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# PAN AFRICAN UNIVERSITY

INSTITUTE FOR BASIC SCIENCES,
TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

M.Sc. Electrical Engineering
Option: Telecommunication

ASSIGMENT #2

Lecturer: Dr. Kibet Langat
KWIZERA Eva (EE300-0008/15)

Date, 08 October, 2015

0269 f 2.4049 2∗π∗a∗√ µo ɛ o - 1. Design an air filled circular waveguide Frequency separation = 1GHZ TE f c11 TM f c01 = = TM TE f c01 −f c11 Pmn = 2∗π∗a∗√ µɛ Pmn 2∗π∗ √ µɛ = 1.0269∗√ µ o ɛ o 2∗π∗0.ASSIGNMENT #2 1.5639∗3∗108 =0. TM c01 = P mn 2∗π∗a∗√ µɛ = 2.269GHZ f c11 = 2∗π∗a∗√ µɛ = 2∗π∗0.0269 m=2.841 2∗π∗a∗√ µo ɛ o = 2.841 2∗π∗a∗√ µo ɛ o = 0.69 cm The corresponding cutoff frequencies for this waveguide Pmn 1.271 GHZ 2∗π∗0.5639∗3∗108 =109 2∗π∗a a= 0.4049 2∗π∗a∗√ µo ɛ o 2.5639 2∗π∗a∗√ µo ɛ o = 0.0269∗√ µ o ɛ o 2∗π∗0.4049∗3∗108 = =4.4049 2.841∗3∗108 TE = =3.0269 f =75 GHZ−10 GHZ i) ii) iii) Design a rectangular waveguide such that there is only one mode of propagation The lowest usable frequency is 10% above cutoff frequency The highest usable frequency is 5% below the cutoff frequency where the next mode can propagate m a ¿ ¿ ¿ 1 f c= √¿ 2∗√ µɛ .841 1.69 cm 2∗π∗10 9 The waveguide radiusis 2.

5∗10 9 TE for TE 01 . f c01 =0.1 =1. Cubical cavity fr = 3GHZ Determine a (the smallest possible size of this cavity) =? Which mode does it resonate at this frequency? m a ¿ ¿ p c ¿ ¿ ¿ 1 √¿ f r= 2∗ √ µɛ For a cubical cavity .95 b= C 0.1∗3∗10 + 0. m a ¿ ¿ p a ¿ ¿ ¿ 1 √¿ f r= 2∗ √ µɛ .95∗3∗108 = =10∗109 2b 2b 0.TE for TE 10 .2cm 2∗7.01425 m=1.1 = =7.1∗3∗10 8 =0.022m=2. f c10 = a= 8 C C C 1.425 cm 2∗10∗109 3.95∗3∗108 =0.5∗109 2a 2a 2a 2a 1.a=b=c Therefore.

f r= a= 2 1 √¿ 2∗√ µɛ 3∗108∗√ 2 =0.1 a ¿ ¿ At 1 ¿ 2+ a ¿ () TM 110 . f r= √¿ 2∗√ µɛ () 1 a ¿ ¿ 1 ¿ 2+ a ¿ () TE 101 .071m=7.1 cm 2∗3∗10 9 The mode of propagation 1 a ¿ ¿ 2 1 ¿ 2+ a ¿ 1 TM 110 . f r = 2 1 √¿ 2∗√ µɛ . f r= 1 √¿ 2∗ √ µɛ 1 a ¿ ¿ ¿2+ 1 a 2 () ¿ TE 011 .

The attenuation constant .2cm b = 3. 10 = 2 √ µɛ .4. The cutoff frequency for the waveguide (fc) .4cm α = 40dB f = 3GHZ Determine: .8 m 8 C 3∗10 i) K=ѡ √ µɛ= ii) m a ¿ ¿ n b ¿ ¿ ¿ 1 √¿ f c= 2 √ µɛ m a ¿ ¿ ¿2 At TE10. The length of the attenuating section 2∗π∗f 2∗π∗3∗10 9 −1 = =62. ¿ 1 √ f TE ¿ c. The cutoff frequency for the attenuating section of the waveguide (fc) . An air-filled rectangular waveguide a = 7. The wavenumber at the operating frequency (K) .

