. 5. Keep in mind. Options in the defaults file are read as part of command initialization. Setting Default Values for Command Options SD-UX commands have extensive options that alter command behavior. however. or command line changes. To re-execute a session from a command-line. that individual users may override these values with their own $HOME/. any command line options or parameters that you specify when you invoke swinstall or swcopy take precedence over the values in the session file.]option=value These rules govern the way the defaults work: 1.defaults). These values can also be overridden by specifying an options file with the -X option_file command-line option or with one or more -x option=value options directly on the command line. Option values in your personal $HOME/. 4.sw/defaults file. session files. Likewise. To restart the daemon.Other Options and Aids to Using the SD-UX Commands To re-execute a saved session from an interactive session.

X releases) the patch fileset. Starbase.general HP-UX commands. xx = area patched: CO . This identifier is used for the patch shar. Format is: PHxx_yyyy where: PH = Patch HP-UX. text. and depot files as well as the patch product and (in HP-UX 10.kernel patches. NE . SS .an HP-UX subsystem patch name.all other subsystems: X11.network specific patches. HP-UX Patch Management 75 .The Patch Text File Appendix C The Patch Text File Fields Patch Name The name of the patch. etc. Patch Description A one-line description that describes this cumulative patch. Creation Date The date that the patch was created. yyyyy = a unique number Example: PHSS_14014 . KL .

Critical Yes/No followed by text. Causes data loss or corruption. This flags the Critical status of this patch and all superseded patches. The current choices for supported releases are: /hp-ux_patches/s700_800/11.The Patch Text File Fields Post Date The date that the patch was posted for general distribution. Status This is the support status of the patch. product.com). either GR or SP. i. • SP = Special Release site-specific patches for installation at one specific customer or set of customers.e.external. Delivers a fix related to processing dates in the year 2000 and beyond. and dependency requirements. A patch is considered critical if it fixes a critical problem or it supersedes a patch fixing a critical problem. Path Name The path name is the patch’s storage location on the HP Electronic Support Center ftp server (ftp://us-ffs. A problem is critical if it: • • • • Causes the system (OS/kernel) to fail/crash/panic. a non-core operating system product. Causes a major application to fail such that the system’s operation is severely impacted. where: • GR = General Release patch should be installed on all systems meeting the OS. Hardware Platforms . If the patch is for the core operating system. Products This field lists the product name and all product revisions to which this patch applies if it is a patch for an optional product. Filesets This is a list of all the filesets which contain one or more files included in this patch. and other non-GR patches.OS Releases The hardware platforms and HP-UX OS releases on which this patch can be installed.X/PHxx_yyyy 76 . the value in this field is N/A. Automatic Reboot? Yes/No (whether or not this patch requires a reboot after installation).hp.

and thereby. the full path of the library is listed with the object module following in parentheses. HP-UX Patch Management 77 . both on a file basis as well as on a behavioral basis.o). SR All Service Request (SR) numbers addressed by this patch and all its predecessors. An SR is a formal request from a customer to have a defect resolved or a feature added to HP software. Patch Files The full installed path name of all files in this patch.o in the library /usr/conf/lib/libhp-ux. specifically what a user would experience. Hardware Dependencies Specific system models to which this patch is limited. If the patch replaces an object module in a library. Defect Description A detailed description of the defect that specifically addresses the explicit conditions which caused the problem (if known).13 $ Patch Conflicts All known patch conflicts. Supersedes A list of all patches replaced by this patch. Patch Dependencies All patches that must be installed to insure proper operation of this patch.The Patch Text File Fields Symptoms The external symptoms of the problem. Also include methods to verify if the patch needs to be installed. if a patch replaces the object module vers.a the path listed would be /usr/conf/lib/libhp-ux. what(1) Output The output from what(1) for each file or library object file listed in the Patch Files field. The what string is a way to identify the software version. verify that the patch is installed. and how to reproduce the problem (if known).a(vers. Other Dependencies Any non-patch and non-hardware dependencies that may exist. For example. Example: $Revision: 1.

The Patch Text File Fields Equivalent Patches All equivalent patches for other hardware platforms and OS releases not including this patch. These instructions have been included in this tutorial. Special Installation Instructions Any special instructions not included in those mentioned above. 78 . Installation Instructions The standard installation instructions common to all patches. Patch Package Size The SD depot size in Kilobytes.