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Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME:
REVISION NO.:

SAP2000
1

EXAMPLE 1-016
FRAME - TENSION STIFFENING USING P-DELTA ANALYSIS
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
The SAP2000 tension stiffening calculation using P-Delta analysis is verified in
this example using a tie rod (beam) with a large axial force.
In this example a simply supported, 3-inch-square, steel beam has a large axial
force and a small transverse uniform load. The deflection in the direction of the
transverse load (global Z direction) is reduced because of the stiffening effect of
the tension force. The values of the midpoint deflection and bending moment
with and without tension stiffening are calculated and compared with
independent results derived using formulas presented in Timoshenko 1956.
Two different methods are used to apply the tension stiffening. In one method, a
P-Delta force equal to the specified tension is assigned directly to the beam. The
beam is then analyzed in a linear static load case with the transverse loading
applied. In the second method, the tension is applied to the beam in a nonlinear
static load case that is specified to consider P-Delta effects. The beam is then
analyzed in a separate linear static load case with the transverse loading applied.
This second load case is specified to use the stiffness at the end of the static
nonlinear case.
The beam is modeled with two objects so that there is a midpoint node where
displacements are reported. Several models are created using different
discretizations of the frame objects
Important Note: Shear deformations are ignored in the analysis by setting the
frame property modification factor for shear area to zero.
GEOMETRY, PROPERTIES AND LOADING
0.002 k/in

Z
Y

1
X

2
150"

3
150"

300"

20.25 k

Material Properties
E = 30,000 k/in2
Section Properties
b = 3 in
d = 3 in
I = 6.75 in4

EXAMPLE 1-016 - 1

02% My (midpt) k-in 11.495 11.54330 0% My (midpt) k-in 11.500 22.453 11.54330 +0.498 11. Without Tension Stiffening Model # Elm A 1 Output Parameter SAP2000 Independent Percent Difference Uz (midpt) in -1.04167 0% My (midpt) k-in 22.Using P-Delta Force Method Model # Elm B 1 C D Output Parameter SAP2000 Independent Percent Difference Uz (midpt) in -0.54330 -0.03% Uz (midpt) in -0.498 -0.498 0% 2 16 EXAMPLE 1-016 .54555 -0.39% Uz (midpt) in -0.54343 -0.: SAP2000 1 TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED  P-Delta force assignment to frame objects  Nonlinear static analysis using the P-Delta option  Automatic frame subdivision RESULTS COMPARISON The independent results are calculated using equations 43 and 45 on page 43 of Timoshenko 1956 along with equation 23 on page 28 of the same reference.04167 -1.2 .Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.41% My (midpt) k-in 11.54330 +0.500 0% With Tension Stiffening .498 -0.

54330 -0.: SAP2000 1 With Tension Stiffening . EXAMPLE 1-016 .Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.03% Uz (midpt) in -0.498 11.54330 0% My (midpt) k-in 11. or exact.498 0% 2 16 COMPUTER FILES: Example 1-016a.Using Nonlinear Static Load Case with P-Delta Option Activated Model # Elm E 1 F G Output Parameter SAP2000 Independent Percent Difference Uz (midpt) in -0. Example 1-016e.495 11.453 11.54330 +0.02% My (midpt) k-in 11.3 . Example 1-016f. Example 1-016c.41% My (midpt) k-in 11.54343 -0. In general we recommend that you use the nonlinear static load case method to solve tension stiffening problems.498 -0.498 -0.54555 -0.54330 +0. match with the independent results as long as the discretization of the beam is sufficient. Example 1-016d. The two analysis methods give identical results. Example 1-016b. Example 1-016g CONCLUSION The SAP2000 results show an acceptable.39% Uz (midpt) in -0.

Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.4 .: SAP2000 1 HAND CALCULATION EXAMPLE 1-016 .

: SAP2000 1 EXAMPLE 1-016 .5 .Software Verification PROGRAM NAME: REVISION NO.