φ ) and the wave while the vectors h ( ρ . −γz E z ( ρ . φ ) az ]e−γz Where the vectors e ( ρ . φ) az and components of the wave.58 cm 36.6 a ¿ ¿ ¿2 ¿ 1 √ TE f c.072 ¿ ¿ ¿ 2−(62. φ .596 5.6∗0. φ ) represent the transverse field components of ez ( ρ .iii) m 0. Derive the TM modes in a lossy circular waveguide Assuming the axis of the structure along z-axis.1258 m=12. z )=[e ( ρ . φ . φ ) +h z ( ρ .8)2 ¿ α=√ ¿ v) −40 dB=20lo g10 ( e−αz ) −2=log 10 ( e−αz ) 10−2=e−αz z= 4. 1 d Hz 1 d Ez jѡ E ρ = + γ H φ ( 1 )− jѡ ɛH ρ= + γ Eφ (1 a) ρ dφ ρ dφ h z ( ρ.6 =0. z )=[h ( ρ . φ ) +e z ( ρ . 10= ¿ 2 √ µɛ iv) π 0. φ ) a z ]e H z ( ρ .6∗a ¿ ¿ ¿ 2−k 2 ¿ π 0. the general expressions for cylindrical Coordinate fields may be written as. φ ) a z are the longitudinal .

jѡ E φ =−γ H ρ− dHz d Ez (2)− jѡ ɛH φ =−γ E ρ− (2 a) dρ dρ ρH (¿¿ φ) d H z d − dρ dφ ¿ ¿ ρE (¿¿ φ) d E z d − dρ dφ ¿ ¿ 1 jѡ E z= ¿ ρ To solve the longitudinal field components in terms of transverse field component dH z dH z −1 dE 1 jѡ ɛ dE z E ρ= 2 γ z + j ѡµ ( 4 ) H ρ= 2 −γ (4 a) dρ dφ dρ kc k c ρ dφ ( Eφ = ) ( ) dH z dE γ dH z −1 γ dE z −1 − j ѡµ (5)H φ = 2 jѡ ɛ z − (5 a) 2 dρ dρ ρ dφ k c ρ dφ kc ( ) ( ) 2 2 2 Where k c =k +γ and γ =α + jβ The value of γ is contains purely imaginary when there is a totally lossless system. −γ dE z jѡ ɛ dE z E ρ= 2 ( 6 ) H ρ= 2 (6 a) k c dρ k c ρ dφ ( ) ( ) . the propagation constant. TM Modes The transverse fields of TM modes are found by simplifying the general guided wave equations with Hz=0. As in reality some loss always occurs. The resulting transverse fields for TM modes are. α and β respectively. γ will contain both real and imaginary parts.

φ ) e−γz Inserting the expression for Ez into the differential equation yields: 2 d e z ( ρ . we may set the φ 2 equal to a constant (.k c ). φ) 2 + + 2 +k c ( ρ . φ . z )=e z ( ρ . φ ) 1 e z ( ρ .Eφ = −γ dEz − jѡ ɛ dE z ( 7 ) H φ= 2 ( 7 a) 2 dρ k c ρ dφ kc ( ) ( ) The longitudinal electric field of the TM modes within the cylindrical waveguide must satisfy: 2 2 Δ E z +k E z=0 Where E z ( ρ . φ ) 1 d e z ( ρ . φ ) e =R ( ρ ) P( φ) Inserting the assumed solution into the governing partial differential equation yields d 2 R ( ρ ) P ( φ ) dR ( ρ ) R ( ρ ) d 2 P ( φ ) 2 P(φ) + + 2 +k c R ( ρ ) P (φ)=0 ρ dρ d ρ2 ρ d φ2 Dividing by R ( ρ ) P(φ) gives 2 d2 P (φ) 2 1 d R ( ρ) 1 dR ( ρ ) 1 + + + k c =0 R ( ρ ) d ρ2 ρR(ρ) d ρ ρ2 P( φ) d φ2 We multiply the expression above by ρ2 in order to make the third term dependent on φ only. The result is: 2 2 ρ2 d R ( ρ ) ρ dR ( ρ ) 1 d P (φ ) 2 2 + + + ρ k c =0(1) P(φ) d φ2 R ( ρ ) d ρ2 R ( ρ) d ρ According to the separation of variables technique. φ ) =0 2 2 ρ dρ dρ ρ dφ The electric field function may be determined using the separation of variables technique by assuming a solution of the form: −γz e z ( ρ . The resulting differential equation defining d2 P (φ) 2 + k c P ( φ )=0 d φ2 dependent term P ( φ ) is .

