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# E.

Drilling
Drilling and blasting a material is an inexact science
with many unknowns.

Without a thorough study of the

physical parameters of the material to be drilled and

As often as

not in a preliminary feasibility study, there is little
or no physical data on which to base the drill calculations.
The calculation procedures in this study guide give enough
data for the engineer to make a reasonable estimate of
the required rock parameters.

It will also enable you to

arrive at probable drilling scenario and the necessary
equipment for the jobo
1. Selecting a blast hole diameter -- There are no
prescribed calculation methods to determine a blast
hole diameter.

In general, the hole size is determined

by experience, blasting procedures at nearby mines,
and a "rule-of-thumb" that the hole diameter in inches
should be in the range of theluLLe_depth in feet
!!/
divided by a factor of 4 to /7. As an example, an
"

estimated hole diameter for drilling an overburden
depth of 60, feet would be from 8 tO/k2 inches.

Bit

sizes and the drill pipe diameters are shown in
Table 4-12.

2. Drilling pattern
See Figure 4-3 for various typical drilling patterns
and dimensional relationships.

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IE-SI~ Faca O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O Pattern Square :/ S2 = 2B 2 SI=1..4B 2 S. O Face B2 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Face ~52-t-5.4B 2 Face O O O O O ~o O O Face O Equilateral Figure O 4-3 . = B. 78 .Various basic Pattern blasthole drill patterns.--lJ Offset S2= B I o Pattern 52 = 2B 2 SI =1.

.. The first is to adjust for different rock densities.J D 35 soft rock = hole diameter in inches NOTE: Two correction factors can be applied to the rock hardness factor.33 /160\ \cr-/ d = in-place density of rock to be blasted (see Table 4-9) 79 ._---.... of the average in-place density (160 pcf) to that of the specific material being blasted or: X = 0.ao Burden B = (Kb) (D) 12 B = burden distance.. The adjustment factor is considered to be equal to the cube root of the ratio ------_._. in feet Kb = rock hardness factor 25 hard rock 30 average hardness . l· ' •....

7-2.9-2.wet Clay & gravel - Earth Sand - -- JI 1.9 30.8 15.4 107 126 18. 5-1.0 1.0 Limestone 2.4 1.5 22.2 61 65 32.5 18.4 121 16.3 175 11./ Ton Pounds/ Cu.6-2.8 94 78 21.0 104 115 19. loose damp wet Sand & gravel l' Broken ---------------- - dry .8 150 13.5 19.6 2.0-3.3 78 25.7 15.3 107 18.4 140 14.1-1. Cu.4 1. 9 1. Ft.0 Top soil 1.5-2.7 Shale 2.8-2.dry .2 1.5 1.Ft.1 129 15./ Ton ------- ------- ------- ------- ------- 2.9 180 11.wet 80 .0-2.2 21.0 16.1 118 17.5 Siderite 3.4-1.7 14.8 1.3 154 13. Ft.6 100 119 130 20.0 2.8 160 12.9 Trap rock 2.8 Decomposed rock 1.4 89 106 115 22.0 175 11.6-2.6 1.0-2.7 119 96 16.8 Coal-bituminous -lignite 1.7-2.9 165 12.8 20.1 1.9 215 9.6 85 23.9 17.9 17.6-3.7-2.3-1.7 Dolomite 2.0 Slate 2.4 15.2-1.2 25.5 59 33.6 85 90 23.8 165 12.4-2.wet dry packed loam dry.4 125 16.Ft.4-2.4 126 115 130 15.2 17.4 104 93 104 19.2 2.5 Material ------------------Caliche Clay - natural bed dry .3-3.8 142 14. .5 20.0-2.TABLE 4-90 WEIGHTS OF VARIOUS ROCK MATERIALS Solid ---------------- Density Pounds/ Cu.9-2.4 89 96 22. Cu.2 1.0-2.1 107 18.6 Gypsum 2.3-1.5 120 139 16.5 114 17.1-2.1 118 17.9 Sandstone 2.

