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REFERENCE SCHEMATIC 3450

Positive Analog Feedback Compensates PT100 Transducer
© Feb 21, 2005, Maxim Integrated Products, Inc.
Abstract: This article reviews the basic characteristics of common temperature sensors, describes the
RTD PT100 temperature transducer, and explains a simple analog approach for linearizing and
conditioning the output of that device.
Temperature is one of the most measured physical parameters. Thermocouple and resistance
temperature detector (RTD) sensors are adequate for most high-temperature measurements, but one
should choose a sensor that has characteristics best suited for the application. Table 1 offers general
guidelines for choosing a sensor.
Table 1. Sensor Attributes
Feature
Response time
Maximum temperature
Ruggedness
Cost efficiency
Accuracy
Long-term stability
Standardization

Thermocouple
Better
Higher
Better
Better

RTDs offer high precision and an operating range of -200°C to +850°C. They also have an electrical
output that is easily transmitted, switched, displayed, recorded, and processed using suitable dataprocessing equipment. Because RTD resistance is proportional to temperature, applying a known
current through the resistance produces an output voltage that increases with temperature.
Knowledge of the exact relationship between resistance and temperature allows calculation of a given
temperature.
The change in electrical resistance vs. temperature for a material is termed the "temperature
coefficient of resistance" for that material. The temperature coefficient for most metals is positive, and
for many pure metals is essentially constant over a large portion of the useful temperature range.
Moreover, a resistance thermometer is the most stable, accurate, and linear device available for
temperature measurement. The resistivity of metal used in an RTD (including platinum, copper, and
nickel) depends on the range of temperature measurements desired.
The nominal resistance of a platinum RTD is 100Ω at 0°C. Though platinum RTDs are highly
standardized, they conform to multiple standards that are not identical worldwide. Therefore,
problems arise when an RTD built to one standard is used with an instrument designed to a different
standard.
Table 2. Common Standards for Platinum RTDs*

ALPHA (α): Average temperature coeffic
resistance (/°C)
British Standard
BS 1904: 1984
0.003850
Deutschen Institut für Normung
DIN 43760: 1980
0.003850
International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 751: 1995 (Amend. 0.00385055
Organization

Standard

32 125.72 -70 72.33 74. The PT100 RTD is described by the following generic equation.39 124.13 70.53 71.95 105.33 75.85 109.84 128.16 120.93 75.04 86.89 63.59 -10 96. Table 3.22 87.16 128.62 124.52 0 100 99.78 101.26 -90 64.29 86.33 71.4 119.48 83.87 65.83 113.22 128.34 106.78 120.17 101.07 127.92 67. As a result.83 87.183 E-12 below 0°C.53 75.65 6 102.12 113.56 10 103.73 113.61 99.46 20 107.72 °C 0 1 2 3 4 -40 84.19 94.57 108.98 90.67 112.12 98.27 83.6 5 6 62.12 66.32 67.92 6 81.61 117.77 91.29 104.3 63.12 78.01 124.003923 America Japanese Standard JIS C1604-1981 0.8 93.85 6 121.09 95.44 °C 0 1 2 3 4 0 100 100.9 85.7 117.9 104. 100.003916 American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM E1137 0.73 -60 76. repeatability.08 °C 0 1 2 3 4 50 119.34 30 111.22 98.93 60 123.31 116.24 123.775 E-7 C = -4.0Ω at 0°C °C 0 1 2 3 4 -100 60. and zero above 0°C See Table 3 for the corresponding data in tabular form.36 .83 98.00385055 *Sensing Devices.13 74.69 -30 88.93 71.99 117. Resistance/Temperature Table** for 385 Platinum.96 109. Platinum's long-term stability.39 100.33 78.9083 E-3 B = -5.47 5 121.07 105.31 70.18 108.64 -20 92.08 62.54 129.93 77.68 -80 68. which makes obvious a nonlinear relationship between temperature and resistance: RT = R0(1 + AT + BT² + C(T-100)T³) where: A = 3.98 61.25 90.04 5 101.3 94.37 90. Inc.06 112. and wide temperature range make it a useful choice in many applications.88 83.77 70 127.16 91.08 82.51 79.43 87.73 -50 80.24 110.2) Scientific Apparatus Manufacturers of SAMA RC-4-1966 0. platinum RTDs are recognized as the most reliable standard available for temperature measurement.92 116.55 120.54 115.91 94.91 79.49 63.52 67. fast response time. manufactures platinum RTDs to these thermometry standards.85 89.45 127.69 95.73 97.93 73.7 125.32 5 82.28 66.31 79.68 105.91 69.45 112.22 40 115.79 108.

