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Poultry Disease Manual
Pro/. Antonio Zanella

Contents
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1 PREFACE
IM M UN ITY IN BIRDS: GENERAL CONCEPTS
■ NEWCASTLE DISEASE

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■ AVIAN PNEUMOVIRUSES
■ AVIAN INFLUENZA
■ INFECTIOUS BRONCHITIS
■ INFECTIOUS LARYNGOTRACHEITIS

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■ FOWL POX

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» INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE

■ Neoplastic Diseases
- MAREK'S DISEASE
- LEUKOSIS/SARCOMA GROUP
- RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS
■ CHICKEN INFECTIOUS ANAEMIA
4-2 ■ REOVIRUS INFECTIONS
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rn ADENOVIRUS INFECTIONS
M AVIAN ENCEPHALOMYELITIS
PARATYPHOID INFECTIONS

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m PULLORUM DISEASE AN D FOWL TYPHOID
COLIBACILLOSIS
■ INFECTIOUS CORYZA
■ FOWL CHOLERA

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■ NECROTIC ENTERITIS
m RiEMERELLA ANATIPESTIFER

■ Mycoplasmosis
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- MYCOPLASMA GALL1SEPTICUM INFECTION
- MYCOPLASMA SYNOVIAE INFECTION
- MYCOPLASMA MELEAGRIDIS INFECTION
■ COCCI DIOSIS
. VACCINE ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

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5

FACTORS INFLUENCING VACCINATION
M DIAGNOSIS OF DISEASE
si- DIAGNOSIS OF SOME MOST IMPORTANT POULTRY DISEASE

T assi. d ia g n o stic s a n d . M c lio ta . I w ish to p a r tic u la r ly th a n k m y C o lle a g u e s D r. treatm en ts an d vaccin ation s. V olorio. R e se a rc h e rs o r P ractition ers. P. . I rep eat. c lin ica l sig n s. le sio n s. A . b u t is ob v io u sly a m ixture o f d a ta re p o rte d by m an y e m in e n t C o lle a g u e s. C . D ebora Bcrtozzi fo r th eir valu ab le help. M ilani and M rs. w ho bore with m e throughout this long period o f my professional life. M r.Preface I am h o n o u re d th at F A T R O re q u e ste d m e to w rite th is (sh o rt) I m anual o n in fectious diseases. children an d grandchildren. Dr. o b v io u sly . d erived from m ore th an 5 0 years o f intensive experien ce in poultry pathology. T h is review is n o t com pletely o rig in al. F. M y on ly m erit. 1 dedicate this b o o k to m y beloved wife. th e ir c o n tro l th ro u gh biosecu rity m easu res. Dr. h as been to collect an d u p d ate the know ledge o n the variou s diseases regarding their epidem iology. m ostly o f intensively-reared dom estic poultry. w ith th e ad d itio n o f my ow n p e rso n al ob servation s.

In the primary organs. able to react specifically. with the antigens which . N K and K cells are involved non-specifically in im m u n e reaction s by phagocytosis or by cytotoxicity. w hich d evelop d u rin g the em bryo stage. granulocytes. H arderian gland. in response to antigen stim u lation . thymus spleen. B'lyrnphocytes. both in vivo and in originally in du ced their p rod u ctio n .Immunity in birds: general concepts Harderian gland T h e im m u n e sy ste m o f th e b ir d s I c o n sis ts o f tw o p rim a ry ly m p h o id Payer's patches organ s. the thym us an d the b u rsa o f bursa of Fabricius F a b r ic iu s (B F ). M eckel diverticulum . granulocytes. which are p ro d u ce d in the J bone-m arrow an d generally play a non-specific role in im m unity. there are the differentiation sites for other Diagram of the Immune System of birds im m u n e cells. are responsible | for im m unoglobu lin or antibody production. in cluding the activation o f B-cells. Macrophages (derived from c irc u latin g m o n o cy tes). T'bmpfioQ’tes are re sp o n sib le for cell-m ediated im m u n ity and for regulation o f the im m u ne system reactions. a d ifferen t Meckel diverticulum tiatio n of the germ in al im m u n e cells bone marrow in to two types o f ly m p h ocy tes takes place. M acrop h ages are also im p o rtan t in an tigen p rocessin g an d p resen tin g cell to T and B lym phocytes. | j k ('j]er (JC) natu ral killer (N K ) cells. such as m onocytes and m acrop h ages. Immunoglobulins (Ig) or an tib o d ies are glycoprotein m olecules. T hese cells produce a specific im m u n e r e s p o n s e a g a in st a n tig e n s which are extran eous to the organism . after tran sform ation into plasm ocytes. b e sid e s lymphocyte storage areas. In th e secondary stru ctu res. b u t a ls o o f m an y seco n d ary ly m p h o id o rgan s or structures. which include bone-marrow. Peyer’s patches. caecal tonsils and oth er lym ph oid aggregates distribu ted cecal tonsils in the body (birds lack the equivalen t spleen o f m am m alian lymph nodes). T-cells in the thymus an d B-cells in the BF.

w hich p ersists lon ger (prim ary respon se). su c h as in fe c tio u s b ro n c h itis a n d lary n g o trac h e itis a n d ag a in st M a re k ’s Large lymphocyte 6 d isease. they are th e on ly an tib o d ies ab le to tran sfer to th e yolk-sac an d provid e system ic im m u n ity to the n ew born chick. fairly effective again st N e w ca stle d is e a s e a n d p o o r a g a in s t m u c o sa l d is e a s e s. b u t little is know n on th is m atter. three m ain classes o f Ig have b een rep orted : IgM . p ro v id in g te m p o rary p ro te ctio n to th e m u cosa. /gAS. d e p e n d in g o n the d isease: fo r exam ple. pathogen o r v a c c in e a n d is c h a ra c te riz e d . sh ow in g so m e structural d ifferen ces to m am m alian IgG). transferred fro m th e b lo o d stream to th e ovary a n d th en tran sm itte d to the chicks via the yolk-sac. D u rin g passage o f the egg through the oviduct. w hich are th e m ain Ig in th e se ru m (7 0 -8 0 % ) a n d th e m ain e ffe c to rs o f h u m o ral im m unity. by an in itial rap id s h o r t in crease in IgM . which are the Ig present in m ucosal secretions and in biological Small lymphocyte flu id s. encephalom yelitis. S u b se q u e n t c o n tact w ith th e sa m e p ath o gen o r antigen in duces a higher. H U M O R A L IM M U N IT Y H u m o ra l im m u n ity is su b d iv id e d in to active a n d passive. th e rate o f d e cre ase is p artly lin k ed to the d egree o f grow th o f th e chick. in fectiou s b u rsa l d isease.In bird s. . follow ed by a slow er increase in IgG and IgA. R ep eated vaccin ation s (hyperim m unization Plosmo-cell o r booster effect) enable the attainm ent o f high specific antibody levels. as in m am m als. w hich p ass th rou gh the am n iotic flu id to th e g u t. w hich ap p e a r very so o n . 2-4 days afte r th e in itial im m u n e stim u latio n . reach ing their peak co n cen tratio n a t th e 9 '1' day. IgY. a fte r a v a r ia b le la te n t p e rio d (3 to 10 days). better. IgG (or. as bile an d resp on sible fo r m u co sal im m unity. fo r th is reason it is also n am ed the “ an am n estic” respon se. the level o f an tibodies in the yolk sac generally correlates w ith th e m o th er’s an tib o d y level. T h e level o f m atern al an tib o d ies in the progeny norm ally decreases in a b o u t 15-20 d ays. the existence o f IgD an d IgE. produced d u rin g the p rim ary re sp o n se . is very likely. A ctive im m u n ity is triggered by con tact with the antigen. they represent the first im m u n e b arrier to in fection . T h e rap id ity o f the se c o n d ary response is d u e to the presence o f “ m em ory lym phocytes". P assive im m u n ity is provided alm o st exclusively by IgG . m ore rapid and long-lasting p rod u ction o f specific IgG a n d IgA (seco n d ary resp on se). T h e p ro tec tio n p rovid ed by passive a n tib o d ie s v aries. the album en acquires rath er low levels o f IgM an d IgA. it is stro n g again st in fectiou s an aem ia.

VACCINES L iv e a tte n u a te d v a c c in e s are p rep ared w ith: 1) naturally apath ogenic m icroorganism s (turkey herpesvirus. C M 1 is o f p rim ary im p o rta n c e in im m u n e d e fe n c e s a g a in s t m ic r o o r g a n is m s w ith in tra c e llu la r p arasitism (viru ses. lim itin g th e a n tib o d y resp on se. such as em bryon ated egg o r tissue-cultures (infectious bronchitis virus. it is m ore d iffic u lt o r complex. infectious bronchitis viruses. infectious bursal disease. b e sid e s m em ory cclls: T-helper cells h av e re g u la to ry activity. but operate destroying the “ target” directly o r indirectly. M oreover. fo r the m o m en t m ainly experim ental (deletion. . a tta c k in g a n d d e stro y in g in fected o r alte re d target cells. in du cin g o th e r accessory cells to destroy it by in term ed iation o f so lu b le factors. T-suppressor cells have re g u lato ry activity. b u t they induce very low o r n o sy m p to m s o f d isease. individually. T-lymphocytes are d iv id ed in to three su b p o p u la tio n s: T-helper. w hose pathogenicity.).CELL-MEDIATED !MMl)NITY C ell-m ed ia ted im m u n ity (C M I) is c o n tro lle d by T -lym phocytes. T -su p pressor and T-cytotoxic cells. w hen th is te n d s to becom e excessive. A tte n u a te d v a cc in es a re n o rm ally a d m in iste re d to b ird s by the natural route. like the p ath ogen ic m icroorganism s. Newcastle Basophil Granulocyte disease virus strain s N D V 6 / 1 0 o r H itch n er B l) . which d o n o t produ ce antibodies. m o d u la tin g th e im m u n e resp on se an d intervening in the coop eration betw een cell-m ediated Monocyte a n d h u m o ral im m unity. so m e b a c te ria . w hile h u m oral im m u nity can be m easured q u ite easily by checking in vitro th e level o f an tib o d ie s in the se ru m . it m ay b e reduced (laiyngotracheitis. P ro tectio n d u e to the v a cc in atio n is o fte n Heterophil Granulocyte provided q u ite quickly after adm inistration (local im m unity system).). T-cytotoxic c c lls h av e e ffe c to r activity . etc. after so m e back-passages in the natural host. exp ressio n o f an tigen in live ap ath o g e n ic vectors). p ro to zo a n s. 3) other techniques. by eye o r n asal-drop ad m in istratio n o r wing-w eb in je ctio n . infectious bursal disease virus an d m any o th e r vaccin al viruses).has been artificially reduced o r rem oved by serial p assag es th rou gh an ap p ro p ria te su b stratu m . In gen eral. 2) m icroorganism s. etc. th e d egree o f p ro te ctio n p rovided by a vaccin e can n o t be always strictly correlated to the level o f an tib o d ie s in th e serum . in a routine check. to evaluate d ie degree of mucosal and CM1. the in terleukines. T h e c o m m o n rou te o f a d m in istra tio n in th e field is by d rin k in g w ater o r spray or. T h e artificial atten u ation o f m icroo rgan ism s is som etim es u n stable an d .

alth o u g h a n tib o d ie s a p p e a r in th e se ru m on ly a fte r 10-15 days.
F or so m e diseases, ju st o n e vaccin ation a t a variable age, d epe n d in g
o n th e v a c c in e , is s u f fic ie n t to p ro te c t b ir d s fo r a lo n g rim e
(M arek’s disease, fowl pox, laryngotracheitis, encephalomyelitis, infectious
anaemia) o r for the period w hen they are susceptible (infectious bursal
disease).
F o r o th e r d ise a s e s, re v a c c in a tio n s o r b o o ste r s a re re q u ire d to
strengthen the protection (Newcastle disease, infectious bronchitis, etc.).
F or so m e p ath o gen s, the b ird s are su scep tible on ly u p to 2-3 weeks
Eosinophil granulocyte

o f age a n d it is su ffic ie n t to vaccin ate p a re n t m e n s befo re g o in g
in to lay (infectious anaem ia, encephalomyelitis) to p rotect th e y ou n g
progeny. Live v a cc in e s m ay p re se n t so m e risk o f c o n ta m in a tio n
w ith fo re ig n a g e n ts p re se n t in th e su b stra te (leukosis, infectious
anaem ia, etc.), o r accid en tally in tro d u c e d d u rin g th e ir p ro cessin g
(or m anufacturing). In any event, the use o f eggs from well-controlled
S P I- flo c k s an d th e a d o p tio n o f severe p u rity c o n tro ls, firstly o f
m a ste r se e d s, b u t a ls o o f e a c h b a tc h o f v a c c in e , a rc e sse n tia l.
S o m e live vaccin es are also p rep ared w ith a tte n u a te d b acteria o r
p ro to z o a n s (fo r in sta n c e , safm onedas, mycoplasmas a n d coccidia).
In activated vaccin es are prepared w ith m icroo rgan ism s, o r p art o f
th e m , w h ich h ave lo st th e ir v iru le n c e a n d ab ility to re p lic ate
an d sp read th rou gh th e organ ism . H ow ever, their tm m unogenicity
re m a in s in ta c t. S u c h v a c c in e s a re a d m in iste r e d by in d iv id u a l
in jection , in tram u scu larly o r su bcu tan eou sly .

Macrophage

T h e y are o fte n a sso c ia te d w ith a d ju v a n ts, w h ich stre n g th e n the
im m u n e re a c tio n . T h e a d ju v a n ts m ain ly u se d are m in eral oil
(em ulsion) o r alu m iniu m hydroxide. T h e stren gth en in g o f an tibo dy
p ro d u c tio n a n d , partially, o f cell-m ed iated reactivity, is d u e to a
g rad u al release o f an tig en (d e p o t effect) an d local irritatio n , with
a sp e c ific ac tiv a tio n o f ly m p h ocy tes. T h e im m u n ity p ro v id e d by
inactivated vaccin es is com pletely establish ed in 3-4 w eeks a n d , for
so m e d ise a se s, lasts lo n g er th en th a t p ro d u c e d b y live vaccin es.
In activated vaccin es are o fte n ad m in istere d , w ith a better b o o ste r
effect, after a priming w ith live vaccines.

Poultry diseases

NEWCASTLE DISEASE

Newcastle Disease
N ew castle disease (N D ) is regarded as the m ost im p o rtan t disease
to be con trolled in poultry. T h e im p ortan ce is n ot only d u e to the
rap id sp read an d d ev asta tin g effects on the in fected b ird s, with
flock m ortality rates Lip to 100% , b u t also to the e co n o m ic im p act
that m ight ensue, due to trad in g restrictions an d em bargoes placed
on countries, where outbreaks have occurred. B ecause o f the severe
nature o f the disease, N D is included in the list o f diseases reported
by O ffic e In te r n a tio n a l d es E p iz o o tie s (O IE ), w h ich c o n ta in s
tran sm issib le d iseases w ith a p o te n tial fo r very serio u s an d rapid
spread. M o st m em ber countries enforce statutory con trol m easures
in the event o f outbreaks o f disease. N D is caused by a param yxovirus
se ro g ro u p 1 (A P M V T ) b e lo n g in g to the fam ily Paramyxoviridae,
genus Avulavirus] only one serotype is known, b u t different pathotypes
exist: very virulent (velogenic), m edium virulent (m esogenic), m ildly
virulent (lentogenic), or ap ath ogen ic strains. T h ese latter two types
o f strain s are c o m m o n ly used in the p rep aratio n o f live vaccines.

Epizootiology
O v er 2 5 0 sp ecies o f b ird s have b een re p o rte d to be su scep tib le.
N D viru s is h ighly co n ta g io u s, h orizon tally tran sm itte d th ro u gh
in fected respiratory d isch arge and d ro p p in g s, by either in h alation
or in gestio n . T h e sp re ad a m o n g farm s, even at a long d ista n c e ,
o ccu rs by m o v em e n t o f live b ird s (gam e an d ex otic b ird s, feral
pigeons, com m ercial m arket poultry), m ovem en t o f con tam in ated
poultry- products, people, equipm ent, feed and water and by airborne
spread. Vertical transm ission is very controversial, probably occurring
only very rarely in newly hatched chicks.

Clinical signs and lesions
D ependin g on the signs, lesions and tissue tropism , N D virus strains
have b een d iv id ed in to five g ro u p s or p ath o types: 1) viscerotropic
velogenic: highly v iru le n t d ise a se w ith h igh m ortality an d typical
h aem o rrh ag ic an d n ecrotic g a stro in te stin a l lesion s; 2) neurotropic i
velogenic: resp iratory an d n erv ou s sign s w ith very high m ortality;
3) pneumotropic mesogenic: respiratory and, in som e cases, nervous signs
w ith c o n sid e ra b le m o rtality in y o u n g b ird s b u t low in a d u lts;

10

so m e tim e s to zero. b u t are n o t strictly p ath ogn om on ic. in 9-11 day-old em bryonared eggs.) an d respective lesion s can all b e present a t the sam e tim e. th e stam pingo u t o f ou tb reak s o f d isease. n a tio n a l an d farm level a n d c o n s ist o f th e a p p lic a tio n o f all b io se c u ritv m e asu re s directed a t preventing th e in tro d u ctio n a n d sp re ad o f virus within c o u n tries an d areas. 5 ) naturally apachogenic. Control of disease T h e objectives are b o th ro prevent su sceptible b ird s from becom ing infected and to reduce the num ber o f susceptible birds by vaccination. d istin g u ish in g b etw een av iru le n t an d v iru le n t isolates. Diagnosis A p resu m p tiv e d ia g n o sis is b a se d o n the ch aracteristic sig n s and le sio n s a n d is c o n fir m e d by v ir u s iso la tio n a n d id e n tific a tio n (in oculation o f specim en s. A n tib od ies are d em o n strated u sin g the haem agglutination in h ibitio n (H I) o r E U S A tests. leg w eakness o r paralysis. m ostly therm oresistant. q u aran tin e proced u res fo r im p ortation o f all kind o f d o m estic o r wild birds. M o re recently m o le cu lar d ia g n o stic te c h n iq u e s have been d evelop ed . used m ore recently as non-stressing vaccines. the intracerebral p ath o gen ic index (IC PI) tor one-day-old chicks and th e intravenous p ath o gen ic in dex (IV Pf) fo r six-week-old S P F ch ick en s (see table). C o n tro l p o lic ie s a re ap p lie d a t in te rn a tio n a l. so m etim e s reach in g o v e r 8 0 % .everything is organized an d controlled by th e H ealth A u th o ritie s u n d er O I E . the ovary ND nervous sign: twisted neck or torticollis d egen erates an d egg yolk is p re se n t in th e a b d o m in a l cavity. T h e se an d o th e r m o lecu lar p ro p erties allow d istin c t viral p rofiles to b e d e v e lo p e d . w ith c o n se q u e n t p e r ito n itis. taken from tracheal an d intestinal sw abs o r tissues. such as R T -P C R an d n u cleotide seq u en cin g. n ation al an d in ternation al surveys and reports o f disease ou tb reaks . d ep e n d in g on virus virulence an d the residua! im m u n e state o f b ird s.Poultry Disease Manual 4) ptieumocropic lentogenic mild or unapparent infection o f the respiratoiy tract. M o rb id ity m ay re ac h 1 0 0 % . H A an d HI tests with alla n to ic flu id s). eggs m ay h av e th in a n d d is c o lo u r e d sh e lls o r n o sh e ll. en teric (green ish d ia r rh o e a ) a n d n e rv o u s sig n s (tw isted n e ck o r torticollis. w ith n o mortality' (u sed a s vaccines). E xcep t fo r a few co u n tries . In th e field . T h e laboratory asse ssm e n t o f viru s p ath ogen icity is d eterm in ed by the m ean d eath tim e (M D T ) in cm bryonatcd eggs. rales a n d sneezing). T h e e stab lish m e n t o f restrictive m easu res on th e m ovem en t o f b ird s an d their p ro d u cts. etc. T h e d ro p in egg p ro d u c tio n is very rap id . m ortality varies. resp iratory (la b o u re d b re ath in g .