1 "S . r¡): :: H = (Kh) (B) ) -r-.t'V--.6 Íor average rock) B = Burden. ...33 Y = j(Density) (Velocity) \ 187. Ks = spacing factor. Spacing distance s = s (Ks) (B) = spacing.. Subgrade drilling (if the bottorn of the blast hole ended at the top of the coal searn there would be no subgrade drilling) SB= (Kj)(B) -. in feet Kh = 1.The second rnodifying factor is for the physical properties of the explosive used.. in feet !"" v.. \ e. t \ .. .Joro ! 7 / rrv !? '2 .J::. Maxirnurn hole depth <2\'lIJ el c_ H = Hole depth. .... in f ee t [D Kj = 0..5 to 4. SB = Subgrade drilling depth. (~-H -:: ..! -t.j O' .. 1-1 . see Figure 4-3 B = burden./ 81 '. in feet .'l •. This factor is equal to the cube root of the product of the density and the detonating velocity squared of the explosive 3 used (see Table 10-)) to that of the standard or: 2 0.4 í =- .> (J B = Burden./ r - d.000. \. J :: _ J \. in feet c. in feet. .000 \ j The net correction factor = (X) (Y) b.2 to 0. (2. 1 to 2.0 .oí .

hard . see Table 4-10 W O = Weight per inch of bit diameter.3.. . ...2810g P.. . RPM D = Drill bit diameter. 1973. -S Very soft 14 x 10 80ft 12 x 10 Medium-soft . 8ME Mining Engineering Handbook. . . in thousands of P8I. in thousands of pounds.. . ....S (K) (N) (D 1... Drill penetration rate P = (61 .S ) (W = Rotary horsepower = Formation constant (adapted from AIME. Maximum drill rotation horsepower Hp Hp K = 2. .. .C)/W\/RPM\ 10 P rzc \0/\300/ = Penetration rate.. .. see Table 4-11 82 . in inches W = Bit loading in thousands of pounds. -S -S 10 x 10 -S 10 Medium 8 x Hard 6 x 10 Very -S -S 4 x 10 N = Rotary speed.. see Table 4-11 RPM = Revolutions per minute of drill pipe 4. .) Formation Type -------------- K ------------- .. feet per operating hour = Uniaxial compressive strength.

000- 5.000 36.000 24.000 30..tJ') r.:)/~l'l¡r:.000- 100. 83 .000 + Quartzite Taconite Tungsten carbide button .000 Medium formationsi limestones.000 Maximum weight for largest bit size indicated..000 Hard limestone soft granite Gneiss Tungsten carbide button. limestone and evaporites 1. 6 .- TABLE 4-11.000 .·.: .6 in.:. scraper Medium 6.000 maximum Shale .50.TABLE 4-100 ROCK CLASSIFICATION AND TYPE OF BIT Rock Classification Compressive Rock Strengtho PSI Typical Formations Bit Type Soft 6. Source: AIME..000 40.I/.9 in.Q'L. kerf. 4 .0004.. quartzite.t Medium-hard 12. and sandstones 3.000 Diorite Hard granite Tungsten carbide button Very hard 50.. Very soft formationsi overburden.000- 16. Hardpan /idrd S-'{J\$D.12 in.000- 6.000- 24. granite.000- 9.000 45.000 4.000- 36.. in.000- 27.! Milled-tooth.000* Hard and very hard formationsi basalt. disk (c: Ji e f.·. roller or kerf Hard 25. SME Mining Engineers Handbook.sc::Marble .25. BIT WEIGHT AS A FUNCTION OF ROCK STRENGTH AND BIT SIZE vii O Rock Strength vJ Weight per Recommended Bit Loading for Bit Size Indicated .000 ..Lb.000- 8.000 Limestone .lv Clay ú'r. of Dia.• Ct(C.000* 60.000- 12. 1973. kerf. drag. 9 ..000 ..12. lbs.000 60..:> ( Milled-tooth.000- 18. soft shales. taconite * 4.¡ 2:. Sandstone cf.000 48. dolomite.

