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20 A round steel tie rod is used as a tension member to support a dead load of 190 kN and a live load

of 220 kN. The yield strength of the steel is 320 MPa.

(a) Use the ASD method to determine the minimum diameter D required for the tie rod if a factor of

safety of 2.0 with respect to yielding is required.

(b) Use the LRFD method to determine the minimum diameter D required for the tie rod based on

yielding of the gross section using the LRFD method. Use a resistance factor of t = 0.9 and load factors

of 1.2 and 1.6 for the dead and live loads, respectively.

Solution

(a) The service load on the axial member is

P D L 190 kN 220 kN 410 kN

The allowable normal stress is

320 MPa

allow Y

160 MPa

FS

2.0

The minimum cross-sectional area required to support the service load is

P

(410 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

Amin

2,562.500 mm 2

allow

160 N/mm 2

and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is

2

d min 2,562.500 mm 2

d min 57.1 mm

4

(b) The ultimate load for LRFD is

U 1.2D 1.6L 1.2(190 kN) 1.6(220 kN) 580 kN

The design equation for an axial member subjected to tension can be written in LRFD as

t Y A U

Consequently, the minimum cross-sectional area required for the tension member is

U

(580 kN)(1,000 N/kN)

Amin

2, 013.889 mm 2

2

t Y

0.9(320 N/mm )

and thus, the minimum tie rod diameter is

2

d min 2,013.889 mm 2

d min 50.6 mm

4

Ans.

Ans.

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only

to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that

permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

9676 mm A1 E1 (540 mm 2 )(28.5 GPa. 000 N/mm 2 ) and the deformation in bar (2) can be computed as FL (65 kN)(1.9676 mm (5.18 mm Ans. Determine the deflection of point A relative to support C.500 N/mm 2 ) The deflection of point A relative to the support at C is the sum of these two deformations: uA 1 2 1.5 An axial member consisting of two polymer bars is supported at C as shown in Figure P5. FIGURE P5.150 mm) 2 2 2 5.5 Solution Draw a FBD that cuts through member (1) to find that the internal axial force in member (1) is F1 35 kN (T) Similarly.18 mm 3. . Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. draw a FBD that cuts through member (2) and includes the free end of the axial member.P5. the internal axial force in member (2) is F2 65 kN 65 kN (C) The deformation in bar (1) can be computed as F L (35 kN)(1. Bar (2) has a cross-sectional area of 880 mm2 and an elastic modulus of 16.1481 mm) 3. From this FBD. Bar (1) has a cross-sectional area of 540 mm2 and an elastic modulus of 28 GPa.000 N/kN)(1.1481 mm A2 E2 (880 mm 2 )(16. the equilibrium equation is Fx 35 kN 50 kN 50 kN F2 0 Therefore. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.5.000 N/kN)(850 mm) 1 1 1 1.

000 mm/m) 1 44.686 mm 4 32 32 D24 d 24 (150 mm)4 (130 mm)4 21.281 mm 4 32 32 Shear stress magnitudes: (24 kN-m)(200 mm / 2)(1. Determine the maximum shear stress magnitude in each shaft segment.661. which act in the directions shown in Figure P6. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Segment (1) has an outside diameter of 200 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm.281 mm 4 Ans.000 N/kN)(1.019.000 N/kN)(1.3 MPa 21.019.000 mm/m) 2 62. FIGURE P6.4 A compound shaft consists of two pipe segments.4/5 Solution Equilibrium: M x T1 42 kN-m 18 kN-m 0 M x T2 18 kN-m 0 Section properties: J1 J2 T1 24 kN-m T2 18 kN-m D14 d14 (200 mm)4 (180 mm) 4 54. Ans. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. The shaft is subjected to torques TB = 42 kN-m and TC = 18 kN-m.4/5.686 mm 4 (18 kN-m)(150 mm / 2)(1.551. Segment (2) has an outside diameter of 150 mm and a wall thickness of 10 mm.P6.4 MPa 54. .

/ 2)(12 in. (b) Determine the maximum shear stress magnitude in the shaft. (a) Plot a torque diagram showing the internal torque in segments (1).031063 in./ft) 2 2 2 5.4 3 T3c3 (30 lb-ft)(0.75 in. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Use the sign convention presented in Section 6-6.031063 in.346. FIGURE P6.75 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. and (3) of the shaft.0 psi J3 0.8.031063 in.-diameter shaft is subjected to the torques shown in Figure P6.790 psi Ans.8 Solution Equilibrium: M x T1 10 lb-ft 0 T1 10 lb-ft M x T2 10 lb-ft 50 lb-ft 0 T2 40 lb-ft M x T3 30 lb-ft 0 T3 30 lb-ft Section properties: J1 J 2 J 3 32 (0. / 2)(12 in.7 psi J2 0. (2).75 in. / 2)(12 in.75-in.4 The maximum shear stress in the shaft occurs in segment (2): max 5.) 4 0.4 Tc (40 lb-ft)(0. 448. .8 A solid 0.4 Shear stress magnitudes: T c (10 lb-ft)(0./ft) 1 1 1 1.P6.75 in.031063 in.7 psi J1 0. The bearings shown allow the shaft to turn freely./ft) 4.794.