V a c c in a tio n u s u a lly p r o te c ts b ir d s fr o m th e con seq u en ces o f th e d isease. etc. T h e m ass a p p lic a tio n of v a cc in e s is d o n e via the d rin k in g w ater. particularly in intensive r e a r in g a r e a s . th ey in d u c e n o post-vaccinal reaction s. intercurrent bacterial in fe c tio n s (Mycoplasma. T h e stra in s o f viru s u se d fo r v a c c in e p r o d u c tio n a re d iv id e d in to 3 g r o u p s . w h ere it is p e rm itte d .2-0. T h e ap p licatio n o f live ap ath o g e n ic. with no concurrent use o f disinfectants.N E W C A S T LE DISEASE (Scan dinavia. an d a t an y age. such as N D V 6 /1 0 . iso lated fro m w aterfow l an d ch icken s. fully ap ath o gen ic. N ew Zealand an d Sw itzerland). su ch a s H itc h n e r B 1 a n d L a S o fa (1CPI 0. vaccination represents a n effective b arrier to the sp read o f infection. afte r a p rim in g w ith ap ath o g e n ic o r len togen ic vaccin e. Apathogenic strains genotype I (viru s m u ltip lie s well in en te ric an d ND necrotic lesion or ulcer in intestinal mucosa respiratory tracts). the birds have ro be deprived o f w ater fo r 1-2 h o u rs. d u st. w ith w id esp read p resen ce o f backyard b ird s an d n o t very in te n siv e rearin g. alth o u g h v iru le n t v iru s re p licatio n a n d s h e d d in g m ay still occur. it well applied. d e p e n d in g o n the se a so n (see later). Lentogenic strains genotype II. B efore vaccination. b e in g rh e rm o re sistan t. In any event.15. albeit at reduced levels. a t c o n c e n tratio n s carefully calcu lated to give each b ird a su ffic ie n t d o se o f v iru s. Live vaccines: ND haemorrhagic lesions in proventriculus T h e se are p re p are d w ith th e in fected allan to ic flu id o f e m b ry o n a te d eggs k ep t freeze-dried. d e p e n d in g o n th e h ealth status. . p a rtic u la rly in y o u n g c h ic k s a n d in p rim ary vaccin ation . len togen ic strain s a s vaccin es can b e d o n e by in dividu al treatm en t. su ch as n a sa l-o r eye-drop a d m in istra tio n o r beak -d ip p in g .4 L w hich rep licate particu larly in the m u co sa o f th e resp irato ry trac t an d can in d u c e p ost-vaccinal re a c tio n s and re sp ira to ry sig n s. len togen ic an d m esogen ic (sec table). U lste r 2 C . interfering with th e sp read o f virulent v iru s. E. T w o types o f vaccin es are u sed . so m e tim e s w ith so m e sig n s o f d ise a se . m o st recently even in A ustralia. th e re fo re they are u se d . coli) o f th e b ird s a n d e n v iro n m e n tal c o n d itio n s (a m m o n ia . m o stly fo r re v a c c in a tio n an d in tram u scu larly . vaccination is adopted universally. th e La S o ta stra in is th e m o st stressing an d n o t recom m en ded fo r use by spray as a first vaccination.). live an d inactivated. Q u e e n sla n d V 4. they c a n be u sed w ith few er p ro b le m s o f storage even in h o t se a so n s an d in tropical areas. a d d itio n o f d rie d sk im m e d m ilk pow der to fresh d rin k in g w ater (1-2% ) is suggested to prevent viral inactivation by physical an d chem ical im purities. T h e y c au se very sev ere p ost-vaccin al re a c tio n s. Mesogenic strains a re o fte n u sed on ly in co u n trie s o r a re a s w here N D is en d em ic. are fully asy m p tom atic with an 1CP1 <0. Even w ith fine sp ray v accin atio n (d ro p lets < 70-80 m icron s).

0 0 — Field isolate . H.solate t. T o achieve the correct d rop let size is very im portant. Muktesvar. g iv in g lo n g -lastin g im m u n ity . T h e v a cc in c is a d m in iste re d by in tra m u sc u la r o r su b c u ta n e o u s in jection.Poultry Disease Manual T h e m ass app lication o f live vaccines by spray o r aerosol is also very w id esp read . La Sota P Lentogem c n II 0.d . S p ray vaccination can b e perform ed in the hatchery o r o n the farm . such as L a S o ta o r U lster 2 C . Characteristics o f some NDV strains TEMPERATURE RESISTANCE VIRUS STRAIN PATHOTYPE GENOTYPE ICPI 6 /1 0 . generally n o lon ger w ith velogen ic strain s.0. Inactivated vaccines: T h e se are p rod u ced with allan to ic flu id s from em bryon ated eggs.2 Q4 — _ Field isolate Fie. p ORIGIN 13 . T h e se vaccines are usually u sed in pullets. K om arov M esogenic csugcniL 1! ] 4 — Field isolate Aegg ttenuated by passages Herts 3 3 /5 6 Velogenic 111 2 .1 5 + Field isolate H itchner B l. this is less condition ing with apathogenic strains having an ICPI = 0. T h e sp ray m eth o d a t one-day-old m ay resu lt in th e e sta b lis h m e n t o f in fe c tio n w ith v a c c in a l v iru s. on ce o r twice. particu larly in en d em ic are as o f d isease o r in c ase o f very severe ep id em ics. A coarse spray o f relatively large particles (> 100 m icrons) d o e s not p en etrate d eep ly in to th e resp iratory tract o f b ird s an d p ro d u c e s less o f a reactio n . T h e y have so m etim es been used in broilers. b ecau se a large n u m b e r o f b ird s can b e treated in a very sh o rt rim e. a t one-day-old. in activated with fi-p ro p io lacto n e o r fo rm a lin an d m ixed w ith m in eral oil to form a stable em ulsion. O n e o r m ore ad d ition al viral o r bacterial antigens m ay b e in corporated in to the sam e em u lsion a s polyvalent vaccines. d e sp ite m a ter nally-d e r ived i m m u n ity. infected w ith d ifferen t len togen ic strain s. togeth er with live vaccin e. [j0 A. V4 A pathogenic 1 < 0 . rarely with m esogen ic strain s (R oakin strain ). b e fo re g o in g in to lay. A splin F. Ulster 2 C.irK.

Clinical signs and lesions T R T . C u rre n t evidence suggests th at the virus is on ly likely to be sh ed for a few days after in fection and th at n o carrier state exists. th ere may b e a d r o p in egg p r o d u c tio n o f up to 7 0 % . S p read over greater d istan ce s is ap p aren tly sligh t. Epizootiology C o u n trie s re p o rtin g iso la tio n s o f the viru s are relatively few. C an d D.K . so m e a b n o r m a litie s are o b se rv e d in the ov ary a n d o v id u c t. Brazil a n d p ro b a b ly to a n u m b e r o f o th e r co u n tries. co u g h in g . first to Italy a n d th e U . referred to as A . m issh ap en eggs.Avian Pneumoviruses A v ian p n e u m o v iru se s are m em bers o f the fam ily Paramyxoviridae. particularly in y o u n g p o u lts. Ja p a n . afterw ard s an d to a lim ited ex ten t. In laying b ird s. M o rb id ity is can b e 1 0 0 % .. T h e d ise a se in ch ick en s w as first rep orted in S o u th A frica in the late 1 9 7 0 ’s. is characterized by m ore o r less ev id en t sn eezin g. m ortality varies greatly. m ostly d epen din g on the severity o f bacterial co-infections. g en u s Metapnewmovirus. which com plicate th e viral in fection . an d th ese particu larly in turkeys. p eriton itis. alth ou gh resistan ce o f th e viru s is nor high. particularly to turkeys a n d ch icken s. In th e p u re fo rm . It later sp read to E u ro p e. JA . w ith a n in cre ase d in cid e n c e o f p o o r egg sh ell quality. from less than 1% to as high as 3 0 % . sw ollen in frao rb ital sin uses. con jun ctivitis an d head shaking. in m a tu re fe m a le s . nasal d isch arge. affectin g prim arily turkeys and c h ick en s. S tu d ie s u sin g m o n o clo n al an tib o d ie s have m ad e it p o ssib le to d istin g u ish fo u r subty p es o f the virus. a n d h ave been term ed turkey rhinotracheitis (T R T ) an d chicken swollen head syndrome (S H S ) respectively. m o v e m e n t o f e q u ip m e n t an d p e o p le m ay also b e im p licated . S p read o f the in fection occu rs by contact a n d is a irb o rn e . to th e U S A . su c h as regression. th en elsew here). fo ld ed shell m em b ran es in the ovidu ct. B. In fection s. p resen ce o f in fection h a s frequently b een b a sed o n serological evidence. th e on ly le sio n is th e p re se n c e o f e x u d a te in t u r b in a te s a n d in fr a o r b ita l sin u se s.

su ch as m y co p lasm osis. V iru s iso la tio n . a ir s a c c u litis a n d m e n in g itis. G o o d cro ss p ro te c tio n a m o n g th e su b ty p es occu rs. live vaccines are o fte n follow ed by an injection o t in activated vaccin e in oily e m u lsio n .W h e n se c o n d a ry b acterial co -in fcctio n s o c c u r (m ostly £. W h en adm inistered correctly. S H S in c h ic k e n s is ch aracterized by th e s a m e resp irato ry sy m p to m s a n d sw ellin g o f periorbital sinuses. n o t so easy to d o . particularly in turkeys. these vaccines provide g o o d p ro tectio n . can on ly be presum ptive. c a n sh ow sim ilar sym ptom s. T h erefo re. 10 an d 4 5 days o f age. a variety o f gross lesion s have been observed. Control Live a tten u ate d v a cc in e s are u sed bo th in turkeys a n d ch ick en s. although respiratory sig n s m ay b e w id e sp re a d . p e r ic a r d itis. influenza a n d N ew castle d ise a se . o f th e o r d e r o f less th an .coii). b ecau se m any o th e r c o n d itio n s. by coarse spray. and in em bryo tracheal organ cultures (T O C ). opisth oton u s and torticollis. is p e rfo rm e d in e m b ry on ated eggs. the w attles. tw o w eeks b e fo re th e start o f laying. ch ick en s are vaccin ated on ly o n ce . In breeders. in clu d in g p n e u m o n ia.5%. su ch a s viru s iso la tio n a t the first sig n s o f d isea se . ear and eye discharge. U su ally . g e la tin o u s to p u ru le n t su b c u ta n e o u s o e d e m a o f the h ead an d . M ortality rarely ex ceed s 1-2% . T h e o n ly sig n ific a n t le sio n is an exten sive Poult affected by TRT: sinusitis and conjunctivitis yellow. . turkey b roilers are vaccinated a t 1. betw een 1 an d 10 days o f age. so m etim e . stim u latin g b o th system ic a n d local im m u n ity in the resp iratory tract. In heavy b re e d e rs a re d u c tio n in egg p ro d u c tio n . o th e r in vestigatio n s. via the yolk-sac. Diagnosis C lin ical d iagn osis. im m unofluorescence) are required tor a definitive diagnosis. m o le cu lar id e n tificatio n (R T -P C R ) an d serology (E L ISA . U su ally less th an 3 % o f the flock is so affected. m ay occu r.

b a se d o n se ro lo g ic al r e a c tio n s o f s u r fa c e g ly c o p r o te in s . geese . A l v iru se s have a w orldw ide distribution. particularly recently. A I h a s often becom e en d em ic. m ore (sh ift) o r less (d rift) w ide. m any com bin ations o f H an d N antigen in virus subtypes have been reported in d om estic an d wild birds. sim ilarly ro N ew castle D isease. sporadically isolated from dom estic integrated com m ercial poultry. stra in s o f so m e su btyp es (to d a te . A ntigenic variations. T h erefore. S ix te e n H a n d 9 N an tig e n s h ave s o fa r been recognized. h av e b een re p o rte d in pou ltry. Epizootiology T h e m o st fr e q u e n t so u rc e o f A I v iru s a re w aterfow l. they. ou tb reaks o r actual epizootics in com m ercial poultry have beco m e m ore a n d m o re freq u en t in the last 2 0 years. However. g u lls a n d o th e r w ild b ird s. w hich are c o n sid e re d as th e n atu ral reserv oirs. so m e tim e s. resu ltin g in ep izootics o f L P o r H P A I. with a m ortality rate o f u p to 100% .Avian Influenza A vian in flu en za (A I) is cau sed by a viru s b e lo n g in g to th e fam ily Orthomixoviridae. viral iso la te s are su b d iv id e d in to low (L P ) an d high p a th o g e n ic (H P). som etim es. in th e se latte r sp ecies. esp ecially d u ck s. serotype A. g e n u s Influenza vines. th o u g h few er th an in m am m als. s o it is transm itted by d irect con tact betw een infected an d susceptible birds 16 . H 5 an d H 7) can m u ta te fro m LP to H P. W hen A I infections d o occur. A I v iru s in fe c tio n usually cau ses sp orad ic o r n o disease. to system ic d isease. from asym p tom atic ro respiratory d isease a n d a d ro p in egg p ro d u ctio n . A n im als from th e live p ou ltry m arket (LPM ) system a n d backyard flocks have so m e o f the h igh est in fection rates. A I virus has. In fection can o ccu r in m any fo rm s. m o st frequently turkeys an d . In flu en za A v iru s is c la ssifie d in sa b types. A I viru s is excreted by th e resp iratory a n d en teric routes. sp read rapidly th rou gh the integrated poultry system . w orldw ide. ch icken s an d oth er d om estic birds. H igh ly P a th o g e n ic A v ian In flu en za (H PA 1) is in clu d e d in the list o f d ise a se s re p o rted by th e O ffic e Chickens affected by HPAI before death In tern ation al d e s E p izooties (O IE ). in the p ast been. In so m e d e v e lo p in g co u n trie s o r in so m e are as w h ere th e L P M system is w id esp read . h a e m a g g lu tin in (If) an d n e u ra m in id a se (N ). slightly less o fte n . fro m farm to farm .

T h e m o st fre q u e n t lesio n s in th e resp irato ry tract are: catarrhalfibrinous to p u ru len t sinusitis. concurrent in lection s an d en viron m en tal c o n d itio n s. move recently. catarrh al to fib rin o u s en teritis an d o v id u ctitis m ay also be observed. S o m e tim e s h igh m o r b id ity . H P A I v iru s in fe c tio n in w ild b ird s an d d o m e stic d u c k s u su ally p ro d u c es few o r n o clin ical sign s. tracheitis. b e in g e v e r le ss fr e q u e n t a s th e d iffe re n c e s b etw een the p h ylogen etic classes o f th e an im als in crease. In tra sp e c ie s tran sm issio n is fre q u e n t an d easy. is th e ru le.o r by in direct con tact through aerosol d ro p lets o r ex p osu re to virus con tam in ated fom ites. a few c ase s have been rep o rted w ith m o d e ra te to h igh m ortality . the clin ical signs vary. rales. m ore o r less severe airsaccu litis. if b ird s survive fo r a few days. such as turkeys. how ever the virus h as b e e n iso lated fro m th e in tern al c o n te n ts o f the eggs d u rin g n atu ral o u tb re ak s o f d isease. In d o m e stic poultry. even d o m e s tic p ig s. a n o re x ia a n d d ia rrh o e a . gu in ea fowl an d q u ail. resp ectiv ely in A sia a n d in T h e N etherlands. in cluding h ost species. S o u rces o f in fection lo r initial in tro d u ctio n o f A I virus in to com m ercial poultry flocks in clude o th er d o m estic an d con fin ed poultry. In m o st cases. so m e o f th em m ay exh ibit re sp ira to ry a n d n e r v o u s d is o r d e r s . su ch as cou g h in g . age. to g eth er w ith v a ria b le m alaise. a d ecrease in egg p ro d u c tio n (varying fro m 10 to 8 0 % ) is a lso p o s s ib le . in te rsp e cie s tra n sm issio n may o c c u r. ch ick en s. sn eezin g. p e t b ir d s o r. in d o m e stic p ou ltry it n orm ally p ro d u c e s m ild to severe resp iratory sy m p to m s. alth o u g h a t p re se n t ro a relatively lim ited extent: Turkeys affected by HPAI H IN 1 from sw ine to turkey in the U S A an d . R e sp ir a to r y sig n s a re less . H ow ever. d e p e n d in g o n th e viru s p athotype an d other factors. in the absence o f an y clear sym ptom . bron ch op n eu m on ia. eq u ip m en t and p eople. d epen d in g o n the degree o f dam age induced by viral replication in to th e sp ecific o rg a n s an d card io v asc u lar an d n erv o u s system s. H 5N 1 an d H 7 N 7 fro m p o u ltry to h u m a n s. also d e p e n d in g o n sec o n d ary bactcrial in fection s. LPA1 v iru s in fe c tio n in w ild b ird s u su ally p r o d u c e s n o sig n s. Clinical signs and lesions C lin ic a l sig n s a re ex tre m ely v a ria b le . A lthough the transm ission o f infection com m only o c c u rs h orizo n tally. ev id e n c e o f vertical tra n sm issio n is lackin g. m igratory waterfowl. u n le ss c o m p lic a te d by se c o n d a ry in fectio n s o r it the d isease o ccu rs in very y o u n g birds. the disease is fulm inating. b u t s o m e ex cep tion s have o ccu rred . in s o m e c a se s. b u t lo w m o rta lity (less th a n 3-5% ). in b re e d e rs an d layers. however.

p articu larly in a re a s w ith very high c o n c e n tratio n s o f farm s. W h en an o u tb re ak o f A I occu rs an d the virus su btype is identified. M o rb id ity an d m ortality is very' high (50-90 to 100% ). tissues. fo o tw ear. T h e re se rv o ir o f the v iru s in w ild b ird s sh o u ld b e c o n sid e r e d a m a jo r so u rc e o f p rim ary in fe c tio n fo r com m ercial birds. v a cc in atio n m ay b e a u se fu l to o l. p reven tin g n o t on ly d irect. A p recip ito u s d ro p in egg p ro d u ctio n is the rule. W h en in fe ctio n by su b ty p e H 5 an d H 7 (the on ly su b ty p es w hich have so far sh o w n a cap acity to con vert from LPA I ro H PA I) is detected. often in clu d in g the p an creas an d non-feathered sk in . b u t also in d irect c o n tact o f c o n ta m in ate d eq u ip m e n t. w hich. particularly free-range birds. etc. h aem orrh agic an d n ecrotic lesion s in visceral organ s. follow ed by d e te ctio n o f an tib o d ie s (E L IS A . in activ ated vaccin es in oily e m u lsio n h av e b een u se d . E d em ato u s. H I. c lo th in g . veh icles o r p e o p le w ith in fe c tio u s m aterials (excreta). A s regard s p rev en tio n by v a ccin atio n . how ever. even a t lo n g d ista n c e s. In s u d d e n d eath .). n o g ro ss le sio n s b u t on ly a gen eral severe co n g estio n m ay b e observed. the resp o n se m u st be p ro m p t and c o m p le te . T h e ir effectiveness in preventing sy m p to m s and m ortality h as been w ell d o c u m e n te d . T h e strict application o f biosecurity. p ro v e n tric u lu s a n d Payer’s p atch es. even re so rtin g to im m e d ia te c u llin g o r d e p o p u la tio n . d iffic u lties in p re p arin g a vaccin e in advance arise. Control M e th o d s fo r the c o n tro l o f A I virus in fection arc m ainly based on k n o w led ge o f how th e viru s is in tro d u c e d in to a farm o r an area a n d how it can sp re a d . A definitive d iag n o sis is estab lish ed by d irect d etectio n o f an tigen s o r D N A o f th e virus in variou s sp ecim e n s (tracheal a n d clo aca! sw abs.m easu res is th e first line o f d efen ce. H ow ever. p articu larly in c h ic k e n s a n d turkeys. A G P . h ae m o rrh a g e s a re p ro m in e n t in th e e p ic a rd iu m . are observed. and by isolation and identification o f the virus in em bryonated eggs o r by R T -P C R . C o n ta m in a te d p o u ltry m an u re ap p e ars to b e a m o st likely so u rce o f v iru s sp re a d betw een flock s o r farm s. p articu larly in a re a s w ith high 18 . are n o t p ath o gn o m o n ic. V N ). becau se there are 16 d ifferen t H subtypes o f AI virus. Diagnosis Chickens broiler affected by HPAI A p resu m p tiv e d ia g n o sis o f A I is b a se d o n e p id e m io lo g ic a l an d clinical d ata. C on siderable difficulties are som etim es encountered with application o f all b io se c u rity m e asu re s.p ro m in e n t th an with LPA1.