68 174.16 165.33 155.81 162.24 169.84 172.04 164.21 172.06 149.28 166.04 135.84 **RTD PT100 table showing the relation between resistance and temperature.18 147.26 143.44 150.7 3 170.55 148.27 135.95 1 157.37 6 200 175.79 165.27 3 132.62 170.4 144.76 168. This two-wire connection affects measurement accuracy by adding resistance in series with the RTD.82 150.88 169.42 147.95 154.32 2 170.82 153.77 144.32 174 5 133.84 3 139.70 173.82 6 159.18 162.07 4 170.44 162.53 1 131.02 143.99 170.98 6 140.70 0 157.95 173.18 136.57 151.53 166.04 146. .08 155.7 0 138.46 2 139.69 161.45 5 159.32 152.08 1 138.9 2 132.66 135.89 134.16 0 131.42 136.19 150.7 155.56 163.64 143.06 161.80 90 °C 100 110 120 130 140 °C 150 160 170 180 190 °C 130.47 172.5 142.42 165.13 168.6 5 140.2 153.29 146.8 136.94 151.88 142.70 154.32 161.8 147.64 4 132. Figure 1.66 146.5 169.22 4 140.9 166.

you must first identify the two closest resistance values (those above and below the measured RTD value). An additional third wire to the RTD allows compensation for the wire resistance. three wires. A lookup table necessarily contains a limited number of resistance/temperature values. which eliminates the effect of voltage drops in the two connecting wires. Figure 3. or four wires (Figures 1. On the other hand. based on the actual measured RTD resistance. and 3). 2. Several analog and digital approaches are available for compensating a PT100 RTD for nonlinearity. A four-wire approach enables Kelvin sensing. A lookup table located in µP memory allows an application to convert (through interpolation) a measured PT100 resistance to the corresponding linearized temperature. The only restriction is that the main connecting wires have the same characteristics.Figure 2. If the lookup table has a resolution of . for instance. for example.73Ω. You can connect a PT100 RTD to the measuring application using two wires. as dictated by the required accuracy and the amount of memory available. the previous generic equation offers a possibility of calculating temperature values directly. To calculate a specific temperature. and then interpolate between them. Digital linearization. can be implemented with a lookup table or by implementing the previous generic equation. Consider a measured resistance of 109.

79Ω (20°C) and 111. It may be necessary to add gain adjustment (span) and a level shift (offset) to cover an output range of -100mV at -100°C to 200mV at 200°C.67Ω (30°C).10°C. The transfer function can easily be established by applying the superposition principle: . but the small circuit in Figure 4 performs accurate linearity compensation using the analog approach. This analog circuit linearizes an RTD output.97V at 200°C.97V at -100°C and 2. Figure 4. That feedback helps to linearize the transfer function by providing a slightly higher output at high PT100 values. Interpolation using these three values leads to: This digital approach requires use of a microprocessor (µP). for example. The suggested way to compensate for nonlinearity in the PT100 element is to apply a small amount of positive feedback through R2. It provides outputs of 0. the two closest values might be 107.

and Figure 6 shows a linearized version of the circuit output vs.Figure 5 shows the raw PT100 output vs. a linear approximation to that output. The graphs of Figures 7 and 8 illustrate the PT100 error before and after analog compensation. a linear approximation of the form y = ax + b. Raw output of a normalized PT100 vs. the linear approximation. Each figure shows the calculated relationship between temperature and resistance compared to the output calculated from the Figure 4 circuit. Figure 5. .

and a linear approximation of the PT100 relation between temperature and resistance. showing the error after linearization. . a linear approximation to that output.Figure 6. representing the deviation between raw PT100 output. Analog-compensated output vs. Normalized error. Figure 7.

Normally.2mW to 0. Normalizing the curves of Figures 7 and 8 makes it easy to assess the performance of the Figure 4 circuit. Additionally. The exercise above shows that analog compensation can reduce PT100 errors by a factor of approximately 80. however. without additional software overhead. requires a linear relationship between PT100 resistance and temperature. low power dissipation in the PT100 (0. a current source. An example of the digital approach (Figure 9) involves an RTD. That approach. Digital approach: An ADC converts the RTD output to digital under control of a µP. Then. a difference amplifier. A temperature measurement is accomplished by driving a current of 1mA to 2mA through the sensor and measuring the resulting voltage drop across . Normalized error. it is always preferable to minimize the need for adjustments and control measurements during production and calibration. it is best to adjust only the offset and span at two PT100 values. Thus. representing the deviation between the linearized output of Figure 4 and a linear approximation of the PT100 relation between temperature and resistance. Figure 9. the µP calculates the corresponding temperature using a lookup table. for example. which is not the case.6mW) minimizes self-heating. assuming the transfer function exhibits a linear correlation between the PT100 value and the measured temperature. PT100 signals linearized using the analog approach allow an easy interface to ±200mV panel meters.Figure 8. and an ADC controlled by a µP (not shown). When calibrating an analog thermometer.

2013 | 10 Calificaciones | 4.30 fuera de 5 | Read in English | PDF . Because the sense wires connect to the amplifier's high-impedance inputs. Guía para Realizar Medidas de Temperatura con RTDs Fecha de Publicación: ago 19. The 4096mV reference and 3. replace the RTD with two precision resistors (100Ω for 0°C. To calibrate the system. Thus. they have very low current and virtually no voltage drop. driving the ADC and current source with the same reference voltage produces a ratiometric measurement in which reference drift does not influence the conversion result. An internal 4.096V reference simplifies the generation of excitation current for the sensor. you can measure resistance values up to 400Ω.3kΩ = 1.it. Higher currents cause higher power dissipation in the sensor. To prevent wire resistance from affecting measurement accuracy. which in turn causes measurement errors due to self-heating. The µP can use a lookup table to linearize the sensor signal. and 300Ω or higher for full span) and store the conversion results.24mA. By configuring the MAX197 for an input range of 0V to 5V and setting the differential amplifier for a gain of 10. which represents about +800°C. four separate wires connect the RTD to the differential amplifier.3kΩ feedback resistor sets the excitation current to approximately 4096mV/3.

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