the sum of forces in the vertical direction reveals the internal force in the segment: Fy F2 14 kN 28 kN 0 F2 42 kN (T) The cross-sectional area of the 25-mm-diameter segment is A2 (25 mm) 2 490.006883 mm A1 E1 (490. . From this FBD. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. (b) the deflection of joint D with respect to the fixed support at A.P5.000 N)(1. Determine: (a) the deformation of segment (2).026740 mm 1.027 mm Ans.800 mm) 1 1 1 3.8.8739 mm 2 )(100.8 Solution (a) Draw a FBD that cuts through segment (2) and includes the free end of the axial member. FIGURE P5.8739 mm 2 4 The deformation in segment (2) is thus FL (42. (c) the maximum normal stress in the entire axial member.8 A solid brass [E = 100 GPa] axial member is loaded and supported as shown in Figure P5. Segments (1) and (2) each have a diameter of 25 mm and segment (3) has a diameter of 14 mm.200 mm) 2 2 2 A2 E2 (490. 000 N/mm 2 ) 1.8739 mm 2 )(100.000 N)(1. 000 N/mm 2 ) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. (b) The internal forces in segments (1) and (3) must be determined at the outset. From a FBD that cuts through segment (1) and includes the free end of the axial member: Fy F1 40 kN 14 kN 28 kN 0 F1 82 kN (T) The deformation in segment (1) can be computed as FL (82.

9380 mm 2 Therefore.9380 mm 2 )(100.000 N)(1. (c) Since segments (1) and (2) have the same cross-sectional area. consider a FBD that cuts through segment (3) and includes the free end of the axial member: Fy F3 28 kN 0 F3 28 kN (T) The cross-sectional area of the 14-mm-diameter segment is A3 (164 mm) 2 153.8914 MPa (T) A3 153.000 N 3 3 181.000 N 1 1 167.006883 mm 1. the maximum normal stress in the axial member occurs in segment (3): Ans.600 mm) 3 3 3 2.943885 mm 6.Similarly.810262 mm A3 E3 (153. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. .026740 mm 2. max 181.810262 mm 6. the maximum normal stress in these two segments occurs where the axial force is greater.0490 MPa (T) A1 490.8739 mm 2 The normal stress in segment (3) is F 28.9 MPa (T) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. 000 N/mm 2 ) The deflection of joint D with respect to the fixed support at A is found from the sum of the three segment deformations: u D 1 2 3 3. in segment (1): F 82.9380 mm 2 4 The deformation in segment (3) can be computed as FL (28.94 mm Ans. that is.

the deflection of the rigid bar at C is equal to the deformation of bar (2): vC 2 0.952381 mm The joint at B is also a perfect connection.(b) The elongation in the axial member is found from Eq. Bars (1) and (2) are unstressed before the load P is applied. (c) the load P.15 Rigid bar ABCD is loaded and supported as shown in Figure P5.5 m 1. the vertical deflection of joint C is related to B by similar triangles: vB v C 1. Bar (1) is made of bronze [E = 100 GPa] and has a crosssectional area of 520 mm2.15. the force in bar (2) is found to be 25 kN (in tension). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. therefore.952381 mm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.5): L L F ( x) d dx 0 0 A( x ) E For the truncated cone axial member: L 4P 4 P L dx dx 2 2 0 Ed 02 0 x x 2 Ed 0 1 1 L L 4P L 2 PL 2 x Ed 0 1 Ed 02 L 0 L Ans. P5.6 m 0. (b) the vertical deflection of point A. the deformation can be computed as: FL (25.2(0. 000 N/mm 2 ) Since the pin at C is a perfect connection.6 m vB vC 3. 000 N)(800 mm) 2 2 2 0. the downward displacement of B also causes an equal contraction in bar (1): 1 vB 0.297619 mm) 0.2vC 0.5 m 3. Determine: (a) the stresses in bars (1) and (2).297619 mm From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar. After the load P is applied.297619 mm A2 E2 (960 mm 2 )(70. . (5. FIGURE P5.15 Solution Given that the axial force in bar (2) is 25 kN (in tension). Bar (2) is made of aluminum [E = 70 GPa] and has a cross-sectional area of 960 mm2.

3 kN P Ans.Note that a downward displacement at B causes contraction (and hence.000 N/mm 2 ) 158.297619 mm) 1. The equilibrium equation for the sum of moments about D can be used to determine the load P: M D (1.5 m (c) The force in bar (2) is given as F2 = 25 kN. compression) in bar (1).730159 MPa 158.6 m)( 82.5 m)(25 kN) (1. .0 m 0.041667 MPa 26. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.2817 kN 72.5397 kN Consider a FBD of the rigid bar.5 m 2.0 MPa (T) A2 960 mm 2 The normal stress in bronze bar (1) can be computed from its contraction: FL L 1 1 1 1 1 A1E1 E1 1 1E1 L1 ( 0. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.6 m)F1 (0. Ans.0 m)P 0 (0.730159 N/mm 2 )(520 mm 2 ) 82.952381 mm)(100.000 N 2 2 26.190476 mm 1. The force in bar (1) can be determined from the stress computed previously: F1 1 A1 ( 158. the vertical deflection of joint A is related to joint B by similar triangles: vA v C 2. 0. (a) The normal stress in aluminum bar (2) can be computed from the known force in the bar: F 25.539. (b) From a deformation diagram of the rigid bar.683 N 82.5397 kN) 2.0 m 72.190 mm Ans.5 m)F2 (2.0 m vA vC 4vC 4(0.7 MPa (C) 600 mm Ans.

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