T h e trend seem s to b e in this direction. also preventing it from b eco m in g en d em ic. Layinq curve in an outbreak o f LPAI (subtype H7N1) in a farm o f 4 houses with layers o f different ages . H eterologous vaccine h as also been used for the N antigen. m a k in g it p o s s ib le to re d u c e tran sm issio n an d sp read o f infection. ever in cases o f LPAI H 5 an d H 7 ou tb reak s m igh t redu ce the possibility o f H P A I v iral em e rg e n c ie s. applying the D IV A (differentiating infected from vaccinated anim als) strategy. also considering the recent exam p les o f resu lts o b tain e d in certain countries. w ou ld favour eradication o f the disease. V accin atio n sh o u ld be con sid ered a valid op tio n to c o n tr o l th e sp r e a d o f in fe c tio n . th e ir u se c o n tin u e s to b e d e b a te d . an d the susceptibility o f birds to the virus. b a sed o n se ro lo g ic a l te sts to h igh lig h t d iffe re n t sp e c e fic anti-N antibodies.p oultry p o p u la tio n d en sities. b u t the p re p aratio n o f a v accin e h as to b e q u ite rap id. T h e con trolled u se o f vaccines. re m a rk a b ly r e d u c in g the su sc e p tib ility o f b ird s to th e in fe c tio n an d th e a m o u n t o f viral sh e d d in g in the environ m ent. T h e ju d ic io u s u se o f v a c c in e . particularly in E u ro p e a n d N o rth A m erica.

is rep orted to p ro d u c e so m e p e r m a n e n t d a m a g e to th e o v id u c t. Epizootiology Trachea: a) normal b) affected by IB IB (1BV) c a u s e s c o n s id e r a b le d a m a g e to th e p o u ltry in d u stry w o rld w id e. w hich particu larly affects th e resp iratory tract. a few d ays o ld . o th e r se ro ty p e s are m o re lo c a te d in d iffe r e n t areas. the sign s a re sim ilar. b u t also th e k id n e y s a n d re p ro d u c tiv e trac t. A Z 2 7 / 9 8 or h-02.). th e viru s is excreted by c o u g h in g an d sn eezin g fo r a b o u t 10 days. b u t rhe in fection can persist to r w eeks o r even m on th s in the k idn eys a n d gut. th is is Kidney lesions caused by nephropathogenk IBV n o rm ally prevented by th e p resen ce o f g o o d levels o f m aternallyderived an tib o d ies. W ith rhe ex cep tio n o f th e M assachusetts serotype. to g eth er w ith m ore o r less severe d e p r e ssio n an d reduced w eight gain. A rkansas DPI. a decline in egg p ro d u ctio n an d quality is observed. p re se n t all over th e w o rld . ro a lesser ex te n t. g en u s CoroncR'irus. In b ird s old er th an 6 weeks an d in ad u lt birds. o c c asio n ally sw ollen sin u ses. C h ic k e n s a n d . trach eal rales. In laying flocks. sn eezin g . b u t less severe. highly con tagiou s viral disease o f poultry. U K -4 /9 1 . cau sed by a viru s classified in th e fam ily Coronaviridae. A Z -4 0 /0 5 or Q X lik e etc. Gray. w ithin 24-48 h o u rs.2 3 /7 4 .Infectious Bronchitis Infectious bronch itis (IB) is an acute. b u r th e d ise a se is m ore severe in y ou n g ch icks. p h e a sa n ts a re the prim ary n atu ral h o sts. c o u g h in g . IB virus (IBV ) sp re ad s rapidly in a flo ck o r in a farm . T h e severity o f the d ro p in egg p rod u ctio n varies greatly. bein g sh ed by d ro p p in g s. In fec tio n in ch ick s. in a d d itio n to m o re o r less ev id en t respiratory sy m pto m s. A ll ag es are su sc e p tib le . A Z. w ith re d u c e d fu tu r e egg p ro d u c tio n a n d a p p e aran ce o f “ false layers” : in the fie ld . c o u n trie s o r c o n tin e n ts (Connecticut. T h e o c c u rre n c e o f m u ltip le sero ty p es (to d ate over 6 0 d ifferen t sero ty p es have been rep orted all over the w orld) seem s to co m p licate the prevention o f th e d isease by vaccination. Clinical signs and lesions T h e c h arac te ristic re sp ira to ry sig n s in y o u n g ch ick s are g asp in g . from slight 20 . n asa l d isch arg e.

urolith iasis m ay occur. im m u n ity sta tu s. w et d ro p p in g s w ith urates. Control B iosecu rity m easu res ag ain st IB are very' d ifficu lt to apply. 21 . are n o t very sp ecific. V N ). d e p e n d in g on v iru le n c e of the viru s strain . w h ich m ay have receiv ed o n e o r m ore vaccin ation s or in fection s. cold stress an d Characteristics of eggs laid from hens affected by IB: a) normal b) different degree of alteration secon d ary b acte rial in fectio n s (tmcopl/ismfls. in fected ch ickens show serous-catarrh al or fib rin ou s exu d ates in nasal p assages an d sin u ses. after the acute phase. w hich. particularly broilers. p articu larly in b ro ile rs (chronic respiratory disease).or soft-shelled and m issh ap en eggs are p rod u ced . varying w ith the p eriod of lay. d u e to the high density' o f farm s in certain areas an d w hen m ultiple ages are p resen t in the sam e farm . iso latio n and even tu al typing o f the viru s (in o c u la tio n in em b ryon ated eggs or trach eal organ cu ltures) an d R T -P C R from affected tissues or em bryo fluids. A caseous plug may be found in the tracheal bifurcation an d bronchi in you n g chicks. sh ow sign s of severe d ep re ssio n . hatchability is reduced. d eh yd ratation . rough. sw ollen and pale kidneys. In n e p h ro p ath ic in fection s. etc. A logical con seq u en ce is the n eed to resort to vaccin ation to preven t losses of p ro d u ctio n . due to interstitial nephritis and d isten ded ureters with urates are present. curling. in creased w ater intake. b u t m ain ly in layers. F o u r to eight weeks may elapse before egg prod u ctio n returns to the pre-infection level. M orbidity1 m ay be very h igh . Later. Diagnosis A presum ptive diagn osis of IB is based on the rapid onset o f clinical sign s an d on the lesion s. m ortality is variab le. C ross-reaction s are m ore evident w hen sera are collected after field infection in broilers. Escherichia coli. Lt is confirm ed by the detection o f IBV antigen (im m unofluorescence assay).to over 5 0 % . serological tests are applied to detect group-specific an tib o d ies (A G D an d E L IS A tests) or typespecific an tib o d ie s (H I. A t necropsy. how ever.). but in m ost cases this is never attain ed. b u t m ostly in the trachea and air-sacs. affected by neph ropath ogenic strains of IBV. in layers. in a d d itio n to the m ore or less severe typical respiratory sy m p to m s. Embryo lesion in SPF eggs inoculated vsith IBV: dwarfing. D isco lo u red. causative virus strain an d in com plete vaccinal im m unity. w hich c o m p lic a te th e co u rse of illn ess. C hicken s. persistence of mesonephros T h e w id e a n tig e n ic v a r ia tio n s of IB V ad d c o m p le x ity to the co n d u ctio n o f tests an d the analysis o f results.

U n lik e N D an d IB D . it b e lo n g s to the M a ssach u setts serotype. V accin e prepared w ith M assach u setts serotype con tin u es to be the m o st co m m o n ly used vaccine in the w orld. which. O ther serotypes are used in live attenuated or inactivated vaccines w orldw ide. avoid in g excessive nu m ber o f passages to prevent red u ctio n o f im m unogenicity. on e or two vaccin ation s are p erform ed with a live vaccine. m ostly at 1 and 12-20 days o f age. d oes n ot cover com pletely all other serotypes o r varian ts o f the virus. T h is serotype provides fairly good cross-protection. T h e m o st w id e sp re a d v a c c in a l strain is n am e d H 1 2 0 . . b u t oth e r strain s are also p re se n t o n the m arket. adm inistered d u rin g the pullet (2-3 tim es) an d laying p e rio d s (every 3 m on th s) an d on e or two in je ctio n s o f in activ ated v accin e (p refe rab ly p re p are d with 2 o r 3 d iffere n t serotypes) b efo re en terin g the laying p e rio d . also b e cau se viru ses iso la te d in m o st c o u n trie s b e lo n g to th is sero ty p e . are recom m en ded . In b reed ers an d layers. In b roilers. m aternal an tib o d ie s d o n o t interfere greatly with vaccin ation p erform ed at on e day o f age.B o th live a tte n u a te d an d in ac tiv ate d v a c c in e s are u se d in IB im m un ization . a com b in atio n o f live vaccines. IB V strains used for live vaccine p rep aration have been atten u ated by serial p assages in em bryonated eggs. however.

Poultry Disease Manual .

i In acute form s.IN F E C T IO U S LA R Y N G O TR A C H E 1TI5 Infectious Laryngotracheitis In fectiou s Laryngotrach eitis (IL T ) is cau sed by a virus classified in the fam ily Herpesviridae. d e p e n d in g on the severity o f disease. b u t u su ally w ith in the 10-1. p articu larly ad u lt bird s. Epizootiology C h ic k e n s are the p rim ary n atu ral host. N u m ero u s cases of IL T have also been reported in ph easan ts. I Diagnosis In cases o f severe sign s and lesion s.5% range. ! I L T in d u c e s a m o re o r less se v e re d r o p in egg p r o d u c tio n (10 to 60% ). gasping. by the I airb orn e rou te or by co n tam in ated e q u ip m e n t an d people. how ever. T h e course o f in fection varies with the severity o f the lesion s: the ! m o st ch aracteristic in acute form s is the h em orrh agic-d ip h th eric exudate. characterized by conjunctivitis. m orbidity is very high. m ortality is rath er low. . laboratory diagnosis procedures are advisable. T ran sm ission o f the d isease occu rs by d irect c o n tact with in fected bird s. iso latio n o f virus in em bryon ated eggs and P C R .. for a p erio d o f 3-5 weeks. w ith e x p ectoration o f b lo o d y m u cu s an d high m ortality. M ild form s o f disease have often been observed. w hich replicates in the respiratory tract. genus Ct-herpesi'irus. T h e n atu ral rou te o f entry fo r the vim s is through the upper respiratory and ocular tract. m ortality. tracheal rales. other b ird s a p p e a r to be refractory. In m ild enzootic form s. ) Clinical signs and lesions IL T is usually ch aracterized by acute respiratory symptoms-. nasal I discharge. less th an 2 % . coughing. is very v ariab le. due to fibrinous-haem orrhagic tracheitis. including the presence o f in tran u c le ar in clu sio n b o d ie s in tissu es stain ed w ith G iem sa . the d ia g n o sis is reliab le. w hich can extend to the entire length o f trachea. expectoration o f bloody m ucus to casts. O th erw ise. 24 . from 5 to 6 0 % . I sw elling o f in fraorb ital sin u ses an d n asal discharge.

am m o n ia. In su ch cases. Som etim es. W h e n the n u m b e r o f b ird s to vaccin ate is very high. 2 . w h en the environ m ental c o n d itio n s are su b o p tim a l (dust. in high risk farm s. th e v accin atio n o f b ro ile rs m ay also be required . via the d rin k in g w ater. A tte n u atio n h a s b e e n o b ta in e d by s e r ia l p a ssa g e s o n tissu e c u ltu r e s o r in em bryonated eggs. preferab ly a t tw o su ccessive tim e s a n d ar 1 f . m ore o fte n . the c o n tro l o f the d ise a se in g eo g rap h ic areas. U su ally . broilers are vaccinated at 14-16 d ays o f age by eye-drop o r. at 3 4 and 16-18 weeks o f age. on ly p u lle ts d e stin e d ro b e c o m e layers o r b re e d e rs are v accin ated ag a in st ILT. w here it is en d e m ic o r freq u en t. w ith a sin g le a d m in istra tio n a t 5-8 w eeks o r twice. bird-to-bird p assage m igh t resu lt in reversion o f the viru s to greater virulence. is based o n th e u se o f atten u ated vaccines. T h e m o st efficacio u s rou te o f ad m in istratio n is by eyc-drop.P ou ltry D isease M anual Control B esid es the ap p lic a tio n o f a p p ro p ria te bio secu rity m easu res. so Characteristic attitude o f chicken affected by ILT. particularly w hen flocks are close to o u tb reak s o f disease or th e b ird s are grow ing over. A dd itio n o f skim m ed m ilk 1% to fresh w ater is advisable. during breathing th at all c h ic k e n s can c o n su m e a n a d e q u a te a m o u n t o f th e virus. ir can b e advisable to ad m in ister the vaccine via the d rin k in g water. cold) o r adm inistration o f the vaccin e is in co rrect. m ostly in e n d e m ic areas. en su rin g th e vaccin e is correctly ad m in istered .2 d o se s p er bird . If a c o n sid e rab le n u m b e r o f ch ick en s d o n o t receive the vaccin ation . Som etim es adverse post-vaccinal reactions m ay occur.

with e ro sio n s. hygiene an d clim ate. caused by num erous species o f the g e n u s Avipox virus. also d e p e n d in g o n viru s viru len ce. th e d ise a se is se a so n a l (w et-hot w eath er a n d p resen c e o f insects). It survives fo r a lon g tim e in the sc ab s an d d ried p u stu le s a n d it is Pox lesion on eyelids o f a layer tran sm itted by d irect o r in d ire c t c o n ta c t o r by b itin g m o sq u ito e s o r m ites. p o o r w eight gain an d m ore o r less redu ced egg p ro d u ctio n . o r b o th . T h e course is 3-4 o r m ore w eeks. T h e cu tan eo u s form is characterized by the ap p earan ce o f n o d u lar o r w art-like lesio n s o n th e c o m b . Mortality. b u t m ostly after 8-10 w eeks o f age. w attles. in such cases. w attles an d eyelids a n d d ip h th eric lesio n s in rhe m o u th . Diagnosis W art-like le sio n s o f the c o m b . etc. as well as o f pets an d wild birds. cheesy. m ain ly. Clinical signs and lesions F P m ay o c c u r in tw o fo rm s.FO W L POX Fowl Pox Fowl p ox (FP) is a c o m m o n d isease o f p ou ltry (ch ick en s. c u ta n e o u s o r d ip h th e ric . yellow to brow n in colou r. b lit with varying d egrees o f cross-relationsh ip. is observed. a g r a n u la t in g h em o rrh agic tissu e. fam ily Poxviridae. the bird can even ch oke. d ip h th e ric m em b ran es o r plugs. w h ich in crease in size a n d o fte n c o ale sc e to fo rm yellow . larynx an d trach eal m u co sa stron gly su ggest 26 . In so m e are a s. T h e cffects o f p o x usually involve em aciation . M o rb id ity a n d c o u rse o f th e d ise a se are variable. pheasants. turkeys.). o r w et p o x . to over 30 % w hen d ip h th e ric fo rm s are prevalent. Pox lesion on legs o f chicken from 1-2%. w hen m ild cu tan e o u s le sio n s are p resen t. it can also affect nearby flocks. Epizootiology Poxvirus infects b ird s a t any age. D ifferen t species are m ore o r less d istin g u ish a b le fro m each o th e r. w ith th e a p p e aran ce o f n o d u le s o r p atch es. T h e d ip h th e ric fo rm . o c c u rs in th e m u c o sa o f the m o u th a n d o e so p h a g u s a n d . eyelid s. in th e latter case.also varies. If rhe sc a b s o r d ip h th e r ic m e m b r a n e s a r e re m o v e d . o f th e larynx a n d trach ea. n e cro tic. legs a n d oth er non-feathered areas o f the skin .

Poultry Disease Manual the p resen ce o f this d isease. T u rk eys m ay be vaccinated by the wing-web m eth od . However. in m u ltiaged farm s an d in tropical clim ates. it is advisable to vaccinate the flock im m ediately. T h e p resen c e o f lo cal sw elling a t the in je ctio n site. th e vaccin ation m ay b e p erfo rm ed a t any tim e o f the year. B o th vaccinal viruses are grow n in em b ry on ated eggs o r o n tissue-cultures and freeze-dried. or non-attenuated pigeon pox-virus. 8 d ay s after vaccin ation . 27 . a sin gle vaccin ation is given benveen 4 a n d 14 w eeks o f age. T h e vaccine is ap p lied by th e wing-web m eth od . by sc arific atio n at 8-12 w eeks o f age. the con trol o f FP is based o n im m unization o f birds with Pox lesion on the beak o f a pigeon atten uated vaccin es before th e seaso n . T w o types o f vaccines can he used. In b reed ers and layers. D ifferential d iagn osis is som etim es necessary w ith laryngotracheitis. a histological e x am in a tio n can be definitive. A definitive d iag n o sis can be m ad e by a histological exam in atio n . b u t in so m e se a so n s o r areas it can b e necessary to preserve the integrity o f the skin. w hen the d isease is likely to occur. w hich very o fte n p reven ts the d ise a se from sp read in g an y further. u sin g a stick with tw o gro o v ed n eed les d ip p e d in vaccine so lu tio n . Control S o m e tim e s th e rem oval o f w arts a n d d ip h th e ric m e m b ran e s an d th e tre a tm e n t o f lo c al le sio n s w ith d isin fe c ta n ts a re p erfo rm ed . using FP virus attenuated by n u m e ro u s p assag e s in e m b ry on ated eggs or o n tissu e cultures. sh ow s th at b ird s have b een correctly im m unized. b u t it is m ore ad v isab le ro d o s o in th e m id d le o f the th igh . b reed ers sh o u ld b e revaccin ated befo re laying. mainly. Even w hen a n o u tb re ak is a t a n early stage. norm ally b ro ilers arc n o t vaccinated.

C h ic k s.INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE Infectious Bursal Disease In fec tio u s b u rsa l d ise a se (IB D ). T h e virus (IB D V ) is very s t a b le in th e e n v ir o n m e n t a n d c a n su rv iv e f o r m o n th s in c o n ta m in ate d farm s. usually c au sin g less th an 5-10% sp ecific m ortality. la te r. b u t. th e occu rren ce an d sp re ad o f very viru len t stra in s o f virus (w IB D V ) were reported. B-lymphocytes are the prim ary target cells. is an acute. serotype 1. p ro d u c e m o re severe sy m p to m s a n d le sio n s in ly m p h oid tissu es. Clinical signs and lesions T h e in cu b atio n p e rio d o f the d isease is very sh o r t an d the clinical sig n s o c c u r w irhin 2-3 d ay s o f e x p o su re. w h e re a s in E u r o p e a n d . In N orrh -A m erica it was d em o n strate d th at the new iso lates h ad been affected by an tigen ic d r if t / s h i f t (v a ria n ts). even if antigenically closely related to rhe classic v iru se s (only p u n tifo rm m u ta tio n s). w ith very high m ortality . T h e age o f greatest su sce p tib ility to th e d is e a s e is b e tw e e n 3 a n d 6 w e e k s. w ith m o re o r le ss sev ere re a c tio n s an d Bursa o f Fabricius in IBD: m l! oedema and catarrhal-haemorrhagic lesions in mucosa m ortality (genetic in flu en ce). highly contagious viral infection o f young ( 3 /6 . d e p r e ssio n . p articu larly in th e th ym u s. sp le en an d o th e r ly m p h oid tissu e s are also involved. b u t the rhynuts. ru ffled feath ers. v accin atio n failu res b e g an to be rep orted in d iffe re n t p arts o f the w orld. Epizootiology T h e chicken is considered rhe only species in w hich natural infection o ccu rs. In rhe late 1 9 8 0 s. Bursa of Fabricius in IBD: diffuse mucosal haemorrhages U n til 1987. It p rim arily affects th e ly m p h oid tissues: th e m o st affe c te d o rg a n is th e b u rsa o f F a b ric iu s (B F ). th erefo re less atten uated an d m ore invasive vaccinal strain s becam e essential. T h ese latter strains. c au se d by a m e m b e r o f th e fam ily B irnaviridae g e n u s Avybirnovirus. ap p aren tly . so m e tim e s over 3 0 % . sh o w a n o re x ia . b u t a n tib o d ie s have b e e n a ls o d e te cte d in o th e r sp ecics. b u t well co n tro lled by m ild vaccin es. A ll b re e d s are a ffe c te d . o n o th e r C o n tin e n ts. also k n o w n as G u m b o r o d isease. n o t vertically.week-old) ch ick en s. M ild vaccin es were sh ow ed to b e a lm o st in effective ag a in st th ese w I B D V . o cc u rrin g over a p e rio d o f 2-6 days. the strains o f IB D V w ere o f m od erate virulence. 28 . p ick in g initially ar th eir ow n v en ts. IB D V ' is tr a n s m itte d h orizon tally directly o r in directly.