P ( φ )= Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ 2 ρ2 d R ( ρ ) ρ dR ( ρ ) + + ( ρ2 k 2c + n2 ) =0(2) 2 R ( ρ) d ρ R ( ρ) d ρ Equation (2) is known as Bessel’s equation which has solutions known as Bessel functions. then the TM nm P nm k = c . then the constant D must be zero. φ ) e−γz =R ( ρ ) P ( φ )=J n ( k c ρ ) [ Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ] The longitudinal electric field function for the cylindrical waveguide TM modes is: E z ( ρ . φ . z )= 2 = J ' n ( k c ρ ) [ Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ ] e−γz kc k c dρ ( ) Eφ ( ρ. φ . Since the circular waveguide fields must be bounded at the origin ( ρ = 0). z )= −γ dEz −γ = 2 J n ( k c ρ ) [ Acosn φ−Bsinnφ ] e−γz 2 dφ kc ρ kc ρ ( ) . z )=0 Application of the boundary condition on Ez yields: E z ( ρ .Which has the general solution of The function P (φ) P ( φ )= Asin k φ φ+ Bcos k φ φ must be periodic in φ so that kφ must be an integer (n). φ )=J n ( k c ρ ) [ Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ ] e−γz =0 Thus. φ )=J n ( k c ρ ) [ Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ]e−γz The TM boundary conditions for the cylindrical waveguide are Eφ ( ρ. e z ( ρ . We may write the general solution to Bessel’s equation as: R ( ρ )=C J n ( k c ρ ) + D Y n ( k c ρ) The Bessel function of the second kind approaches as its argument approaches zero. z )=0 E z ( ρ . nm mode cutoff wavenumber is found by α The resulting transverse fields of the TMnm modes are: −γ dE z −γ E ρ ( ρ . the TM modes of the cylindrical waveguide are defined by J n ( k c ρ )=0 If we define the mth zero of the nth order Bessel function as pnm. φ . φ .

Hρ ( ρ .nm= √ ¿ f c . φ .nm f ¿ ¿ ¿2 1−¿ √¿ dβ −1 1 1 V g ¿[ ] = dѡ √ ɛµ ¿ . φ .nm f ¿ ¿ 2 k −¿ β nm=√ k 2−k 2c . nm= Pnm 2 πα √ ɛµ Pnm α ¿ ¿ ¿2 ¿ f c . nm= nm α f c.nm f ¿ ¿ ¿2 1−¿ k √¿ ѡ ѡ V p= = β nm ¿ f c . z )= − jѡ ɛ dE z − jѡ ɛn = J ' n ( k c ρ ) [ Asinn φ+ Bcosnφ ] e−γz 2 dρ k ρ kc ρ c ( ) ( ) The cutoff frequency of the TMnm mode is given by P k c . z )= jѡ ɛ dE z jѡ ɛn = 2 J n ( k c ρ ) [ Acosn φ−Bsinnφ ] e−γz 2 k c ρ dφ kc ρ H φ ( ρ .

8318 = =22.0542 5.52 7. 11 2π a 2∗π∗0. 31= c p ' mn 3∗10 8∗4.9695 electric) m=3 4.016 Pm3 8.8∗10−2 TM (Transverse Magnetic) mode m 0 1 Pm1 2.841 2 f TE = = =10. propagation showing the frequencies at which each of these modes will propagate.174 .0542 = =18.8∗10−2 f TE c.405 3.2012 = =25. TE01.8∗10−2 TE TE f c. Draw a graph of frequency vs.2284 GHZ 2π a 2∗π∗0.0741GHZ 2π a 2∗π∗0. what is the range and what mode is propagating ANSWER: p' k c = mn a f c.654 10. 01= c p ' mn 3∗108∗3.8cm.0153 11. mn= P’mn n=1 n=2 n=3 c p ' mn 2π a m=0 3.3315 6.0156 10. Specify the cutoff frequencies for the first 4TE and first 4TM modes of an air.9889 GHZ c.7062 8. 21= c p ' mn 3∗108∗3.5363 9. Is there a frequency range in which only one mode will propagate? If so. TE31 Their corresponding cutoff frequencies are: c p ' mn 3∗10 8∗1. TE21.6.filled circular waveguides with radius 0.8412 3.8318 7.2012 8.8694 GHZ 2π a 2∗π∗0.8∗10−2 f c.3459 The first 4 TE modes in circular waveguides are: TE11.832 Pm2 5.1735 TE (Transverse mode m=2 m=1 1.

8∗10−2 f TM c.6473GHZ 2 π a 2∗π∗0.3579 GHZ.9451GHZ 2 π a 2∗π∗0. 21= c p mn 3∗10 8∗5. 01= = =14. .8∗10−2 f c pmn 3∗108∗3.52 = =32.417 11.832 = = =22. TM21. 02= 8 c p mn 3∗10 ∗5. propagation The only one mode that will propagate is TE 11 mode at the range of frequency 10.8∗10−2 TM c.9889 GHZ – 14.135 = =30. TM11.3579GHZ 2 π a 2∗π∗0.405 TM f c.2 5.8∗10−2 TM Graph showing the frequency vs.8706 GHZ 2 π a 2∗π∗0.62 The first 4 TM modes in circular waveguides are: TM01. 11 f c. TM02 Their corresponding frequencies are: c p mn 3∗10 8∗2.135 8.