6 (54600) (P) (Z P + 62. Check the results with Table 4-12.5. 1 1 i'! l'li kJ 84 . in cubic feet per minute v = Maximum air velocity. Air flushing requirements a.d } 183. in feet per minute Rock density. in feet b. Air velocity required to flush hole of cuttings V v = P = = 0. in pounds per cubic foot. The calculated values should be in the same range. in inches d = Drill pipe.3 Q = Required air quantity. in feet per minute D = Hole diameter. outside diameter in inches c. Air quantity required to flush hole of cuttings 2 2 Q = V(D .4 ) Maximum air velocity. see Table 4-1 or Table 4-9 Z = Chip diameter produced.

inthes IDl . ii . and 7.-----------. i' 1 .ioches (D) 557 458 305 162 491 3B2 280 687 535 2 7/8 2331 1936 1488 1222 798 1323 1022 627 450 1852 1431 878 630 1964 1662 1211 1090 2749 2326 1779 1526 9 2063 1882 10 1365 941 2888 2635 1911 1317 2429 2004 3400 2806 10 10 3/4 12 13 3409 2985 1527 4772 4179 3093 2138 13 14 16 3743 3007 1370 5240 4210 1918 7 7 3/4 7 9 7/8 7 3/4 8 5/8 9 7 392 637 530 426 892 1025 71B 535 12 1/4 5 732 513 382 3112 4 4 112 908 805 690 1271 1127 13 3/4 5 560 5112 408 784 571 3 112 4 742 7 3/4 8 5/8 9 596 8 5/8 3 112 6 114 él 3/4 7 3/8 ------------ 4 1/2 3 1/2 4 112 5 112 ------~----- 3 112 7 718 4 112 5 112 6 114 b 5/8 7 1150 932 658 493 355 10 3/4 10 10 3/4 9bb 15 1610 1305 921 -------------. per minute anoualar velocityl Hale Dia.-------------.-------------- 542 374 221 398 327 218 116 Pipe dia.)-. Pipe O.-------------4 1/4 4 112 2 318 2 7/8 3112 2 3/8 2 718 3 1/2 4 2 718 5 118 3112 4 387 2b7 158 Hale dia.TABLE 4-12 AIR VOlUMES REQUIRED FDR DRILLIN6 15.ioches Id) 1900 1503 1214 875 690 497 17112 2209 85 . 5000 FPN free aír (VI . 7000 FPM free air IV) -----------.D.000 Ft.-------------1357 1138 867 625 7000 FPM free air IV) 1665 1383 1063 873 570 4 112 5 112 6 5/8 11 5 5/B 5000 FfM free air (VI ------------1------------1--------------.000 Ft.loches Id) .

between 80 to 95% . breaking.Job efficiency (J).Rotational horsepower .I) cubic feet/minute horsepower . Drill size calculations a.Type bit .Net operating hours per shift (OH) OH = (S) (A) (U) (J) 86 . l' ó-r .0 mino .Scheduled hours per day (8) .0 mino 1.Air volume (r-o..Pull down force . Summary of drill selection data . ~\c. 90% + .Utilization (U)."'- . and hoisting 0.0 to 5.Bailing airvelocity / .Drill pipe diameter inches ----o .2 to 1.Type stabilizer 7.Moving' between holes Leveling drill 0.6.Mechanical and electrical availability (A)..7 mino Total cycle time mino 8. hole depth-ft. (.Hole diameter inches . Work parameters . generally 50 to 80% . (A pounds feet/minute !-..2 to 0.8 mino Pulling pipe.4 to 0. Penetration rate-fpm Adding pipe 0. Drill cycle time per drill hole Drilling mino Ave.

Number of drills required Drill(s) required = Drill shifts/Day A A = mechanical and electrical availability 87 .) (Hale depth) .Shot pattern.-'l/:!' e.(----V-=-). Calculations -.Total cubic yards of materialbroken per hole Total CY = (CY/Ft..Average hole depth. (S---D---M=D~) Y = the required yardage to be blasted per year v = the bank cubic yards of material to blasted per year SD = scheduled operating days per year MD = major moving days in which no drilling will take place .Cubic yards requiring blasting per year (Y) BCY/Yr. . burden x spacing in feet ~ Cubic yards of material shot per foot of hale depth (CY/FT. t J í ..Number of holes to be drilled per day Holes per day = Y -. \(Y -- b... in feet .) .Number of holes drilled per shift by one drill Holes/Shift/Drill = Drilling hours per shift Drill cycle time Drill shifts required per day Drill shifts/Day = Holes required per day Holes/Shift/Drill ..

Once the drill has been selected. the calculations should be run again to see if the number of drills required remains the same. and the skill of the drillers. This includes the type of travel surface. 88 . Drill selection .A drill can be selected from the manufacture's specifications for a particular drill modelo The drill selected should fit the working parameters and the general working conditions. the the frequency and length of major moves. the variation of the material being drilled.c.