o fte n . b u t it can b e a s h igh as 10 to 7 0 % . s o they need to be vaccinated w hen m atern al an tib o d ie s are redu ced (2-3 weeks). M o rbidity is very h igh . even clo se to 8 0 -1 0 0 % . H ow ever. M ild live vaccin es w ere satisfacto rily u sed until th e em ergency o f virus varian ts in N o rth A m erica an d w lB D V o n o th e r C o n tin e n ts. tre m b lin g a n d severe p ro stra tio n . in sub-clinical in fection a n d w hen v a r ia n ts are p r e s e n t. h isto lo g ic a l le sio n s m ay g iv e in d ic a tio n s. d epen d in g on the degree o f pathogenicity o f the virus involved an d o n en v iron m en tal c o n d itio n s. H ow ever. T o c o n tr o l IB D V v a ria n ts. Diagnosis A cu te o u tb re a k s o f IB D a re easily recognized an d a p resu m p tive d ia g n o sis can b e read ily m a d e (see g ro ss le sio n s). in the m u co sa o f the pro v en tricu lu s. T h a t resu lts in a v a riab le im m u n o s u p p r e s s io n . w ith lo w e r w eig h t g ain a n d a h ig h e r feed conversion ratio. d e a th o c c u rs in a few h ou rs. in acu te fo rm s. it b e c a m e n e ce ssary ro u se sp e c ific 29 . to g e th e r w ith im m u n o flu o re sc e n c e o r v iru s iso la tio n o n th e c h o rio a lla n to ic m em b ran e (C A M ) o f 9-11 day-old em bryos. can be d etected . Control Hygiene an d disinfection are essential m eans to reduce the infection rate. A fte r recovery. in c ase s o f w lB D V .Poultry Disease Manual w h itish a n d w atery d ia rrh o e a . In birds which su ccu m b to in fection . w ith e n h a n c e d susceptibility to o th e r viral an d bacterial in fection s an d co n se q u e n t p o o r p e rfo rm a n c e . g elatin o u s to h aem o rrh ag ic. in ord er to extend the m aternal im m unity o f th e progeny to 3-4 w eeks. th e B F b e c o m e s m o re o r le ss a tr o p h ic . w hen the classic prop h y lactic m easu res w ere called in to q u e stio n . T h e m ost com m o n serological m eth od fo r an tib o d y evo lu tio n is the E L IS A test. also b ecau se th e viru s is very resistant to d isin fectan ts. d eh yd ratation . M ore recently. in su b c lin ic a l c a se s.e a n d m o re severe lesion s in o th e r lym p h oid o rg a n s a rc fo u n d . a g re ate r d e c re ase in thym us Bursa o f Fabricius in IBD: different appearance o f more or less severe lesions si. h aem orrh ages in the pectoral a n d thigh m u sclcs a n d . o n B F cu ltu res o r on BG M -70 cell-1 ines. b ro ile rs a n d p u lle ts w ith live v a cc in e s a t 2-3 w eeks o f age is the m ain m e th o d to c o n tro l th e d ise a se . h u t generally they are n o t su fficien t. R T-PC R and m olecular sequencing have been introduced in the diagnosis. B o o s te r im m u n iz a tio n o f b r e e d e r flo c k s w ith in a c tiv a te d v a c c in e s in o ily e m u ls io n h as Haemorrhagic lesions on proventriculus mucosa in IBD som etim es proved to b e im portant. M ortality is very v ariab le. the p rotection in broilers d o es n o t extend till slaugh ter. T h e B P is sw ollen. im m unization o f chickens.

the m ore o r less tem po rary u se o f “ in term ed iate plu s" vaccine at 12 to 16 days o f age can a t least be tem porarily suggested. fo r th is r e a s o n . w h ereas th e last is cu rren tly b an n ed in m any c o u n trie s. so m e tim e s. probably. A lth o u g h rhe p a re n ts are b o o ste d w ith in activated vaccine. these vaccines have been classified as “in term ediate” . b u t late en o u gh to allow the m aternal an tib o d ies to decline sufficiently. “ intermediatep lu s” o r “ h o t” types. It h as been fo u n d th at m arketed vaccines. either b ecau se an tib o d y tirres in a flock o f chicks are h eterogen eou s o r w hen facilities fo r serological co n trols are n o t a v a ila b le . particularly those Haemorrhages on the leg muscles in IBD d e fin e d a s “ in term e d iate -p lu s” . H o w e v e r. T h e b e st m o m e n t fo r vaccination d ep e n d s o n the rate o f decrease o f m aternal antibodies. cen tral v accin atio n d a te . D e p e n d in g o n th eir ab ility to in d u c e im m u n ity in the p resen ce o f m atern al an tib o d ie s an d th eir residu al pathogen icity. m ore rapid in broilers th an in light pullets. v a r io u s e x p e r ie n c e s (fa r m p a s t h isto ry .INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE atte n u ate d strain s. T h e m ain p ro b lem e n c o u n te re d in the c h o ice o f the p ro p e r tim e fo r vaccination is th at m aternal an tib o d ies interfere with replication o f v a c c in a l v iru s in ly m p h o id tissu e s. 30 . th e u se o f o n e v a c c in a tio n a t 18 d ay s o r tw o vaccinations a t 15 an d 22 days w ith “ in term ediate” vaccine resulted in g o o d c o n tro l o f th e d isease. since rhe use o f so m e o f th e m is so m e tim e s asso ciated with clear injury to. etc. in its tu rn . A r the m o m e n t. L ess atte n u ate d a n d m o re in vasive v a c c in e s w ere in tro d u c e d in th e c o n tr o l o f w I B D V . an d atroph y o f the B F a n d . th e m aternal an tib o d ie s provid e a g o o d level o f p r o te c tio n o n ly fo r th e first 3 o r. togeth er w ith im m u n o d ep ressio n . D ifferent m ethods to determ ine th e p ro p e r age o f v a cc in atio n h av e b e e n d e v e lo p e d (D a v e n te r’s fo rm u la . epidem iological data) can help to im prove the control o f the disease. In m an y a re a s. su c h a s th e tro pics an d in so m e p eriods o f the year. p re se n t very' v a riab le d e g re e s o f r e sid u a l p a th o g e n ic ity o r in v asiv e n e ss. th e first two types a re the m o st u se d al! over th e w orld. to g eth er w ith the classic o n es. In o th e r areas. o r in the p resen ce o f very virulent wild strain s. 4 w eeks. d u e to the severe lesion s it cau se s to lym phoid tissues. T h e key fo r efficacio u s p rotection ag ain st IB D is to vaccinate early en o u g h to p rev en t th e e sta b lish m e n t o f w ild viru s in fec tio n . so as n o t to interfere w ith the vaccinal virus. is linked to the grow th rare o f th e b ird s. o f other lym phoid tissues. a universal v a cc in atio n p ro g ram m e c a n n o t be o ffered . b u t it is n o t always p o ssib le to exactly d eterm in e the p ro p e r tim e.). then the b ird s b eco m e fully su scep tible. w id er investigations an d stan d ard isation sh o u ld be recom m en dable. H ow ever. b a se d o n an tib o d y levels ar 1-3 days o f age. w hich.

Poultry Disease Manual A c t iv e I B D V a n t i b o d y d e v e l o p m e n t a f t e r o n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f i n t e r m e d i a t e o r i n t e r m e d i a t e .p l u s v a c c in e a t 1 8 d a y s o f a g e : w it h le s s a t t e n u a t e d v a c c in e a n t i b o d y p r o d u c t io n b e g in s a w e e k e a r li e r .

MAREK'S DISEASE Neoplastic diseases Avian neoplastic disease includes a variety o f conditions with one com m on feature: their tum oral nature. The econom ically m ost im portant diseases are M arek’s disease. caused by a herpesvirus. caused by retroviruses.NEOPLASTIC DISEASES . Leukosis-sarcoma and Reticuloendotheliosis. 32 .

environ m ental hygiene. the oth er two serotypes (M DV-2 an d H V T-3) are non -on cogen ic an d ate used as vaccines. severe o u tb reak s have been rep orted in these bird s in Fran ce an d Israel. virus virulence. caused by a cell-associated Herpesvirus. by d ire ct or in direct con tact betw een birds. with wide differences in genetic su sc e p tib ility a m o n g th e b reed s. N a tu ra l o u tb re ak s o f M D are relatively com m on also relatively com m on in Japanese quail. U n d e r field con dition s. toxins. T he sources of environm ental con tam in ation are the epithelial cells o f feath er follicles. Great sciatic nerve enlargement. etc. only serotype 1 (M DV-1) is path ogen ic. T um ours have o c c asio n ally been re p o rte d in turkeys. m ore recently. are the m ain virus shedder. bpizootioiogY M D is w idespread through out the world.Poultry Disease Manual Marek's disease M arek ’s disease (M D ) is a com m o n lym phoproliferative d isease o f chickens. MDV-1 has increasingly enhanced its virulence. im m une state. o fte n indefinitely. w ith lym phottopic properties sim ilar to 7-Herpesvims. en v iron m en tal tem peratu re (tropics). at the m om en t. T hree serotypes o f M D virus have been dem onstrated. in MD breed genetic susceptibility. Sin ce its discovery. in teraction with oth er im m unodepressive viruses. causing tu m ou rs. M D has also been reported in ph easan ts. ap p aren tly by the airb o rn e route. virulence Lymphoid proliferation and enlargement of tne peripheral nerve (neck) in MD: a) normal b) affected seem s to be fairly stable o r progressin g slowly. T h e keratinized d an d er an d feathers. to control M D the h y gien ic c o n d it io n s o f th e p o u ltry h o u se are o f p a r a m o u n t 33 . T he prevalence o f infection is m uch higher than the prevalence o f the disease. also in the form o f latent in fection in T-lym phocytes. b u t a m olecu lar structure sim ilar to a -Herpesvirus. T h e v iru s p e r sists in in fe c te d a n im a ls fo r a lo n g tim e. C h ick en s are by far the m ost im portant natural host. which is normally monolateral. w hich sp read s quickly from bird to bird. which preserve the virus even for several m onth s at Z 5 °C an d for som e years at 4 °C . Factors affecting the developm en t o f the disease are. From m ild (m) to very virulent plus (w + ). w here it is actually classified. stress. particularly it houses are not cleaned and disinfected carefully. T ra n sm issio n o f in fection occu rs on ly horizontally. youn g chicks are usually exposed to in fection very rapidly. However. where the com plete virus replicates. bu t.

u n d e r field co n d itio n s. also d ep e n d in g on the breeds.1-0. T h e test also m akes it p ossib le to differen tiate betw een p ath ogen ic an d non p ath o gen ic (or vaccinal) 34 . losses have d ro p p ed to less than 2 to 4% . m ainly in the liver. A tran sien t paralysis syndrom e has been reported in the field. Very virulent M D V strains can induce su d d en death in a few days in youn g chicks w ith or w ith ou t m acroscop ic tu m oral lesion s (mostly in chicks experimentally inoculated when they are one-day-old). befo re the use o f vaccines. spleen . w eigh t lo ss. Presently. in m ost countries or areas. m ore fre q u e n tly th e b ird s sh ow Spleen and liver tumoral infiltration due to MD infection d e p re ssio n . M D is som etim es characterized by progressive paresis and. T h e usual occurrence o f d isease. H ow ever. m ostly o n on e sid e . In broilers. m ainly v isib le in the sciatic an d vagu s nerves. c o n d e m n a tio n at the slau g h te r h o u se co u ld be fro m 0. u sin g a h om ogen ate o f F F E o r feath er tip s (F T ) as an tig e n . b u t with lower freq u en cies sin ce v accin atio n yet b ecam e w idesp read . by spastic paralysis. an o re x ia an d . Breeder with tumoral lesions due to MD in a) muscles and b) spleen Diagnosis D iagn o sis o f M D has lon g been p articu larly b ase d on m acro. which are vaccinated in m any cou n tries. kidneys.im p ortan ce. is w hen the b ird s are betw een 10 and 30 weeks old. particularly for the first few weeks o f life. at a later stage. A fter the discovery that feather follicle ep ith eliu m (FFE ) is the m ain site o f active M D V rep licatio n . for this reason .5 to 10% . th e p resen ce o f m ore or less w idespread n e o p lastic lesion s in vario u s organs. H ow ever the p ath o g e n e sis o f th is sy n d ro m e has n o t yet becam e clear. often practically zero. asso ciated with lym phoid in filtratio n o f p erip h eral nerves.an d m icroscopic lesions in tissues. may experien ce very low sp ecific m ortality and co n d e m n atio n (0. the percentage o f birds sim ultaneously affected d oes n o t exceed 2-3% . in ad d itio n to relatively low m ortality. as a result o f c u tan e o u s an d visceral tu m o ral lesion s. occasionally as high as 7 0 % . the agar-gel d iffu sio n (A G D ) test was also applied. was very variable: losses in flocks o f breeders or layers were estim ated to range from a few birds to 4 0% . M orbidity an d m ortality are rath er variable. proven trie ulus. all in-all o u t breeding system s. at n ecropsy.5% ). w ith carefu l rem oval of litter an d dust. T h e in cid en ce. Broilers. nearly all breeders and layers are vaccin ated ag ain st M D . until the chicks are well protected by the vaccine. w ash in g an d d isinfection. go n ad s and skin. a g a in st a h y p e rim m u n e an tiserum as reference antibody. p alo u r.

H V T v a c c in e is av ailab le a s cell-asso ciated (frozen ) o r cell-free 35 . R ecen tly a P C R test has b een u sed to d iffe re n tiate th e serotypes. a fre q u e n t practice in several cou n tries. V accin atio n is p e rfo rm e d w hen ch icks are one-day-old. therefore. alon e o r in a sso c ia tio n w ith H V T . the use o f the original C V I-9 8 8 o r R isp en s strain o f M D V -1. T h ere fo re. In b reed ers an d layers. is re c o m m en d e d nearly everyw here. m ostly at the hatchery. b ecau se early im m u n ity is essential. rarely in du ces any positive reaction. the discovery an d ap p lic atio n o f the vaccines. particu larly in bro ilers. b u t also fo r its reliable p ro gn o stic valu e o n fu tu re M D in cid e n ce in a flo ck o f long-lived bird s. the efficacy o t the vaccine is higher in genetically m ore resistant breeds. b u t a bivalent vaccine is o fte n required. feasible in all laboratories. p articu larly to v accin ate b ird s w hich m ig h t have b een sk ip p e d (their percen tage c o u ld b e as h igh as 5 % o r even m ore) o r to reinforce im m unity. Control V a c c in a tio n rep re se n ts. particu larly in very sen sitive lin es o f chickens. th is is due. in the sale o t p ullets. a t least indicatively. particularly again st w M D V . T h e reac tio n u su ally p e rsists u n til th e d e a th o f th e bird . A s regard s the ch o ice o f vaccin es. if n o t legally. m ainly w hen perform ed at 12-16 weeks o f age. S o it c o u ld be o f valu e. In b ig h atch eries. th e vaccin e is o fte n a d m in iste re d in-ovo o n th e 18th d ay o f in c u b a tio n . A t least 7 days are required to establish a solid im m unity afte r vaccination. th u s p o s tp o n in g e x p o s u r e to w ild v iru se s fo r a t le a st 3 d ay s a fte r Lymphomatous lesions in the proventriculus in MD vaccination. It h as also been d em o n strated th at there is a sign ifican t relationship between the percentage o f positivity to th e A G D test. R evaccination at o n e day o r at 7 d ay s is so m e tim e s rec o m m e n d e d . an d the estim ated cum ulative M D m ortality d u rin g th e p ro d u c tio n cycle. in all lik elih o o d . S e le ctio n for gen etic resistan ce an d bio secu rity m easu res w ere u sed a s th e so le tool available before. H V T a lo n e p ro v id es ad e q u ate p ro tec tio n to b ro ile rs u n d e r n o rm a l e p id e m io lo g ic al c o n d itio n s. in fected w ith the latter types o f virus. th e u se o f the A G D test w ith F T d eserv es p articu lar atte n tio n fo r a sim p le and Breeder chicken with cutaneous tumoral lesions in MD accurate diagnosis. to a low viru s re p lic atio n a n d c o n c e n tratio n in F F E . the m ain strategy fo r the prevention an d con trol o f M D .Poultry Disease Manual stra in s o r seroty p es o f th e viru s. b e c au se F F E . a reco n sid eratio n o f gen etic selection is in progress. Vaccines are adm inistered by m eans o f intram uscular o r subcutaneous in jection . and subsequently as ad ju n cts to vaccination. O bviously. c o m b in in g serotype 3 with serotype 1 o r 2. now an d fo r th e fo re se eab le fu tu re .

weak v accin es such as H V T again st w M D V . consequently.) a n d . higher gen etic susceptibility AGD test with leather tips: precipitation line versus positive serum o f som e breeds to the disease. im m unosuppressive stress. p re se rv e d in liq u id n itro g e n . in o rd e r to p reserv e cell integrity.NEOPLASTIC DISEASES . In th is case. viability. etc. recon stitu tion and in je ctio n is very im p o rta n t. the v accin al titre. h an d lin g an d in jection o f vaccine. a lso a sh orter in terval betw een v a cc in atio n a n d e x p o su re to w ild viru ses. M D V seroty pes 1 a n d 2 are av ailab le only in c ell-asso c ia ted fo rm . i n t e r a c t i o n w ith o t h e r im m u n o su p p re ssiv e v iru ses (1BDV. certain u n kn o w n vagaries. p ro p er h an d lin g o f th e vaccine d u rin g thaw ing. M D o u tb reak s in vaccin ated flo ck s m ay o c c u r fo r variou s reasons: im proper storage. C A V . particularly d u r i n g t h e o n s e t o f e g g la y in g . R E V . AGD test with leather tips: precipitation line versus positive serum :56 . finally. a n d .MAREK'S DISEASE (freeze-dried) types.

th is m e th o d o f tra n sm issio n is very im p o rta n t. w ith o r w ith o u t v ire m ia a n d w ith o r w ith o u t sim u lta n e o u s p rese n c e o f viru s a n d a n tib o d ie s. F our differen t classes o f A L V infection a re re c o g n iz e d . w eak n ess. E xo gen ou s A L V s are transm itted vertically by the egg to the progeny o r h o rizo n tally by d ire c t o r in d ire c t c o n ta c t fro m b ird to b ird . particu larly th o se d u e to av ian leu k o sis v iru s (A LV ). d ia rrh e a . T h e y p o sse s th e enzym e reverse tra n sc rip ta se . Epizootiology Subgroups A an d J o f A L V a re th e m o st c o m m o n v iru se s c a u sin g ly m p h o id a n d m y elo id le u k o sis (L L o r M L ) resp ectiv ely. w here it in tegrates in to th e g en om e. 37 . m o stly sp o r a d ic a lly . A L V is p resen t in albu m en an d tran sm issio n to the em bryo is d u e ro the e lim in atio n o f virus by the glan d s o f the oviduct. alth o u g h evid en ces su g g e sts th at A LV ' a p p a re n tly d o c s n o t c o n stitu te a d a n g e r fo r h u m an s. w h ich d ire c ts the syn th esis o f th e p roviral D N A fo rm fro m viral R N A in th e cclls. A lth o u g h vertical tra n sm issio n is n o t fre q u e n t. the route o f infection. g e n u s Oncovirus. em ac iatio n a n d th ic k e n in g o f th e lo n g b o n e s o f th e lim b s (o ste o p e tro sis). o th e r s u b g r o u p s (B . m ore recently. Clinical signs and lesions T h e se in clu d e in ap p e te n c e . b e c o m in g a m e a n s to m ain tain in fection . occasion ally over 2 0 % . o r subclinical in fectio n s with a depressive effect o n v ario u s p e rform an ce factors. myeloid leukosis.LEUKOSIS/SARCOMA GROUP Poultry Disease Manual Leukosis/Sarcoma group T h e le u k o sis/sa r c o m a ( L / S ) d ise a se g ro u p in c lu d e s a variety o f b e n ig n a n d m a lig n a n t n e o p la sm s o f p o u ltry c a u se d by c e rtain m e m b e rs o f th e fam ily Retroviridae. less th an 2 % . D ) h av e b een iso la te d . T h e in cu b atio n p erio d o f the d ise a se d e p e n d s o n th e strain an d q u an tity o f virus. w ith so m e m ortality. T h e m o st com m o n o f them arc lym phoid and. in clu d in g egg p ro d u c tio n an d quality.NEOPLASTIC DISEASES . gen eration after gen eratio n . the age at exposure and the genetics o f the host. C . T h e ir p u blic health sign ifican ce h as n o t been clearly d ete rm in e d . etc. A n tib o d ies to so m e o f them have also been ob served in wild birds. O n ly certain d isease s o f th is g ro u p have any sig n ifica n t eco n o m ic im p o rtan ce.

b u r s a o f F a b r ic iu s. etc. in com m ercial stocks. tum ours in the bursa o f Fabricius are p ath o gn o m o n ic o f A LV . in red u cin g o r erad ica tin g A L V su b g ro u p s A . N o com m ercial vaccin es are av ailab le fo r in fection w ith A L V . Eradication is based m ainly o n the test fo r th e an tigen in a lb u m e n an d fo r th e a n tib o d ie s in serum . em b ry os. lu n g . m e co rn iu m . even i f th e d a m a g e d u e to in fection is norm ally q u ite low an d occasion al. S am p le s to c o n tro l in clu d e a lb u m e n . th e m o st im p o r ta n t te sts are th e C O F A L . n e p h r o b la s t o m a . se ru m . e r y t h r o b l a s t o s i s . R IF a n d P C R tests. b u t is very d ifficu lt to apply. tu m o u rs etc. etc. Diagnosis V iru s iso latio n an d d e m o n stra tio n o f the an tig en o r an tib o d y are sig n s o f in fe c tio n . etc. b u t n o r o f d ise a se . b lo o d .NEOPLASTIC DISEASES . k id n e y . E L IS A . m y e lo c y t o m a to s is .LEUKOSIS/SARCOMA GROUP L esio n s d e p e n d on the cells involved an d in clude n eo p lasm s in th e liver.). sp le e n . the application o f these program m es is m ore com plicated an d to o expensive. Control C o n tr o l is o b ta in e d by e r a d ic a tio n . S e le c tio n fo r g e n e tic resistan ce is in p ro g re ss. M any la b o rato ry tests are Characteristic tumoral lesions in inner sternum and costochondraljunction o f ribs in J Leucosis av ailab le fo r the d etectio n o f viru s an tigen o r an tib o d ie s. . fibrosarcom a o r osteopetrosis. m esen tery . p a rtic u la rly fro m p rim ary breeding stocks. clo acal sw ab s. (L L . the id ea h as b e e n e x tre m ely attractiv e . C o m p an ie s p ro d u cin g b ird s o f this type have m ade sig n ifica n t p ro g resses. B and J.

