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# Software Verification

PROGRAM NAME:
REVISION NO.:

SAP2000
1

EXAMPLE 1-016
FRAME - TENSION STIFFENING USING P-DELTA ANALYSIS
EXAMPLE DESCRIPTION
The SAP2000 tension stiffening calculation using P-Delta analysis is verified in
this example using a tie rod (beam) with a large axial force.
In this example a simply supported, 3-inch-square, steel beam has a large axial
force and a small transverse uniform load. The deflection in the direction of the
transverse load (global Z direction) is reduced because of the stiffening effect of
the tension force. The values of the midpoint deflection and bending moment
with and without tension stiffening are calculated and compared with
independent results derived using formulas presented in Timoshenko 1956.
Two different methods are used to apply the tension stiffening. In one method, a
P-Delta force equal to the specified tension is assigned directly to the beam. The
applied. In the second method, the tension is applied to the beam in a nonlinear
static load case that is specified to consider P-Delta effects. The beam is then
This second load case is specified to use the stiffness at the end of the static
nonlinear case.
The beam is modeled with two objects so that there is a midpoint node where
displacements are reported. Several models are created using different
discretizations of the frame objects
Important Note: Shear deformations are ignored in the analysis by setting the
frame property modification factor for shear area to zero.
0.002 k/in

Z
Y

1
X

2
150"

3
150"

300"

20.25 k

Material Properties
E = 30,000 k/in2
Section Properties
b = 3 in
d = 3 in
I = 6.75 in4

EXAMPLE 1-016 - 1

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME:
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SAP2000
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## TECHNICAL FEATURES OF SAP2000 TESTED

P-Delta force assignment to frame objects
Nonlinear static analysis using the P-Delta option
Automatic frame subdivision
RESULTS COMPARISON
The independent results are calculated using equations 43 and 45 on page 43 of
Timoshenko 1956 along with equation 23 on page 28 of the same reference.

Model

#
Elm

Output
Parameter

SAP2000

Independent

Percent
Difference

Uz (midpt) in

-1.04167

-1.04167

0%

My (midpt) k-in

22.500

22.500

0%

## With Tension Stiffening - Using P-Delta Force Method

Model

#
Elm

Output
Parameter

SAP2000

Independent

Percent
Difference

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54555

-0.54330

+0.41%

My (midpt) k-in

11.453

11.498

-0.39%

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54343

-0.54330

+0.02%

My (midpt) k-in

11.495

11.498

-0.03%

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54330

-0.54330

0%

My (midpt) k-in

11.498

11.498

0%

16

EXAMPLE 1-016 - 2

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SAP2000
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## With Tension Stiffening - Using Nonlinear Static Load Case with

P-Delta Option Activated
Model

#
Elm

Output
Parameter

SAP2000

Independent

Percent
Difference

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54555

-0.54330

+0.41%

My (midpt) k-in

11.453

11.498

-0.39%

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54343

-0.54330

+0.02%

My (midpt) k-in

11.495

11.498

-0.03%

Uz (midpt) in

-0.54330

-0.54330

0%

My (midpt) k-in

11.498

11.498

0%

16

COMPUTER FILES: Example 1-016a, Example 1-016b, Example 1-016c, Example 1-016d,
Example 1-016e, Example 1-016f, Example 1-016g
CONCLUSION
The SAP2000 results show an acceptable, or exact, match with the independent
results as long as the discretization of the beam is sufficient. The two analysis
methods give identical results.
In general we recommend that you use the nonlinear static load case method to
solve tension stiffening problems.

EXAMPLE 1-016 - 3

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SAP2000
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HAND CALCULATION

EXAMPLE 1-016 - 4

Software Verification
PROGRAM NAME:
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SAP2000
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EXAMPLE 1-016 - 5