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7/7/09

Diagnostic Testing of
Power Transformer using
Sweep Frequency
Response Analysis
Arturo H. Oropeza
Doble Engineering Company

FRA = “Frequency Response Analysis”
FRA is the measurement of a system to a particular
input at various frequencies.
• There is no right or wrong answer, just the
response
• You put something in and you get something out

Black
Input

Box

Response

89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry

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7/7/09 • FRA represents a systems response to a sinusoidal input at varying frequencies • The output will be the same frequency but at different phase and magnitude • FRA has been around for decades in a variety of industries 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 3 Audio • Speaker performance • Radio Telecom • Communication performance • Satellite Telemetry • Cell Phones • TV 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 4 2 .

7/7/09 To distinguish the test methodology or equipment using a SWEEP approach Other method is the Impulse technique (IFRA) Impulse results have poor resolution. lack the range required for a portable field instrument translating in poor diagnosis and are usually unrepeatable 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 5 For NOW we apply SFRA in Transformer Condition Assessment (TCA) Other uses:* • Wave traps • Instrument Transformers • Rotating Machinery *still studying best application and interpretation for these 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 6 3 .

7/7/09 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 7 • SFRA is a leading method to analyze the physical winding condition of a transformer • Will not tell you if the unit is contaminated • Will not tell you when it will fail • Provides relative information about winding’s physical condition 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 8 4 .

7/7/09 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry • • • • • • 9 Dissipation or Power Factor and Capacitance Excitation Current TTR (Low and High Voltage Doble method) Leakage Reactance Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) Dissolved Gas Analysis These independent diagnostic methods have their place in ascertaining transformer condition 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 10 5 .

7/7/09 – Broad • • • • Power Factor and Capacitance Excitation Current TTR (High Voltage and Low Voltage) Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) – Narrow • Sweep Frequency Response Analysis (SFRA) • Leakage Reactance 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 11 • Transformers are subject to immense stresses during service – impact. nearby or internal faults. 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 12 6 . winding movement or core damage • Allowing a transformer to enter service without detecting these types of problem is risking catastrophic failure of the transformer • SFRA aids detection and permits diagnosis in a timely manner. overloads • These stresses may cause winding deformation.

7/7/09 Assess Mechanical Condition of Transformers (Mechanical Distortions) Detect Core and Winding Movement Due to: – Large Electromagnetic Forces From Fault Currents – Winding shrinkage causing release of clamping pressure – Transformer Relocation or Shipping 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 13 What is the Input?.. • A swept sinusoidal that starts at 20 Hz and ends at 2 MHz • Voltage is a constant 10 Volts Peak to Peak 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 14 7 ..

7/7/09 What is the Output?.. dB • Logarithmical display: commonly referred to as a “Bode Plot” • Linear display 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 15 Transformers may be represented by a network of: • Resistor • Inductors • Capacitors The combination of these small elements are unique to a given transformer 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 16 8 .. • A graph of frequency vs.

frequency Inductor: Increased impedance with increased frequency. open circuit at low frequency 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 17 Capacitive climb back Inductive roll off Resonance 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 18 9 . dead short at low frequency Capacitor: Reduced impedance with increased frequency. capacitor and inductor Resistance: Flat response vs.7/7/09 • Impedance of an ideal resistor.

7/7/09 • We get a resonance for an inductor-capacitor (LC) combination • Changing L or changing C gives a new resonance • L and C are dependent on geometry • Changing R changes the size of the resonance 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 19 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 20 10 .

7/7/09 • A transformer may be modeled using lumped parameters • A simple model is a parallel RLC circuit • This has a predictable response as we explained in previous slides 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 21 Three phases of one transformer Low frequency responses follow expected form High frequency responses show phase-to-phase variation which is common 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 22 11 .

7/7/09 Three phases of one transformer Low frequency responses are different to Wye windings High frequency responses are similar phase-to-phase. this is common 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 23 One phase of one transformer Main winding responses Tested at 9 Tap winding tap positions responses show stepwise variation 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 24 12 .

residual magnetism 2kHz . loose clamping 20kHz .400kHz: Winding and Tap Changer deformations 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 25 • Interpretation – adequate training • Rely on experts when needed – there is no substitute for knowledge and experience • Build a Library of results • Correlate results from SFRA and other tests • Subscribe to Users Groups to share experiences (i. open circuits. Doble SFRA User Group) • Find Resources (i.2MHz: lead connection movement (Windings and/or LTC/DETC) 20Hz .e. shorted turns.7/7/09 Different frequencies represent different problems 400kHz .2kHz: core deformation.e.20kHz: winding movement. Doble SFRA Resource Center available to Doble users) 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 26 13 .

7/7/09 • Poor Grounding • Absence of Oil • Magnetized Core • Comparing similar units 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 27 Three single phase transformers measured for comparison One phase has poor ground connection during measurement Otherwise results were OK. it is important to make good connections 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 28 14 .

7/7/09 One phase of one transformer measured with and without oil Without Oil .but need retest after demag for confirmation 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 30 15 .in blue With Oil in white Removing oil lowers capacitances and resonances shift to higher frequencies 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry Same phase measured on arrival at site Low frequency responses show offset due to core magnetization 29 High frequency responses unchanged Results are acceptable .

7/7/09 Two transformers with successive serial numbers Results are good High frequency responses show very good correspondence: indicating very similar construction Low frequency responses show effect of core magnetization variation is identifiable and89acceptable Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 31 • FRA is a useful and sensitive tool • SFRA is a reliable and repeatable method of making FRA measurements • Can be used routinely or after an incident • Use as part of factory QA and/or relocation 89 Years of Diagnostic Instrumentation and Services for the Electric Power Industry 32 16 .

Any questions? Arturo H.7/7/09 Thank you.com 17 . Oropeza Doble Engineering Company aoropeza@doble.