T h e p ath o logy o f R E V -in d u ced tu m o u rs can b e c o n fu se d with M a rek 's d ise a se an d ly m p h oid leukosis. ru n tin g. c o u ld a ls o b e c o n s id e r e d . u n til now . chronic neoplasia and acute reticulum cell neoplasia.RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS Poultry Disease Manual Reticuloendotheliosis R e tic u lo e n d o th e lio sis (R E ) is a g ro u p o f p ath o lo g ical sy n d ro m e s caused by a m em ber o f the fam ily Retroviridae in several avian species: th ese in clude ranting disease. d ire c t o r in d ire c t (also th ro u g h in sects). Diagnosis D iag n o sis is especially based o n the d em o n stratio n o f R E V by P C R o r an tib o d ie s by E L IS A . V a r io u s p a th o lo g ic a l situ atio n s m ay be observed: 1) mnting disease: atroph y o f the thym us a n d B F . b u t usually at low frequency. p artly d u e to th e sp o ra d ic n atu re o f the d isease. been ap p lied in farm s. su c h a s fow l p o x v iru s a n d M D V . the in cidence o f R E V -associated clinical disease in com m ercial poultry varies from sp o ra d ic to negligible. 2) bursal lymphoma: typical bursal tu m our: 3) n o n bursal lym phom a in variou s organs. 4) turkey lymphoma: in filtr a tio n o f th e liver. Epizootiology R E V in fection is c o m m o n . s p le e n a n d o t h e r o rg a n s. In c o n trast.NEOPLASTIC DISEASES . T h e re is little o r n o evid en ce fo r h u m a n in volvem ent. Clinical sign and lesions Birds m ay be stunted an d pale and so m e o f them may have abnorm al fe a th e rin g (n a k a n u k e ). 5) multiple syndromes. m o rtality is rare. H orizon tal tran sm issio n o ccu rs by c o n ta c t. V e rtic a l tran sm issio n from an im als w ith p ersisten t v irem ia m ay occu r. Control N o p ro c ed u res have. 39 . p ro v e n tricu litis. etc. n ovel viral reserv oirs. w h ich m ay c o n ta in in fe c tio u s c lo n e s o f R E V . b u t n o t u b iq u ito u s.

is obviously extremely im m unosuppressive. ap p aren tly n o an tigen ic d ifferen ces have b een recognized betw een th e v a rio u s iso la te s. Epizootiology C h ic k e n s are the on ly know n h o st o f the viru s. well evaluable in th e fem u r. d isco lo u re d aplastic b o n e m arrow . also interacting with o th e r im m unosuppressive viruses. C o n firm a tio n is given by isolation o f the virus on M S B ! cell-culture lines fo r abou t 10 passages.IN F E C T IO U S C H IC K E N S A N A E M IA Chicken Infectious Anaemia C h icken infectious anaem ia (C IA ) is caused by a Gjiownts. until cell d eath is ob served . 3 week-old lesio n s (th ym u s atro p h y an d an ae m ia). o r by in o cu latio n in to su scep tib le oneday-old S P F ch icks. w ith p eak s at 14-21 days. inducing dam age to im m une tissues. alth o u g h o n e h a s recently b een hypothesized in the U S A . R E V . re d u ce d bu rsa. h aem ato crir v a lu e s ran ge fro m 8 to 2 8 % (in healthy b ird s it is n orm ally over 3 0 % ). b u t b ird s fall ill on ly u p to a few w eeks o f age. W h en b reed ers becom e infected d u rin g rhe Appearance o f normal 7 day-old chick (right) and affected by CIA virus (left) laying p erio d . Diagnosis Presum ptive d iagn osis o f C I A is based o n epidem iological d ata and Thimus in normal chick. H orizon tal tran sm issio n o f in fection o c c u rs a t an y age. blue-wing). isolated fo r the first tim e in Ja p a n in 1 9 7 9 . T h e only specific sig n s o f d isease are d ep re ssio n an d an a e m ia. sw ollen an d m ottled liver. T h e viru s. m ost likely d u e to secondary bacterial infections (septicem ia. w as so o n rep orted w orldw ide. 40 . A lth o u g h b ird s o f all ages are susceptible to infection. to rep rod u ce th e d isease. som etim es with c o m p lete d estru ction . T h e E L IS A a n d V N tests are th ose m o st c o m m o n ly u se d fo r an tib o d y d etectio n . the disease on ly occurs in chicks u p to 2-3 weeks o f age. a m em ber o f the fam ily Circoviridae. IB D V . they tran sm it the viru s vertically fo r 2 to 4 w eeks o r lo n g e r to th e ir p ro g en y . p articu larly in the wings. Clinical signs and lesions C lin ical signs generally d evelop 10-14 days after infection. C IA virus. w h ich sh o w sev ere a n a e m ia a n d h igh m ortality (10-20% o r m ore). G ro ss lesion s are characterized by atrophy o f rhe thym us. H e m o rrh ag e s a n d n e c ro sis a re o fte n p resen t. su c h as M D V .

Poultry Disease Manual

Control
T h e c o n tro l o f C I A is b a se d o n th e p re v e n tio n o f vertical virus
tran sm issio n by im m u n izatio n o f b ree d e r flocks. C o m m e rc ial live
vaccines, m ore o r less atten u ated , arc available in several countries.
V a c c in e sh o u ld b e a d m in is te r e d via rh e d r in k in g w ater o r by
in jection at ab o u t 12-15 w eeks o f age, bur never later than 3-4 weeks
before the first collection o f h atch in g eggs. A sin gle ad m in istration
is su fficien t to cover th e en tire laying p erio d.

Atrophy o f the thymus in 3 week-old chick
affected by CIA

41

R E O V IR U S IN F E C T IO N S

Reovirus Infections
A vian reoviru s, a m em b er o f fam ily Rcoviriclae, is o fte n u b iq u ito u s
in com m ercial pou ltry; it is co m m o n ly fo u n d in th e digestive and
respirator^' tract. T h e v a rio u s strain s can b e d ifferen tiated by their
relative p ath o gen icity an d an tig e n ic ch aracteristics, bein g isolated
from b ird s affected b y asso rted disease con d itio n s. T h e d iseases are
g ro u p ed in to two m ain categories:
a) arth ritis/te n o sy n o v itis;
b) stu n tin g o r m alab so rp tio n syn d rom e, w hich in cludes p ale bird s,
a b n o rm a l fe ath e rin g sy n d rom e (h elicop ter d isease), etc.

Tenosynovitis in the tibio-tarsal joint
after infection

Epizootiology
Viral arthritis o r tenosynovitis is a n econ o m ically im p o rta n t d isease,
m ostly in ch ickens fo r m eat p rod u ction (breeders an d broilers), but
it h as also b een ob served in layers an d in turkeys. T h e d ise a se is
cau sed by d ifferen t seroty pes an d path o types o f reovirus; however,
th e best know n and m o st widely stu d ied isolate h as been the strain
S I 133 o f v a n d e r H eyde. H orizontal tran sm issio n o f reo v iru s h as
been extensively d o cu m en ted , b u t a vertical tran sm issio n h as been
clearly d em o n strate d .
Malabsorption syndrome is con sid ered a m ulti factorial d isease, w here
d ifferen t serotypes o f reovirus an d other viru ses have been isolated.
T h is syndrom e is hardly reproduced, in laboratory condition s, w hen
reovirus on ly is in ocu lated .

Clinical signs and lesions
In arthritis - tenosynovitis, th e in cu b atio n p e rio d v aries, d e p e n d in g
o n th e viru s p ath o ty p e , h o st ag e , ro u te o f e x p o su re a n d type o f
breed; so m e tim e s in fection is u n ap p are n t a n d d e m o n strab le only
by serology o r v iru s iso la tio n . T h e affected b ird s sh ow lam en ess
with swelling, oe d e m a and in flam m ation o f the tibio-tarsal-meta tarsal
Lesion in the synovial sheath

te n d o n sh e a th s, h ig h lig h te d by p a lp a tio n ju s t ab ove th e hock;
r u p tu r e o f th e g a s tr o c n e m iu s te n d o n is s o m e tim e s o b se rv e d .
M o rb id ity a n d m ortality are very v ariab le ; th e latter is gen erally
2-3% , so m etim e s even reach in g 10% , particularly in m ales; loss o f
grow th an d infertility are also evident.
M alabsorption syndrome is c h aracte rized by re d u c e d a n d u n even
gro w th rate s a n d o th e r d iso rd e rs, m ain ly in d ic a tin g th e varyin g
cffects o n g astro in testin al tract fu n ction . M orbidity, m ortality and
delayed grow th vary greatly.

42

Poultry Disease Manual

Diagnosis
A p re su m p tiv e d ia g n o sis o f d iffe re n t sy n d ro m e s m ay b e m ad e
ac c o rd in g to sign s an d lesion s. D e m o n stratio n o f th e viral antigen
in te n d o n sh eath s by P C R , im m u n o flu o re sc e n c e , viru s iso latio n
in em b ry o n ated eggs o r tissu e c u ltu re s a n d in o c u la tio n in to the
foot-pad of su sc e p tib le I -day-old ch icks (sw elling) provid e furth er
ev id e n c e o f a rth ro sy n o v itis d u e to re o v iru s. A n tib o d ie s c a n be
d etected by the A G P a n d E L IS A rests.

Control
Tenosynovitis in tibio-tarsal tendon sheaths
in heavy breeder, tendon rupture

T h e c o n tr o l o f v iral a rth ritis, b e s id e s th e a p p lic a tio n o f g o o d
b r e e d in g te c h n iq u e s a n d h y g ie n ic m e a s u r e s , is o b t a in e d by
vaccin ation o f b reed ers w ith live atten u ated viru s (strain S 1133) at:
a b o u t 7 days o f age, follow ed by a b o o ste r w ith live o r in activated
vaccine in oily e m u lsio n , w hen b ird s are a b o u t 18 w eeks old.
T h e ch ick s b atch e d fro m th ese b reed ers are protected by m aternal
an tib o d ie s fo r 2-3 w eeks, a n d sh o u ld on ly b e vaccinated in case o f
high viral pressure.
A tte m p ts to c o n tro l m a la b so rp tio n sy n d ro m e h av e b een m ad e ,
with very v ariab le resu lts, u sin g d ifferen t sero ty p es o f v iru s, o fte n
in polyvalent in activated vaccin es in oily em u lsio n .

Swelling (tenosynovitis) oftarsal-metatarsal
tendon sheaths in pullets:
a) normal
b) with lesions

straw -coloured flu id in the p ericardial sac. w h en a d d itio n a l factors. or c an beh ave a s o p p o rtu n istic p ath o g e n s. T h e m ain g ro ss lesion s arc localized in rhe respiratory tract. Q uail bronchitis (Q B ) is a disease o f econ om ic significance w orldwide. su ch a s th o se c a u sin g turkey hemorrhagic enteritis. d iffic u ltie s in b re a th in g . 14 . M an y se ro ty p e s h av e b een a sso c ia te d w ith n atu ral ou tb reaks o f d isease. so m e aden oviru ses are p rim ary p a th o g e n s. It affects bird s 3-4 w eeks-old an d is ch aracterized by a n a c c u m u latio n o f clear. n o vaccin es are available. n asal-ocu lar d isch arg e. M o st o f these viru ses are p rese n t in h ealth y b ird s w ith n o sig n s o f in fectio n . pheasant marble spleen disease. Hydropericardium syndrome (H IS). are involved. m em bers o f the fam ily Adenoviridae. sw ollen liver an d kidney. SUB-GROUP II ADENOVIRUS This subgroup includes haemorrhagic enteritis and marble spleen disease. with inactivated liver h om ogen are ob tain ed from infected birds. friable an d sw ollen liver. chicken egg-drop syndrome and quail bronchitis virus. w ith p in p o in t h aem orrh agic a n d necrotic sp ots. H ow ever. SUB-GROUP I ADENOVIRUS T h e role o f these viru ses a s p ath o gen s is n o t well d efin e d . to date. apparently successful. Experim ents with vaccination. h y d ro p e rica rd iu m sy n d ro m e an d in clu sio n b o d y hepatitis. p u lm on ary o ed em a. genus Aviadeiuwirus are co m m o n in fectiou s agen ts in poultry w orldw ide. either in fectious o r not. characterized by rapid o n set. have been reported in Pakistan. T h e m ain lesion s are pale. Prevention is based on the usual san itatio n p ro ced u res an d biosecurity' m easu res. with rhe e x c e p tio n o f q u a il b ro n c h itis. w ith high m orbidity' an d mortality' in b ird s o f less th an 3 w eeks o f age. o r A n g ara d isease. w as recognized a s a d e v a sta tin g d is o r d e r in b ro ile r s in P a k ista n in 1 9 8 7 an d su b seq u en tly in o th e r co u n tries. w h ich m ay reach a th resh o ld o f 10% o r even h igh er. S ic k b ird s sh ow ruffled feath ers.A D E N O V IR U S IN F E C T IO N S Adenovirus Infections A denoviruses. Inclusion body hepatitis (IB H ) is n o rm ally o b se rv e d in m eat-type ch icken s a t 3-7 w eeks o f age and is characterized by a su d d e n o n se t o f m ortality fo r 3-5 days.

the d isease n o t being present in N orth A m erica. w ith a red u ctio n o f u p to 5 0 % 45 . by d r o p p in g s a n d c o n ta m in ate d egg trays. the sm all in testin e is co m m o n ly d isten d ed a n d filled w ith b loo d y o r catarrh al co n ten t. w ith an average o f 10% ). soft-sh elled o r shell-less eggs. less in cages. resultin g in a rap id sp re ad o f inlection. E ith er live an d in activated vaccin es are available. T h e v iru s o fte n rem ain s late n t until the b ird s h av e reach ed a b o u t 5 0 % egg p ro d u c tio n . It is characterized by a rapid p rogression o f clinical sign s. T h is viru s p ro b a b ly u n d e rw e n t an a d a p ta tio n to c h ic k e n s in E u ro p e . q u ick ly fo llo w e d by p ro d u c tio n o f th in . catarrhal to bloody droppings and death. A t necropsy. Marble spleen disease (M S D ) is a n acu te d isease o f p h e asan ts. p re p are d w ith d u ck em bryo fib ro b lasts. a t th is stag e the virus is reactivated. high m orbidity an d variable mortality (from less then 1% to 6 0 % . it h a s been suggested th at its origin lies in d u ck s. w ith tw o in je c tio n s a t 4-6 a n d 8 -1 0 w eeks o f age. b) variously altered (thin or shell-less) eggs in EDS A n in activated vaccin e in oily em u lsio n is also in use. SUB-GROUP III ADENOVIRUS Egg drop syndrome (E D S ) virus is the so le m em ber o f the g ro u p : only o n e sero ty p e is recognized a n d it is h aem ag g lu tin a tin g . T h e fall in egg p ro d u c tio n is very rap id in floor-reared birds. th rou gh em bry on ated eggs a n d horizontally in sid e th e flo c k a n d fr o m flo c k to flo c k . Live vaccines are generally adm inistered in drin k in g w ater to healthy turkeys a t 4-6 w eeks o f age. th e sp lee n is en larg ed an d m ottled. an d lasts 4-10 w eeks. in cluding d epression . w here immunologicallyrelated v iru ses have also b een iso lated from m an y b reed s o f duck. Quality o f a) normal eggs. B e c au se o f the ab se n ce o f a n tib o d ie s to the v iru s in ch ick en sera p rio r to 1 975. C o n ta m in a tio n o f M a re k ’s d ise a se vaccin e. w orldw ide.Poultry Disease Manual Haemmrhagic enteritis (H E ) is a n acute o r su bacu te disease o f turkeys. ad m in iste red in w ater. as w as co n firm ed by isolating th e viru s fro m n o rm al d u c k s a n d g e e se in th e fie ld . w hich co m m o n ly affects 7-IQ-week-old bird s. S in c e its initial report in T h e N eth erlands in 1976. T h e viru s is tran sm itted vertically. h as n o t been exclu d ed . Live av iru len t vaccin es. a n d its o p tim a l grow th in d u c k cells. w hich occurs in birds o f 3-8 m onths of age. M o rtality fro m 2 % to 1 0 % h a s b e e n reported. It is characterized by depression a n d p ro g re ssiv e d y sp n e a . a re e ffica cio u s in con tro llin g th e d isease. rhe E D S virus has becom e a m ajo r cause o f losses in egg p ro d u c tio n . particularly in E u r o p e . G ro ss lesion s co n sist o f enlarged an d m arbled sp leen and con gested lungs. T h e first signs o f disease are a reduction in egg colou r an d resistance.

b u t isolation o f th e virus from excreta or tissue h om ogcnates Histological lesions with intranuclear inclusions in epithelial cells o f the oviduct plica in EDS is o fte n necessary o n ch ic k e n em bry o liver o r k id n e y cell tissuec u ltu res. N o och er sign s. E D S c a n b e effectively c o n tr o lle d by in je c tin g p u lle ts w ith an in activated vaccin e in oily em u lsio n . o r m ore. p e rfo rm e d on ly o n ce. th e H I te st is also used. c h a lle n g e d w ith a v iru le n t strain o f FDS virus 46 . are detected. a t the age o f 14-18 w eeks. in case o f E D S .4.. G ro u p -sp e cific-an tib o d ie s can b e d e te c te d by th e A G D o r E L IS A tests. L a yin g curve in va ccin a te d a n d c o n tro l la yers . Diagnosis D ia g n o sis o f A d e n o v iru s in fe c tio n s is b a se d o n sy m p to m s an d lesions. A D E N O V IR U S IN F E C T IO N S . except fo r a p o ssib le tran sien t d iarrh oea. o r m ortality.

.

q u a il. T h e re are on ly m ic ro sc o p ic le sio n s to th e cen tral n erv o u s system : Eighteen day-old embryos. in fected d u rin g th e laying p erio d. normal or affected byAEV non-purulent in flam m atio n with a striking perivascular lymphocytic in filtration . C h ic k s . less th an 2 w eeks o ld . Twelve day-old chicks vertically infected byAEV H o riz o n ta l tr a n s m is s io n o c c u rs by in g e stio n o f feed o r w ater co n tam in ated by faeces. H isto logical e x am in a tio n o f th e brain 48 . th e v iru s is excreted w ith th e fae c e s fo r 1-2 w eeks o r m ore in y o u n g b ird s. a variable (20 to 4 0 % ) d rop in egg production occu rs. d e p e n d in g o n th e p e rio d o f lay w h en the in fection o c c u rs in paren ts. Epizootiology A E o c c u rs v irtu ally all over th e w o rld . 1-3 weeks old. A progressive ataxia o ccu rs u n til th e chicks are totally p aralysed . infected du ring the laying period. is in dicative o f A E . red u ced hatchability a n d tran sm issio n o f the v iru s to the progeny. Diagnosis A taxia a n d rapid trem ors o f the head in young chicks and a su d den d ro p in egg p r o d u c tio n in laying h en s. w ith n o ch an g e s in sh ell quality. an d h e n s in lay. A E b e in g a n e n te ric in fe c tio n . the disease is characterized by flaccid paralysis. In laying hens. A E is only characterized by a variab le d ro p in egg p ro d u c tio n (w ith ou t any ch an ges in shell quality). tu rk eys. w hich rapidly returns to n o rm al p ro d u c tio n in 2-3 w eeks. Clinical signs and lesions In y oun g chicks. U n d e r n a tu ra l c o n d itio n s. w eakn ess m ay also b e observed a t hatching. V ertical tran sm ission is the m ain an d m ost d am ag in g rou te o f in fection . h ead a n d neck tre m o r m ay o fte n be present. p h e a sa n ts a n d guinea-fow l are kn o w n to b e su sc e p tib le . In breeders.A V IA N E N C E P H A LO M Y E LIT IS Avian Encephalomyelitis A vian encephalom yelitis (A E ) is cau sed by a n enterovirus. p ro strated and d ie. tran sm it the viru s to th eir progeny fo r a t least 4-5 w eeks o r m ore. m ortality is over 10% an d may exceed 4 0 % . a m em ber o f the fam ily Picornaviridae. T h e usual m orbidity rate is to 6 0 % . It usually affects very y ou n g ch icks. B reed ers.

a sero lo g ical check can b e carried o u r 3-4 w eeks after v accin ation . obviously. T h e ad m in istratio n m ay b e in d iv id u a l in to the beak o r by eye-drop o r by d rin k in g water. is a c o n firm a tio n . T h e m o st com m on ly used com m ercial vaccines are prepared m ainly with the strain C aln ek 1143. R e p ro d u c tio n o f th e d ise a se in S P F chicks. only partially attenuated in em bryonated eggs. M atern al an tib o d ies protect the progeny from con tact with A E virus d u rin g th e critical first two weeks o f life. T o d em o n strate an tib o d ie s. so it m u st n o t becom e to o ad ap te d to th e em bryo. T o en su re th at birds have been well im m u n ized . the E L IS A o r V N tests are th e m e th o d s o f choice. in ocu lated by th e in rracerebral rou te a t one-day-old.Poultry Disease Manual an d p an c reas reveals th e typical le sio n s o f d ise a se. Control T h e c o n tro l o f A E is ach ieved by v a c c in a tio n o f b re ed e r flo c k s (so m e tim e also layers) d u rin g th e grow in g p e rio d . to en su re th at they b e co m e infected an d develop an tib o d ies Legs o f embryos affected or not by AEV before g o in g in to lay. th e viru s m u st m ain tain the sp re ad in g ability and e n tero trop ism o f wild viru s. thereby preventing virus sh e d d in g by rhe eggb o rn e route. a t 12-15 w eeks o f age. Laying curve in vaccinated a n d control hens. infected with virulent AEV 49 .

S. blockley. in very variable p ercen tages. te stin g a n d v a c c in a tio n practices. A lth o u g h 2 4 0 0 serotypes o f S. only ab ou t 10% o f these have been isolated from poultry. infection in breeding farm s. m any o th e r sp ecies o f S. S. m u ta n t nonm o tile ro d s are o c c a s io n a lly e n c o u n te r e d . c le a n in g a n d d isin fe c tin g o f fa c ilitie s. G ra m negative rod. in fection s in h u m an s has been very substantial. Salm o n ella is a non-spore-form ing.Paratyphoid Infections T h e sp ecies o f g e n u s Salmonella. enteriiidis. typliimurium. th e d egree o f genetic relatedness am o n g Salm o n ellae is so great that it has actually b een su ggested th at m o st o f th em b e g ro u p ed in a sin g le sp ecies. cyphimurium. T h erefore. particularly S. However. A ll S. have been fo u n d in both broiler an d layer flocks. nevertheless. with different serotypes (over 2400). gallinarum. these infections result in relatively asymptomatic. b e sid e s th e c la ssic n on -m otile sp e c ie s S. b u t also o f h u m an s. 1x3 m icrons in size. Progress in p o u ltry p ro d u c tio n p ractices have b ro u gh t the spread o f S. in o th e r s they p ro d u c e c lin ic a l d ise a se an d m ortality. with relative consequences for th e h ealth n o t on ly o f an im als. etc. seftemberg. are facultative an ae ro b e s an d can grow w ell u n d e r a e r o b ic c o n d itio n s . in fection in p ou ltry flock s h as becom e an im p ortan t objective from b o th an e co n o m ic and a p u blic health p ersp ectiv e. H owever. in te stin a l c arriag e . . (S) o f th e fam ily Enterobacteriaceae w hich a rc m o st im p o r ta n t in a n im al a n d h u m a n p a th o lo g y are S. th e to ta l c o s t o f m e d ic a l care a n d lo ss in productivity resu ltin g from food-borne $. S. enterica. enteritidis an d S. S. a t a n o p tim u m te m p e r a tu re o f 3 7°-45°G .. w hich in d u c e an acute o r chronic septicem ic disease only in poultry an d are discussed in a sep arate chapter. can occasion ally he involved in d ise a se . thomson. S. the con trol o f S. can in crease p ro d u c tio n c o sts o f p ou ltry eggs an d m eat. u su ally m o tile d u e to p e ritric h o u s tlag ella. S. have b e e n id en tified . pullorum an d S. such as biosecurity. In so m e instances. S. T h e various serotypes are c la ssifie d ac c o rd in g to so m a tic (O ) c a p su la r (K) an d flagellar (H ) antigens. In fa c t. control m easures. nadar.

enteritidis an d S. w hich have in creased c o n sid e rab ly a n d grad u ally over the last 3 0 years. Paratyphoid infections in very susceptible youn g chicks an d in o th e r d o m estic species are also asso ciated with m ortality ran gin g as high as 5 0 % . usually with low m ortality. liver an d spleen . e n v iro n m e n t. d e p e n d s o n th e iso la tio n a n d id e n tific a tio n o f th e cau sativ e o rg a n ism fro m the tissu e s o f d ead o r live b ird s. em ac iatio n . sep ticem ia a n d variable m ortality. feed . a n d s h e d d in g o f S.) and con tam in ated feed. typhimurium. In ad u lt birds. can cau se an o rexia. A lth o u g h clin ica l a n d p a th o lo g ic a l fin d in g s m ig h t su g g e st th e lik e lih o o d o f in fe c tio n . sp re a d in g by c o n ta c t vectors (m ice. worldwide. an d o th e r p ath o g e n s. o r vertically. statu s of p ou ltry an d o f th eir e n v iron m en t sh o u ld be tested frequently. V accination with killed o r live bacterial preparations has been found to red u c e su sce p tib ility to .S. w ith swollen parenchym as an d focal necrotic lesion s. in fection in poultry is usually associated w ith d isease on ly in very y o u n g b ird s: m alaise. h as served fo r the d e v e lo p m e n t o f furth er treatm ents. feces. V ery im p o r ta n t in te r v e n t io n stra te g ie s h av e b e c o m e p a r t o t m a n a g e m e n t p ro c e d u re s in h atch eries a n d farm s. ro d en t a n d in sect c o n tro l an d rigid biosecu rity m easures. d iarrh o ea. alth o u g h n eith er type o f vaccin e h a s con sisten tly p rovided a n im p e n e trab le b arrier ag ain st in fection . an o rex ia. d iarrh ea an d a red u ctio n in egg p ro d u ctio n . enteritidis is also the m ost com m o n serotype responsible for h u m an in fectio n s. w ith accu rate c lean in g . with the sam e lesion s observed in young birds. T h e S. particularly in the intestine. by extern al an d in ternal tran sovarian egg c o n ta m in atio n . etc. litter etc. 51 . insects. u sin g norm al in testin al b acterial flo ra o r lactob acilli to in h ib it co lo n izatio n by S. a fin a l d ia g n o s is o f S. d isin fe c tio n a n d w ise p la ce m e n t o f o n e day o ld ch icks. im p lem en tin g m o n ito rin g p rogram m es particu larly for S. O ld e r bird s are con sid erably less su sceptible an d the bacteria colonize their gut. Lesions in septicemic form o f infection: spleen and liver S. S.. C om petitive exclusion. T ran sm issio n occurs particu larly by th e h orizo n tal ro u te . m ealw orm s.

T h e se latter vaccin es m u st b e in ocu lated o n ce. a m p ic illin . etc. a. gentam ycin .s a b o o ste r befo re laying a t 16-18 weeks. enteritidis a n d S. particu larly the ovary. M any antibiotics have been used to control such infection. . p a rtic u la rly if a d ju v a n te d w ith oily em u lsio n .. a m o x ic illin . c o listin . particularly in y o u n g c h ic k s: q u in o lo n e s . afte r a first tre a tm e n t w ith live vaccin es o r tw ice a t 4-6 an d 10-12 w eeks o f age. tyl>hiinurium from v a rio u s tissu es. T h e efficacy a n d w isdom o f a n tib io tic m e d ic a tio n s ro p reven t o r treat S. K illed v a c c in e s (b a c te rin s).Live atten u ated vaccines need to p ersist in the tissu es lon g enough to in d u ce a protective im m u n e respon se. in fection in p ou ltry are to p ics o f co n sid e rab le debate. have been rep orted to significantly redu ce th e in cidence o f faecal sh e d d in g a n d iso la tio n o f S.

Poultry Disease Manual .

a c u te o u tb re ak s o f F T m ay occu r. M ites.. sw elling o f th e jo in ts a n d o th e r lesion s. startin g fro m th e m id-20‘h C en tu ry . 12?. th e strain o f S. serovar pullorum an d gallinarum. b u t c ertain d iffere n t b ioch em ical p ro p e rtie s. h av in g th e sa m e an tig e n ic ch arac te ristics (O a n tig e n s 9 . b u t have b een reaso n ab ly well con trolled in m any co u n trie s. A s regards th e lesion s. b u t w ith d ifferen t percentages o f the 12. by infected b ird s a n d faeces (re acto rs o r carriers) to o th e r b ird s o f th e sam e flock o r vertically. d epe n d in g o n th e m eth o d o f tran sm issio n . th ro u gh egg tran sm issio n (ovules. th e breed o f bird an d flo ck m an ag e m en t. th ey ran ge from 5 to 5 0 % o r m ore. p o o r g row th . 12?. 54 . b u t F T is a m ore sig n ifica n t d ise a se in grow in g. prim arily affe c tin g ch ick en s a n d turkeys. b u t o th e r fowl are also susceptible. pale and shrunken com bs. M o rbidity an d m ortality in P D and F T are very variable. a d rop in feed con su m p tion a n d egg p ro d u ctio n . birds. with m alaise. n o flagella). spleen an d kidneys. ! Clinical signs and lesions P D a n d F T are p rim arily d ise a se s o f chicks an d p o u lts. T h ey are sep ticem ic d ise a se s. in chicks and in acute cases. a ch alk y w h ite m aterial a t the ven t. by sero lo g ical te sts. a n d p articu larly in lay >ng. antigens. T h e disease can b e transm itted in two ways: horizontally. shell p en etratio n . rep eated a n u m b e r o f tim es if n ecessary an d w ith rem oval of reactin g b ird s fro m th e flock. but oth er species can also b e affected. P D a n d F T a re fo u n d w orld w id e. legh orn b reed s a p p e a r to be m ore resistan t. Sign ifican t d ifferen ces in susceptibility to PD and F T a m o n g breeds have b een re p o rte d . In grow in g a n d m atu re b ird s. S u rv iv o rs m ay b e greatly retarded in th e ir grow th a n d can show b lin d n e ss. m o rtality from h atch in g until th e th ird week o f age..PULLORUM DISEASE AND FOWL TYPHOID Pullorum Disease and Fowl Typhoid Pullorum disease (PD ) and Fow l typhoid (FT) are im p ortan t diseases o f fowl. M orbidity is ob viously high er th an m ortality. caused by Salmonella enterica. hatching) in varying percentages. 12. enlarged an d congested liver. C h icken s are the natural hosts. T h e y o u n g b ird s sh o w w eak n ess. have been sh ow n to be a n im p o rta n t vector o f S. ovidu ct.

etc. Differential d iagn osis from other S. clinical sign s. T ill now vaccin atio n w ith live (u sin g a rough strain ) o r inactivated vaccin e gives u n even results. w h ite n o d u le s m th e m y o c a rd iu m . T h e m o st effective th e ra p e u tic d ru g s are am oxicillin . 55 . so m e tim e s rep eatin g the tests u n til negativity is o b tain ed . b ecom in g serological reactors. o r o th er bacterial in fection s. particu larly $. C o n tr o l C o n tro l o f P D is b a sed o n sero lo g ical te sts a t th e sta rt o f laying w ith e lim in a tio n o f carriers.. is based on isolation o f the m icroorganism o r indirectly o n dem onstration o f the antibody. a n d pericard itis. a r th r itis etc.. Visceral lesions in S. T h e sero lo g ical tests in clu d e slid e an d ru be ag g lu tin atio n and E L ISA . sp le e n a n d k idn eys. b u t a definitive d iagn osis is based o n iso la tio n a n d id e n tifica tio n o f th e cau sative a g e n t in su itab le m ed ia. p e rito n itis. aallinarum infection: enlarged spleen ana liver with necrotic foci Diagnosis A tentative d iagn osis is based o n flock history. N on-specific reactions can occasionally cause in terp retation p ro b lem s: o th e r S. lesions. le sio n s d u e to P D m ay b e m in im al o r ovaritis may be present. so m e tim e over 5 0 % . the lesion s d u e to F T frequently show a n acute c o u rse w ith en larged liver.Poultry Disease Manual to g e th e r w ith n e c ro tic foci in th e liver m ay b e o b se rv e d . tetracycline. m ortality an d scrological findings. p o o r reab so rp tio n o f the yolk-sac w ith a cream y an d case o u s consistency o f th e yolk. w ith high m ortality. enreritidis. sp ecies. q u in o lo n e s. in a d u lt b ird s. with m issh apen cystic ovules an d oviductitis.

M o st s tr a in s . coli is a g en u s o f th e fam ily Enterobacteriaceae. flag e lla r (H ) a n d fim b rial (F) a n tig e n s. E. ten o syn ov itis. E n d o to x in s. m e n in g o e n c e p h a litis. an acu te in flam m atory resp on se develops 56 . a se c o n d a ry p a th o g e n . G ram -negative. particularly to the respiratory an d reproductive tracts. feed is often con tam in ated . are p a th o g e n ic only fo r b ird s. c o lo n iz in g p a rtic u la rly th e re sp ira to ry a n d rep ro d u ctiv e tracts. ab o u t 15% o f intestinal eoliform s belong to potentially pathogenic serotypes. m ore frequently. D u st in poultry houses may con tain 10M 06 m icroorganism s/g. c e llu lite s. 75 K. coli).) an d c o lig ra n u lo m a . to other tissues an d organ s. coli is a c o m m o n in h a b ita n t o f th e in te stin e o f p o u ltr y at concentrations u p to 106 m icro o rg an ism s/g o r m ore in faeces. Epi/. c a p su la r (K ). b u t a lso in lay ers a n d b re e d e rs. S y m p to m s a n d le sio n s S ev eral lo caliz e d o r sy stem ic fo rm s o f c o lib a c illo s is have been d escrib ed in poultry. o fte n b ased o n the tissu es affected . e n te ritis. p articu larly in b ro ilers. etc. w hich can b e localized o r sp read . A fte r E. 55 H an d 18 F an tig en s have been recognized. non-spore-torm ing.C O L IB A C IL L O S I Colibacillosis C olibacillosis is a localized o r system ic infection caused by Escherichia coli (E. th e m o st c o m m o n sy ste m ic in fe c tio n s are c o lisep ticem ia (airsaccu litis. facultative an aerobes. b u t h ot pelleting can destroy eoliform s. today a b o u t 170 O . u n d er certain con d ition s. w ith v a riab le v iru le n c e . iso la te d fro m p o u ltry . coli are classified acco rd in g t o so m atic (O ). a n o rm al com m en sal bacteriu m o f the lower intestinal tract o f all an im al species. It can b e a p rim ary or. e so to x in s a n d v iru le n ce facto rs a r e a lso p ro d u c e d . T ran sm issio n o f E. T h e m ost c o m m o n localized in fectio n s are o m p h alitis. coli con tacts the h o st tissu es. T h e v a rio u s serotypes o f E. osteom y elitis.cioliology £. coli o c c u rs m ostly by the o ral a n d resp iratory ro u te s. p e ric a rd itis. b u t a lso rep resen t a low risk o f d isease fo r p eop le a n d oth er an im als. grow ing on o rd in ary n u trien t m edia. r e sp o n sib le for sig n ific a n t e c o n o m ic lo sse s. m ostly m otile a n d lactose ferm en tin g. salp in go -p erito n itis.

te tra c y c lin e s. catarrh al. E. p articu larly at the on set . Antigenic identification. T h e hygienic condition o f houses (ventilation. effective in activ ated v accin es ag a in st v ariou s serotypes have been p rod u ced. EM B agar. I prin cipally b ro ilers. for this reason. am p icillin . o f egg p ro d u ctio n . hygiene o f laying. sp ectin om ycin . a m on ov alen t vaccine gives the b est results. coli show an tib io tic re sistan c e . i 57 . bu t also ad u lt birds. lesions. fib rin o u s. teed etc. p u ru le n t and c a se o u s e x u d a te s. coli is sen sitiv e to m any d ru gs su ch as am ox icillin . q u in o lo n e s o f v a r io u s g e n e r a tio n s . Frequently.). due to the stress. litter. coli: liver and spleen enlargement and necrotic and fibrinous exudate on liver and pericardium o f viru len ce factors or fin gerp rin tin g the strain m ight be helpful. D iagn osis is based on typical. b u t is con firm ed by isolation an d id e n tific a tio n o f the c a u sa tiv e a g e n t in se le ctiv e m e d ia (M acConkey. iso lates o f E.) is also very im portan t. etc. C o h s e p tic e in ia a ffe c ts m ostly y o u n g b ird s.with ac c u m u latio n of sero u s. particularly in e p id em iological investigations. R coli vaccines are infrequently used. water. T h e m ost im p ortan t sou rce for the tran sm ission o f infection is the faecal co n ta m in atio n of h atch ing eggs. in cu b atio n and h atching o f eggs is a fu n d am e n tal tool for control of colibacillosis. determ ination Lesions due to E. n e o m y c in . etc. A s regard s im m u n iz atio n . also becau se of their v ariability' and the need for at least two injections to ob tain g o o d im m unity. A n tib iogram s are very im p ortan t in the choice o f the specific drug. esp ecially if th ese have been w idely or badly u sed .

m ain ly fro m in frao rb ita l sin u ses. b u t it is con firm ed by iso latio n o f the bacteriu m . a decrease in feed and water consum ption and a drop in egg production (20-70%). conjunctivitis and facial oedema in 1C to flock or from farm to farm by contam inated feed. M orbidity is very high. Clinical signs and lesions H. serotype B is con fin ed only to certain geograph ical areas. the latter ap p ear w hen stress factors occur (start o f laying. particularly in m ultiaged farms. Epizootiology T he disease occurs worldwide. 58 . paragallinarum is considered to be a fastidiou s organ ism to grow. or w h en rep lacem en t p u llets are in trod u ced to a m ultiaged farm. stre a k in g e x u d a te s. A lth o u g h H. it is n o t d iffic u lt to iso la te . sinusitis.IN F E C T IO U S C O R Y ZA Infectious Coryza In fectiou s coryza (1C) is an acute resp iratory d isease o f chickens. su d d en change in environm ental condition s). ch ron ic carriers are o fte n the sou rce o f in fection . so m e tim e s by the airb o rn e route. B an d C ) have been re p o rte d . T h e m ost p rom in en t features o f disease are: in flam m atio n o f the u p p e r respiratory tract. a greyish m u co id nasal discharge. w hich are th en c ro ss­ streaked with non-haem olytic Staphylococcus and in cubated at 37°C : very sm all tran slu c e n t an d h aem oly tic c o lo n ie s d evelop . m ortality is variable. equipm ent an d p erso n n e l. paragallinamm may affect birds w ith out any sym ptom s. A cu te c atarrh al-fib rin o u s rh in itis an d sin u sitis are the sp e c ific Inflammation of the head: rhinitis. from flock Inflammation of the head: rhinitis. con ju n ctivitis. Diagnosis D iagn osis o f IC is based on the rapid sp read o f the disease and on signs. U n d er such conditions. conjunctivitis and facial oedema in 1C lesion s. T h ree serotypes (A. Haemophilus paragallinarum. in birds o f all ages. sinusitis. T ran sm issio n within an infected flock m ainly occurs by direct contact. a percentage as high as 20 to 3 0% . It o fte n occu rs w hen old h ens are lo a d e d u sin g tra n sp o rt cages an d tru cks n o t su itably d isin fected . frequently su b c u tan e o u s facial and wattle o ed em a occurs. in som e flocks. b u t can reach. facial oed em a. but m ore frequently in adult birds. water. m ostly close to those o f Staphylococcus. caused by a G ram -negative bacteriu m . on b lo o d agar p lates. sin u sitis.

Two injections Inflammation of the head: rhinitis. at least 4-5 weeks ap art. conjunctivitis and facia! oedema in 1C in pullets. a d so rb e d o n to alum inium hydroxide or em ulsified with m ineral oil. m acrolid es. flo c k s m a s t be depopulated and prem ises and equ ipm en t disinfected or vaccination o f future rep lacem en ts ad op ted .Poultry Disease Manual Control T reatm en t o f d isease is b ase d on the ad m in istratio n o f an tibiotics (am oxicillin. on e d ose alone is partially protective. etc. in o rd e r to e lim in a te the a g e n t fro m a farm . are op tim al to protect layers for the whole p rod u ctio n period. prepared with inactivated H. p aragallin aru m .) in d rin k in g water. c o n ta in in g 2 or 3 seroty p es. G o o d protection is provided by a bacterin. sinusitis. ! . Sin ce som e carriers o f in fection may rem ain am o n g treated birds. q u in o lo n e s.

sin u sitis. In c h ro n ic F C . oral m ucou s discharge. If signs occur. m o rtality usually occurs during the laying period and in the hot season. D . w hich m ay follow an acu te stag e or be d u e to m icro o rgan ism s o f low viru lence. b u t ch ronic form s often occur. A m o n g poultry. Clinical signs and lesions In acu te F C . geese an d turkeys are the m o st affected . w h ich m ay c o n trib u te to an increase in virulence. arthritis. T ransm ission occurs by direct and in direct contact. p n e u m o n ia an d large am o u n ts o f m u co u s e x u d ate in the in testin e. B. these are anorexia. d u e to a G ram -n eg ativ e b a cte riu m . on the basis o f their capsu lar antigens. T h e lesio n s are asso ciated w ith v ascu lar d istu rb an c e : h yperem ia. w ith high m ortality. in ch ickens. p n e u m o n ia . diarrhoea. Five serogro u p s. serovars A and D are the m o st c o m m o n in poultry. Chronically infected birds are considered a m ajor source o f infection. sw ollen liver w ith m u ltip le sm all focal n ecro tic areas. cyanosis o f the com b and wattles. ru ffled feathers. nam ed A . P. sin u ses and jo in ts. w idely d istrib u ted haem orrhages. this m ay so m etim es be the first in dication o f ! disease. have been recognized. T h e lesio n s are m ostly ab scesses o f w attles. sig n s of in fection are o fte n p re se n t for on ly a few h ou rs before d eath . D isse m in atio n o f P. Epizootiology All types of bird are susceptible to F C . but m ost species of wild and d om estic anim als and insects can serve as vectors. E. exudate in cavities. trach eal rales and to rtico llis are the m o st c o m m o n signs. 60 . dyspnea. sw elling o f w attles. Pasteur ella mu Ito ci da. ducks. p articu larly in the d u o d en u m . multocida w ithin a flock takes place prim arily th ro u gh oroph aryngeal excretions or d ead carcasses. multocida p ro d u c e s e n d o to x in s. F. : T h e cou rse o f the d isease is usually acute. sep ticem ic.Fowl Cholera I Fowl ch olera (F C ) is a c o n ta g io u s d ise a se o f d o m e stic an d wild b ird s.

multocida infection Prevention o f in fection is based on go o d m an ag e m e n t p ractices.Poultry Disease Manual Diagnosis A p re su m p tiv e d ia g n o s is o f F C c a n be m a d e fro m c lin ic a l o b se rv a tio n s an d n ecrop sy fin d in g s. in turkey breeders. san itation m easures and exclusion of wild birds. etc. . by injection or in drinking water. As regards vaccination.. only the m ost com m o n serovars (A. multocida from tissues and exu dates on blood-agar plates. ch in olo n es. a b o o ster before g oin g into lay is som etim es advisable. rod en ts and other anim als. c o n firm e d by iso la tio n o f P. inactivated and su sp en d ed in oily em u lsion . usually. D) o f the bacterium . com m ercial bacterins are prepared with all or. at 8-10 w eeks o f age an d 4-5 weeks later. such as am oxicillin. Diffuse necrotic foci on the liver due to P. Two in je c tio n s o f v accin e are given. Control T reatm ent o f acute form s o f F C is based on the ad m in istratio n o f antibiotics.

: r c i 'U p p le m e n ts (la c to b a c illi.m . a d m in is tr a tio n o f m any an tib io tics. Epizootiology M ost of the reports o f N E have been in 3-5 week old broiler chickens. :h e * C. type A an d C . Clinical signs and lesions Severe depression . som etim e with h aem orrh ages. ty losin ). which prod u ce a CC toxin.d m ic ro sc o p ic le sio n s an d on isolation o f large num bers IC* co n ten t and scrapin gs frorr. C. Pr ' strep to co ccu s faeciu m ) c a r 62 _ G r.bacteria (am oxicillin. Diagnosis T h is is b ased on typical gr< — ir . im b a lan ce o f m icrobial flo ra (selective an tibiotic treatm ent) an d the ban n in g o f an tib io tic growth p rom oters in m any cou n tries. which are responsible for intestinal m ucosal necrosis. young turkeys may also be affected. Treatment O u tb r e a k s o f N E can be Necrotic phase of intestinal lesions in NE r*. decreased appetite. the m ucosa is lined by a loosely-totighdy-adherent veil '. d am ag e to in testin al m u co sa (fib res. diarrhea and m ortality are present. G ro ss lesions are confined m ainly tc the sm all intestine. r : r r c \ e n t c lo strid ial in fection . type C also p ro d u c in g a (3-toxin. . perfringens can be iso lated readily on b loo d agar at 3 7 °C u n d er an a e ro b ic con d ition s. c o c c id io sis).. reared on the litter. reluctance to move.NECROTIC ENTERITIS Necrotic Enteritis N ecrotic enteritis (N E ) is cau sed by Clostridium per/ringens. w hich are active c h in o lo n e s.v or green pseudomem brane. Initial acute phase of intestinal lesions in NE P re d isp o sin g cau se s are: d ie t (h igh levels o t barley and w h eat).>s^nngens from the intestinal v 'Tinal wall.

a definitive d iagn osis is m ade by isolation o f R A . In activated b a cterin s are still in use. it grow s well o n b lo o d agar. T h e m ost freq u en t lesion s are fib rin o u s exu d ates involving serou s I m em b ra n es. en ro flo xacin . ch ronic localized infection occurs in . c o n ta in in g m ore than o n e I serotype. A t least 20 different serotypes have been isolated. Control I T h e m o st im p o rta n t m ean s o f p reven tion are g o o d biosecu rity.3x1-5 m icron s in size. geese an d | turkeys. the skin an d join ts. | Infection takes place via the respiratory tract or skin w ounds. so the j ■ m ed iu m need s su p p le m e n tatio n by yeast extract and c a lf seru m . p articu larly the p e ric ard iu m .R1EMERELLA ANATIPESTIFER Poultry' Disease Manual Riemerella Anatipestifer i Riemerella anatipestifer (R A ) in fectio n is a c o n ta g io u s d ise a se o f ! 1 variou s d o m estic and wild bird s. non m otile rod. air sac an d p u ru le n t I : exudates in the nasal sin uses. p articu larly o f d u ck s. . I Epizootiology I T he disease occurs worldwide. particularly in countries. d iarrh ea an d ataxia. Clinical signs and lesions T h e sign s m ain ly o b serv ed are o cu lar an d n asal d isch arge. w here duck production is high. 0. grow th is so m e tim e stu n te d . T re a tm e n t w ith v a rio u s a n tib io tic s is e ffic a c io u s: am o x ic illin . ! m an ag em en t an d health practices. R A is a G ran v . Diagnosis A lth o u g h a presum ptive d iag n o sis m ay be m ad e from the clinical signs and lesions. th ose p re d o m in an t in an area.. m ild cou gh in g and sneezing. etc.

Serological and molecular methods are used for species differentiation. with a “ fried egg” form and wedge growth in solid media. m eleagridis. Many species of mycoplasmas have been isolated from poultry. They require special enriched media for growth. gallisepticum . M . . which is rather slow (3-10 days). they are consequently fragile and do not survive for long in the environment. colonies are small (0-1-1-0 mm).Mycoplasmosis Mycoplasmas are very small bacteria lacking a cell wall. outside the host. synoviae and M. Some species live inside the cell. addition of penicillin and thallium acetate inhibits or retards the growth o f contaminants. and are therefore not susceptible to attack by antibodies. but the most imporcant and pathogenic are M.

d e p e n d in g on com plication s d u e to oth er m icroorganism s. S in ce M G rarely survives for m ore th en 2-3 days o u tsid e th e host. M o r b id ity is h ig h . In b ro iler flocks. gallisepticum. in clu d in g m ore or less evident sin u sitis. However. trach eal rales. th e p resen c e o f carrier b ird s is e sse n tia l fo r p e rsiste n ce o f the Characteristic airsaccuiitis due to M. m o r ta lit y v e ry v a r ia b le . from 4-5 days to several weeks. T h e in cu b atio n p e rio d o f the d ise a se is very variable. often superinfected with £. d ow n grad in g o f carcasses an d c o n d e m n atio n . onset of egg production. m ore or less for the entire life o f the bird s. the progeny are infected. hair). In layin g flo c k s. m ain ly c o lib a c illo sis. Infection may spread via fom ites (airborne du st and droplets. d ysp n ea. V ertical tran sovarian tran sm issio n is very im portan t. coli infection in a farm. the m icroorganism has also been isolated from m any oth er species o f d om estic and w ild birds. d epen din g o n the virulence o f the M G strain. b u t this con tin u es. the presence o f virus and other bacterial infections and stress factors (environm ent. gallisepiicum (M G ) is the m o st p a th o g e n ic an d e co n o m ically sig n ific a n t m y co p lasm a in p ou ltry. as a c o n seq u en ce. feathers) and personn el (nose. egg p ro d u c tio n declin es or rem ain s at a lower level. In ch ick en s the m o st c h arac te ristic sig n s o f in fe c tio n are n asal d isch arge. 65 . In turkeys. m ost ou tbreaks o ccu r at 4-6 w eeks o f age.M ycop lasm a gallisepticum in fe ctio n M. H atch ability is variable and m any un hatched em bryos show airsac c u litis. season. T h e in fectio n is c o m m o n ly k n o w n as c h ro n ic re sp ira to ry d ise a se ( C R D ) o f c h ic k e n s an d infectious sinusitis o f turkeys. m ore severe respiratory signs d evelop than in chickens. H orizontal spread increases with the increase in p ou ltry density in sid e the flock an d a m o n g flocks.T h e h ighest rates o f egg tran sm issio n in b reed ers have been fo u n d d u rin g the acute phase o f disease. som etim e w ith occu rren ce o f disease. sneezing. d u e to freq u en t co n cu rren t b a cte rial in fe c tio n s. red u ced feed in take an d higher feed con version rate. etc. sign s are o fte n m ore m arked th an in b reed ers an d layers and m ore severe.). at a lower level. F u rth er losses are due to retarded grow th.

C u rre n tly av ailab le M G vaccin es have n o t been m uch used in turkeys. w hen an in fection is su spected. in 6-8 w eek old chickens. gallisepticum with fairly g o o d results. A dequ ate an d severe biosecurity m easures. also again st egg tran sm issio n o f organ ism s. gallisepticum D N A using P C R kits are a con firm ation . Commercial broilers with conjunctivitis and increased lacrimation due to M. S in c e M G c an b e egg-tran sm itted . to avoid in troduction o f the organism to a flock. m ain ta in in g M G -free p aren t flo ck s sh o u ld be ideal. resulting in high m ortality a n d co n d e m n atio n o f birds at the p rocessin g plant. in clu d in g m acrolid es. Egg injection or dippin g have been used to introduce antim icrobials into hatching eggs. trachea. for optim al protection . flu o ro q u in o lo n e s an d others. A presum ptive diagnosis is based on reported sym ptom s and lesions. perihepatitis and pericarditis are present. M G h as been show n to be sensitive to several an tim icrob ials. see p age 83) are u sefu l fo r flo c k m o n ito rin g in M G control p ro g ram s an d as an aid in d iagn osis. b u t can n o t prod u ce the com plete elim ination ot the organism from all bird s in an in fected flock. Serological tests (SAT. Live attenuated vaccines are ad m in istered by spray and by eye-drop. M G control p ro gram s have b e e n a d o p te d w ith great su ccess in ch ick en s and turkeys. They are able to reduce the severity o f clinical signs and lesions and egg transm ission. bronchi an d air sacs: sinusitis is m ost p rom in en t in turkeys. at least 4-5 weeks apart. limiting. A s regards v a cc in atio n . particularly egg tran sm issio n . a p p ro p ria te an tib io tic th erapy an d v a c c in a tio n m ay be u sed to reduce th e d am age due to infection. In severe a n d c o m p lic a te d o u tb re a k s. fib r in o u s a ir sa c c u litis. G iv en the c o n sid e ra b le d iffic u ltie s in k e e p in g flo c k s M G -free. In activ ated v accin e s or b a cte rin s in oily e m u lsio n . m u st be taken. Isolation o f the organism from the respiratory tract in special broth a n d agar-m edia or in e m b ry o n a te d eggs or d e te c tio n o f relative Commercial broilers with conjunctivitis and increased lacrimation due to M. bu t m ostly in m u ltiaged layers. reared in strict isolation. but they often need to be adm inistered again and again. 66 . HI an d E L IS A . alth ou gh this c o n d itio n is n o t very easy to achieve. m ust be injected twice. in activ ated an d live atte n u a te d vaccin es have lon g been used in b reed ers. prim ary and m u ltiplier breeders. c o n ta in in g a high titre o f antigen. bu t usually not completely elim in atin g the organ ism . particularly in densely populated areas with different poultry types and farm s.G ross lesions consist prim arily o f catarrhal exudates in nasal passages.

. so m e tim e s. A presum ptive diagn osis is based o n characteristic signs an d lesions. re sp ira to ry sy m p to m s. u sin g PG R . G r o ss le sio n s in clu d e th ic k e n in g o f sy n ovial m e m b ra n e s w ith viscous. T ran sm issio n occu rs horizontally.and hepatom egaly. T h e in cu b ation perio d is very variable. b u t synovitis may p ersist for the en tire lifetim e. Tarsal-metatarsal joint synovia of a) normal. synoviae affected chicken T he m ost frequent signs in chickens are pale com b. from 2 % to m ore th an 5 0 % . p a rtic u la rly jf th e d ise a se o c c u rs w hen th e b ird s go in to lay. lam eness. w hen it occurs.Mycoplasma Synoviae Infection \ Mycoplasma synoviae (M S) prim arily in d u ces in fla m m a tio n o f the synovial m em b ran es o f jo in ts an d te n d o n sh eath s (synovitis). In m any respects. with spleno. In turkeys. creamy to caseous exudates. b) M. Egg p ro d u c tio n m ay be m ore or less affected. the sp re ad o f M S ap p e ars to be very sim ilar to that o f M G . via the respiratory tract and vertically. m ore fastid io u s th an M G to grow. M o rb id ity is very variab le. M S gen erally cau ses sign s and lesio n s very sim ila r to those o f chickens. o r by d etectio n o f relative D N A . sw elling o f jo in ts (m ainly h ock and foot pads) an d breast b liste rs. airsaccu iitis m a y b e present. b u t frequently there is also respiratory involvem ent. to several weeks. retarded growth. the SA T. th ro u gh the ovary and oviduct. is very slow. HI o r E L IS A tests are used. C o n firm a tio n may be o b tain e d by iso latio n and id e n tificatio n o f M S . likewise. m ostly in chickens and turkeys. m o stly in b ro ile rs. m ortality can be from less then 1% up to 10%. S om etim es the in fection course is asym ptom atic an d revealed only by sero lo g ical tests. F o r an an tib o d y survey. m ostly in chicks in fected vertically by egg tran sm issio n . Recovery. from 6 to 7 days. in respiratory form s.

two in jection s. M S is sensitive to several an tib iotics. Tarsal-metatarsal synovia affected by M. synoviae : 68 . A n inactivated b acte ria in oily em u lsion is com m ercially available.S in ce M S is egg-transm itted. ate needed to o b tain g o o d im m unity. at least 4-5 weeks apart. the sam e rules ad o p ted for M G m ust be ap p lied . their use m ay be m ore extensive than in M G infections.

the j course o f infection is m ostly silent. A presum ptive d iag n o sis is based particularly o n exudative lesion s o f the air-sacs. the SA T. Air-sac lesion s are characterized by thickening o f walls w ith yellowish and caseous exudate. in w h ich it cau se s a irsa c c u iitis in th e p ro g e n y an d p o o r grow th perform ance. V ac c in e s are n o t available. Skeleton lesion s m ay som etim es be present. M M is vertically tran sm itte d by the egg. the o rg a n ism h as b een recovered from variou s sites in the oviduct. . alth o u g h th ese sym pto m s are n o t always p resen t. b u t rarely in the ovary. d irectly by th e airb o rn e route or indirectly by artificial in se m in atio n . H I and E L IS A tests are used.Mycoplasma Meleagridis Infection Mycoplasma meleagridis (M M ) is a sp ecific p ath o ge n o f turkeys. 1 M a n a g e m e n t p ro ced u res are the sam e as th ose ap p lied for oth e r I m yco plasm as. In ad u lt turkeys. M M is sensitive to the sam e a n tib io tic s u sed a g a in st o th e r m y c o p la sm a s. sexin g an d other practices. H o riz o n ta l tra n sm issio n m ay o c c u r at any age. For an in vestigation o f an tib o d ie s. D ia g n o s tic c o n fir m a t io n m ay be o b t a in e d by is o la tio n a n d id en tifica tio n o f M M o r by d e te c tio n o f the relative D N A u sin g P C R . resp iratory sign s are rarely ob served in egg-borne infected p ou lts. aim ed at e rad icatio n . In sp ite o f m ore o r less severe airsaccu iitis.

In turkeys. acervulina. meleagridis. where coccid io sis is also co m m o n . gallopavonis. five species are the m ost im portan t E. as norm ally occurs in an intensively-reared flock. tenella an d necatrix (th e latter c a u sin g the c h a ra c te ristic c o c c id io sis in 8 w eek-old chickens). Epizootiology O u tb reak s o f d isease in chickens are co m m o n at 3-6 weeks o f age. mitis. tenella. cau sed by in tracellu lar p roto zoan parasites o f th e g e n u s Eim eria. Haemorrhagic lesions caused by E. acervulina. E. afte r 3 rep licatio n Lesions caused by E tenella in ceca cycles (as schizonts and m erozoites. C occid ia are species-specific an d have a com plex life cycle. seven sp e c ie s o f E im e ria have b e e n id e n t ifie d : E. F ro m ju st o n e oocy st o f E. with different degrees o f intestinal le sio n s. necatrix. Tizzeria perniciosa. the invasive form o f the parasite) an d on e sex u al stage in cells o f the in testin al m u co sa (w ith the u n io n o f m icro-gam etocytes an d m acro-gam etocytes). T h e m o st im p o rta n t sp e c ie s fro m an e c o n o m ic p o in t o f view in chickens are E. w here m a tu ra tio n o f oocysts takes place. T h is intensive elim in ation o f oocysts in a lim ited area with high num bers o f chickens. 70 . truncata an d E. subclinical and d etrim en tal in fection s are norm ally detectable. G e n e ra lly th e c lin ic a l d ise a se is ra th e r u n c o m m o n in in te n siv e ly -re a re d p o u ltr y d u e to th e u su a l ad m in istration o f coccidiostats or vaccines. in ducks. with one p art in sid e an d on e p art o u tsid e the body. In c h ic k e n s. precox an d E. in exp erim en tal trials only. S ev eral o u tb re ak s are p o ssib le in the sam e flo c k w ith d iffe re n t species involved in each.0 0 0 oocysts. b u t less sp ectacu lar and im p ortan t then in chickens. dispersa. becau se o f no cross-protective im m unity. brunetti. im m unogenicitv and the intestinal replication site. d ep e n d in g o n environ m ental tem perature an d h u m id ity. is the reason for the im portance o f the d isease in m od ern pou ltry p ro d u ctio n . m axim a. meleagrimitis. tenella in the caecum In geese. mitis can cau se loss o f p erfo rm an ce. adenoides. anseris are co m m o n . w h en chicks are ch allen g ed w ith a very high d o sag e o f oocysts.C O C C ID IO S IS Coccidiosis C o c c id io sis is an in testin al disease o f alm o st universal im p ortan ce in p ou ltry p ro d u ctio n . praecox and tenella. E. nevertheless. Each species differs from the others in pathogenicity. m axim a. on e chicken can elim inate ab ou t 4 0 0 .

allow the im m u n e system to respond. which d oes n ot cause significant adverse effects in the host. maxima in the small intestine rap idly select n atu rally -resista n t stra in s. constandy influences the dynam ics o f the coccidial population in flocks. d e p e n d in g on the strain o f Eimeria involved. Lesions caused by E.su b clin ical co ccid io sis.clinical coccidiosis. characterized by m ore or less slight m orbidity. T he host im m une response in fact. which are very resistant in the environm ent and also to disinfectants.Poultry Disease Manual B reed er an d layer pu llets are affected at the sam e age as bro ilers an d th en at 9-18 w eeks by E. . L esio n s are located in d iffere n t p arts o f the in testin e. d ia rrh o e a o r b lo o d y faeces. b u t c au se a re d u c tio n in w eight gain an d the feed conversion rate. aceivulina in the small intestine an d m ortality. in w hich clinical sign s o f d isease are not very evident. necatnx. with d ifferen t lesions. Control T h e response o f the im m u n e system o f poultry to coccidia plays an im portant role in controlling the disease. Diagnosis D iagnosis is based on the localization and nature o f the lesions and on a m icroscopic exam in atio n o f m ucosal scrapings. T h e n atural m ean s o f tran sm issio n is by in gestio n o f oocysts. the lower degree o f selection tow ards resistan t strain s p erm its their use for a longer tim e before 7 .asym ptom atic coccidiosis. as well as by lo ss o f perform ance. Synthetic chem icals. n o t allo w in g sen sitiv e coccidia to replicate and blockin g natural com petition between the d ifferen t strain s present in flocks. particularly if highly e ffica cio u s. Symptoms and lesions C o c c id ial in fection s may be classified as: . w hen ad m in iste re d to p reven t co c c id io sis. probably due also to gradu al im m u n ization at a young age. and con seq u en tly less effective. b ein g co ccid io static. n o t very selective as regards c o ccid ial rep licatio n . C o c c id io sis rarely occu rs in adult birds. Io n o p h o te s. m easurin g the size an d sh ap e of oocysts and scorin g the lesion s. . For this reaso n . Lesions caused by E. as well as live vaccin es. b u t the m u co sal ce lb m ed iate d re sp o n se seem s to be o f p rim ary im p o rta n c e in re d u c in g the cap acity o f c o c c id ia to rep licate in intestinal cells. Both celbm ediated and hum oral im m unity are activated. an tic o c c id ia l d ru gs. have been used for long-term control o f the disease.

however. in w hich a red u ction in the life cycle tim e is co m b in e d with low invasiveness. narasin. red u cin g in testin al stress. . . w ith an in crease in p erfo rm an ce o f the chickens.selecting for p recocio u sn ess.su ccessiv e p a ssa g e s in ch ick en e m b ry o s. has p erm itted the o b tain in g o f protective vaccines with a large m argin o f safety. T h e early vaccines were prod u ced with wild strains o f coccid ia on the basis that precociou s exposure to a sm all d ose o f oocysts is able to in d u ce a p ro tectin g im m u n e resp on se. . litter. T h e use o f live v accin e m ak es p o ssib le a sh ift in the c o c c id ia l p o p u la tio n from d ru g resistant to drug sensitive an d a progressive su b stitu tio n o f wild w ith v a cc in e ' atte n u ate d oo cy sts. T h e a d o p tio n o f su ccessfu l m eth od s o f coccid ial atten u atio n . th is latte r m e th o d is ap p lied only with certain species o f Eimeria an d stu d ies reveal that the safety and stability' o f atten u ation w ould be com parable to that o f p recocio u s strains. n o n -u n iform a d m in istratio n o f these vaccines m igh t in duce clinical coccidiosis. salinom ycin.inducing resistance (m onensin. becau se chicks repeatedly take vaccinal oocysts from the . sem duram icin and lasalocid). A tte n u atio n is p erform ed by. U sin g live vaccines. only one adm inistration is sufficient for com plete im m unity.

brunetti .E.

| V accin es are divided into two m ain classes. vectored vaccines or gene-deletion m utants o f pathogen ic m icroorganism s and. mostly using formalin or (3-prop iolactone as inactivant. ae ro so l an d d rin k in g w ater) an d in d iv id u a l v a cc in atio n (eye-nose-drop. a seco n d type o f live vaccine is em erging with the developm ent o f genetically engineered live viruses and bacteria. in tram u scu lar. Vaccination via the drinking water Tliis is the m ost com m only used vaccination technique in com m ercial poultry. Dried skim m ed milk (5 to 8 g/litre) should j be added to the water. H y p erim m u n izatio n m akes it p o ssib le to rein force resistan ce to infection. obviously containing large am ou n ts o f antigen. m ore recently. 1 B ir d s s h o u ld be m a d e th irsty .r -j js Vaccine adm inistration system T h e p u rp o se o f the use o f v accin es is to p reven t o r red u ce the econ om ic d am age cau sed by in fectious diseases in treated bird s or to p reven t the vertical tran sm issio n o f in fection to the progeny. o rg a n ic su b sta n c e s. as free as p o ssib le from b acteria. m ore or less attenuated in ch icken em bryos or in tissue cultures. with varying am o u n ts o f an tigen per d ose. com b in ed with an ad ju van t (alu m in iu m hydroxide. an d are p rep ared with. . ch lo rin e and any d isin fectan ts.inactivated m icroorganisms. m etal ions. to neutralize at least part o f the contam inants. d e p e n d in g on the clim atic c o n d itio n s. others). with . there being no rep lication in the host. but also to maximize maternally-derived antibodies. th u s d e p r iv e d o f w a te r fo r 1 to 2 h ou rs. T h e w ater used m u st be clean an d d rin k ab le. wing-web. deriving from d ifferen t species. naturally apathogenic. which affect its success are num erous.5. However. D N A vaccines. in the hatchery o r on the farm . T h e vo lu m e o f w ater for vaccin atio n sh o u ld be a b o u t 1 /5 o f the p rev io u s d ay ’s w ater 75 . . T h e ap p licatio n tech n iq u es are su bd ivid ed into: m ass vaccin ation ' (spray. b u t involving rep lication o f the vaccinal agen t in the host.5 and 7. w hen birds are m ost su sceptible. a pH between 5. c o m p e titio n trz " ' drinking water am ong the birds m ust be avoided during vaccinal water consum ption. the factors. . w hich m u st take p lace over a b o u t 2 h ou rs. which may neutralize vaccinal m icroorgan ism s. mineral oil. su b c u tan e o u s o r in-ouo). which : will p rotect the progeny fo r the first 2-3 w eeks o f life.live m icroorganism s.

N D V an d IB V v a c c in e s are n o rm a lly a d m in iste re d in 30-40 m l o f d istille d or p u re w ater p er 100 ch ick s. the farm er sh o u ld carefully m o n ito r the poultry h ou se. w hich are too fine. repeating the operation . takin g ad d itio n al vaccine. D ro p le ts. the droplets m ust have a size o f 100-150 m icrons. as they penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract (bron ch i an d lungs) and cou ld in du ce post-vaccinal reactions with viruses wrhich are n ot com pletely ap ath o gen ic. turning o ff ventilation and heating systems. to check th at all birds . m u st have a size o f a b o u t 100-150 m icro n s. T h e d ro p lets. particularly in cases o f N D V . fin ally resto rin g the en v iro n m en tal c o n d itio n s after 15 m in u tes. D rin k e rs m u st w ork correctly. better still. b u t with the advantage o f a m u ch lower cost o f ad m in istration . ch ick s p reen them selves or each other. c o c c id io sis v a cc in e can also be a d m in iste re d . spraying about 30-40 cm above the h e ad s o f the b ird s. Vaccination by spray T h e m eth od is d esig n ed to m im ic eye-drop vaccin ation . T h e quantity o f w ater is 50-80 m l per 100 chicks. w hich sprays b o xe s o f one-day-old ch icks m ovin g o n a conveyor b e lt w ith a c o n tro lle d sp e e d .j c o n su m p tio n . w alking slowly th ro u gh the h o u se (exposure for 5-7 seconds) and. F latd erian glands an d u p p er respiratory tract. S u b se q u e n tly . the following practice is necessaTy-: grou pin g the birds together. generated by a sprayer. Vaccination by spray machine in hatchery S p ra y v a c c in a tio n o n t h e fa r m T h is is don e using a sprayer equipped with a plastic tank containing 5 to 10 litres and a spraying arm o f ab ou t 70 cm with 1 or 2 nozzles. have en o u gh to drink. reducing the light intensity. It allows the vaccine to be b ro u g h t into con tact with the eyes. Finally. Manual vaccination by spray Spray vaccination in the hatchery T h is is usually d o n e u sin g a spray cab in et. at least for the first vaccin ation . For good vaccination. 76 . som etim es an d w ith som e vaccines from 10 to 100 m icrons. m ust be avoided.

inoculated th ro u gh a hole on the large end o f the egg.0 5 . checked after 8 days. with a self-contained reservoir for the vaccine. bur labour-intensive and expensive.1 ml. b a c te r ia l an d fu n g al | c o n ta m in atio n s are p ossib le. fo r the la st few days p r io r to h atc h in g . T h is te c h n iq u e is a p p lie d p a rticu larly fo r vaccin ation again st M a re k ’s d isease with H V T . Vaccination by oculonasal route V a c c in a tio n b y w in g . T h e vaccine is r e c o n s t itu te d in 3 0 -3 5 m l o f d ilu e n t p er 1 0 0 d o s e s a n d ad m in istered at a d ose o f 1-2 d ro p s per bird.0. Vaccination by wing-web-stab | T h is m e th o d is p e rfo rm e d in the h atch ery d u r in g tra n sfe r o f in cu b atin g eggs from the setter to the hatch er. con seq u en tly .s t a b T h is m ethod is used to im m unize again st fowl pox. it is im p o rta n t to w ait a few se c o n d s to allow th e vaccine to be ab sorbed . Pierce the wing-web in a d efeathered area. in to the am n io tic sac or preferably in to the em bryo. Im m unization of birds is indicated by a local swelling o f skin at the pierced site. m ostly in broilers. on e m achine with 3 p eop le norm ally in oculates 20-30. the hatchery m u st be In oi/o vaccination at 18 days of incubation k e p t well san itize d . b u t trials with oth er vaccines have been con d u cted . w ithout tou ch in g the eyes o r n ates. T h e vaccine is re c o n stitu te d in 10 m l o f ste rile d ilu e n t p e r 1 0 0 0 d o s e s an d ad m in istered u sin g two ap p lic atio n tools: a stick with on e or two g ro o v e d n eed les.Vaccination by oculonasal route j T h e m ethod is highly effective. 77 . w hich are p rev io u sly d ip p e d in v accin e o r an autom atic so-called G ra n t inoculator.000 eggs per hour. at the 18th day of j incubation. Sin ce the in o cu latio n leaves a hole in the egg-shell.w e b . A n au to m ated egg in jection system | is used. | it is often used to vaccin ate ag ain st laryngotracheitis. T h e dose of vaccine per egg is 0.

k is used for ad m in istration o f certain live vaccines. Injection can be perform ed by han d. a d octor m ust be con su lted . which. u sin g au to m atic syringes. particularly in case o f vaccines in oily em u lsio n . T h e precision o f the delivered d ose m u st be checked befo re an d d u rin g the o p e ra tio n s.to 6-dayold chicks). If the o p erato r sh o u ld accidentally prick h im se lf with the needle. N e e d le s are selected depending on the type o f vaccine. Intram uscular vaccination is generally perform ed into the breast. in sertin g the needle tow ards the body o f the bird. Subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated vaccine 78 . this being the clean est area o f the bird. leg or wing m uscles. cou ld cause severe local reactions. to im p rove the flu id ity o f the vaccin e. m ostly after 4 weeks o f age or before going into lay. p articu larly if it is in oily em u lsion . Subcutaneous vaccination against Marek's disease Su b cu tan eo u s vaccination is m ostly perform ed into the base o f the neck. normally 1x15 mm size or less. keepin g the needle at an angle o f 4 5 °. even in sm all am o u n ts. o r with au to m a tic m ach in es. su ch as th o se a g a in st M a re k ’s d ise a se (one-day-old chicks) an d reovirusinduced arthritis (1.Vaccination by injection T h e injection is accom plished by the su bcu tan eou s or intram uscular route. but also o f many inactivated vaccines at any age. It is ad visable to keep the bottle o f inactivated vaccin e for at least h a lf a day at roo m tem p eratu re (over 2 0 °C ).

thym us an d sp leen . u n d er su ch con d ition s. e x p la in e d by partial atrophy o f lym phoid tissues. ob vio u sly . T h e sam e c o n d itio n ap p lies to clin ical or subclinical coccid iosis. T h e tr e a t m e n t o f b ir d s s u f f e r in g fro m m y co to xico sis c o n sists o f h e p ato p ro te c tan ts (m any am in o acids) an d anti-oxidants. D eb eak in g . will be less available for the im m u n e reaction to the vaccine or the vaccinal reaction may w orsen the preexistin g in fection . the im m u n e system . b a c te ria e tc . . fo r 4 to 6 days. focusing o n che in fectiou s p ath ology. w hich can be qu ite expensive. m ay be stressin g factors. this seem s to be due to increased glycocorticoids release. T h e effect is. start o f laying. T h e p resen ce o f bacterial in fection s an d . In such case. su c h as v ita m in c o m p le x e s. etc. S tre s s A m o n g the v ario u s effects o f stress o n the o rg a n ism there is also im m unodepression . vaccination sh o u ld be p o stp o n e d . su ch as the bu rsa o f Fabriciu s. have a great in fluen ce o n v a c c in a tio n re su lts. can also interfere w ith the im m u n e response to vaccination. excessive tem peratu re. T h erefore. overcrow ding.). T h e c o n tro l o f m y co to x ico sis is. the need for an tib acterial treatm en ts. which in hibits the synthesis o f m any cytokines involved in im m u n e processes. in p art. Possible an ti-stress th erap y . particularly C 1A V an d IB D V . con seq u en tly . T h e p re se n c e in th e b ird s o f v iru se s w h ich in d u c e im m u n o ­ su p p ressio n . m ostly a fla to x in s an d o c h ra to x in s. can h elp to redu ce the stress. also a d d in g a n t if u n g a l a g e n t s.Factors influencing vaccination M an y facto rs can h ave a c o n sid e ra b le im p act o n the su c c e ss o f v a c c in a tio n . if possible. V accin atio n o f p a re n ts may p ro te ct th e p rogeny in the p erio d o f the greatest su scep tibility to the d iseases m en tio n ed an d also to others. M y c o to x ic o s is M any m ycotoxins can induce an im m u n osu p p ressive effect. Factors related to the conditions of farms E x is tin g p a t h o lo g ic a l c o n d it io n s d u e t o in f e c tio u s a g e n ts (v iru s . they have to be tak e n in to g re at c o n sid e ra tio n by veterinarian s an d farm ers. tran sp o rt. to g e th e r w ith im p rovem en t in hygienic m easures. j b ased o n p rev en tin g fu n gal d e v e lo p m e n t in feed s.

V a c c in e fa c to r | T h e vaccin e m u st be as safe as p o ssib le. su ited to the ep id em iological situ atio n (e. never less.) sh o u ld be well con trolled before and after vaccine ad m in istration . co!i.F a c to rs a s s o c ia te d with vaccination H o s t fa c to r. b u t the in stru ctio n s m u st be u n d e rsto o d and follow ed correctly by the w ork ing staff. for w hich a con troller is advisable. T h e health status. etc. T h e e q u ip m e n t used m u st be checked an d prep ared the day before. T h e e n v iro n m en tal c o n d itio n s sh o u ld be the best possible. taking the d u e p re c a u tio n s. T h e n u m ber o f d oses m ust c o rre sp o n d to the n u m b e r o f b ird s to be v accin ated . d e p e n d in g o n th e e p id e m io lo g ic a l s it u a tio n . particu larly in large farm s. . I H u m a n fa c to r T h e tech n iq u es used to ad m in iste r vaccines m u st be as sim p le as p o ssib le. M o n ito rin g o f the flock b efo re an d after vaccin ation is very im p o rtan t. m ore or less invasive. b u t at the sam e tim e be . IB D V . p articu larly in h o t se a so n s an d co u n trie s. T h e vaccin atio n o p e ratio n s. d e p e n d in g o n the virulence o f the w ild virus .g. the result o f th e im m u n e r e sp o n se m u st th en be v a lid a te d by s u b s e q u e n t serological tests. M o st o f vaccines m u st be stored in a refrigerator at 2 -8°C until use | and tran sported u n d er cool con d ition s. im m u n ogen ic. T h e tim e o f vaccination should also be carefully p r o g r a m m e d . m u st be p rogram m ed with care and sh o u ld be perform ed in the m orn in g. T h e m ost com plex tech n iq u e is the on e regard in g p re p a ra tio n an d ad m in istra tio n o f c e lb asso c iate d M a re k ’s disease vaccine. present in the field). E. due to the fragility o f the cells d u rin g the various o p eratio n s. with particular attention to intercurrent subclinical o r c h ro n ic in fe c tio n s (M ^coptasmas.

o e d em a and haem orrh ages o f the bursa o f Fabricius. d u e to IBD V . type an d d u ra tio n o f sign s o b serv ed a n d / o r rem em b ered in the flock. sin u s sw elling.). norm ally o f plastic. 10% fo rm alin fixatio n . sw abs o r sm ears for fu rth e r e x a m in a tio n m u st be tak e n u sin g asep tic procedures. virological an d h istop ath ological analysis. j e) previou s p ath o lo g ic al h istory an d d ate w hen p ro b le m started. C lin ic a l e x a m in a tio n : p resen ce o f cu tan e o u s lesio n s. T h e sam p les o f o rgan s o r tissu es. m ust be labelled as “pathological 81 .). in ord er to in terven e in g o o d tim e with ap p rop riate th erapeu tic an d hygienic m easures. age o f birds. transport boxes. sw elling. freezing. N ecropsy m ust be p erform ed on sick birds. j nervous an d lo c o m o to r sy m pto m s (w eakness. b lin d n e ss. any lesion s ob served . T h e tran sp o rt o f sam p les o f bird s or p art o f this m u st be d o n e in such a w7ay as to prevent any co n ta m in atio n o f p erson s involved in tran sp o rtin g an d receiving. respiratory 1 sym p to m s (sneezing. o r on freshly-dead birds. d osage. an d to preserve the m aterial quality o f the sam p les (refrigeration . T h e goal o f th ese series o f analyses is to d e term in e as quickly as p o ssib le the cau se o f d isease. feed c o n su m p tio n . h aem orrh agic and necrotic lesion s in the gut due to N e w c a stle d ise a s e ) a n d to ta k e s a m p le s fo r p a r a s it o lo g ic a l. leg in co o rd in atio n . b ro o d in g and rearing p roced u res. h aem orrh agic typhlitis d u e to coccidiosis. C ase h isto ry a) species. bacteriological.Diagnosis of disease j Clinical. spastic or flaccid paralysis. d) previous vaccinations and treatm ent schedules (nature o f vaccines ! an d d ru gs. trem or.). d u ra tio n o f treatm ent). a d m in istratio n rou te. I b) m an ag em en t factors: ven tilation. n asal d isch arg e. h u m an ely su p pressed . in order n ot to contam inate the sam ples with extraneous m icroo rgan ism s. necroscopk and laboratory analysis . evo lu tion o f m orbidity an d m ortality. rales. feedin g. etc. etc. enteric sym ptom s (appearance an d colou r o f d iarrh oea and faeces). N e c ro p sy : a post-m ortem e x am in a tio n is p erfo rm e d to h ighlight lesion s w hich are m ore or less ch aracteristic or p ath o g n o m o n ic o f certain diseases (for exam ple. c) evolution o f p erform an ce: grow th or laying curve. w atering system . breed. etc.

v iro lo g ic a l an d h isto lo g ic a l exam in atio n m u st be dried an d fixed in methyl alcoh ol to prevent deterio ration . Tw o sets o f sera from th e sam e bird s. are tested to h igh ligh t the increase in an tib o d y titres again st a path o gen su sp ected o f b ein g the cause o f rhe disease and to m on itor re sp on ses to vaccin ation s. in cinerated. F o r b a cte rial iso la tio n : large pieces o f organ s (spleen . Organ or tissue samples F o r p a ra sito lo g ic a l e x a m in a tio n : sc rap in g o f in testin al m u co sa. protozoa) and investigation o f protozoa m u st be d o n e im m ediately after sam plin g. T h e sam ples m u st be sent to the laboratory as so o n as p ossible and correctly stored. or wing-vein sam p lin g or at slaughter. d ep e n d in g on the tran spo rt tim e. F o r viru s iso latio n : sm all pieces (2x1 cm) are placed in preservative. T h e site for necropsy and exam in atio n can be a disin fectable room at the farm o r n ear to the carcass d isp o sa l site. 82 . for a lon ger period at . Wing-vein blood sampling after sep aratio n from clotted b lo o d . lung. A ny e q u ip m e n t o r c lo th in g m u st b e c le a n e d an d d isin fe c te d . collected d u rin g the acu te p h ase (at the start o f the d isease) an d con v alescen t p h ase (after at least 2-3 weeks) o f the d isease. B lood is taken individually by decap itation . in te n d e d fo r e x a m in a tio n an d a c c o m p a n ie d by an inform ation sheet. T issu e sm e a rs fo r b a c te r io lo g ic a l. in plastic tubes. sterilized oi\ if d isp o sab le. Sampling methods B lo o d sam p le s: tubes for seru m based tests (serology) or tubes with an an ticoagulan t for biochem ical investigations (turn the tube gently several tim es) are used. clean or sterile an d sealing.) are placed in the transport m edium and then refrigerated or frozen. (very young chicks) o r intracardiac puncture. w orm eggs. faeces (coccidia.m a te r ia l” . etc. inform ation m ust be as com prehensive as possible. possibly su p p lem en ted w ith antibiotics. liver.2 0 °C . in the later cases only for the serum . S to ra g e for less than 4 8 h o u rs can be at 4-8°C . preserved in 5 0 % glycerol or frozen. b u t the necropsy room o f a fitted o u t an d w ell-equipped lab o rato ry is preferable. intestine. refrigerated or frozen. Sam p les m ust be ab o u t 2-3 m l in volum e. in ord er to m ake die d iag n o sis easier.

read in g o f the reaction is p erfo rm ed u sin g a spectrop h oto m eter (optical density).. T h e m eth od is qu ite sim ple. They include: direct m icroscopic observation o f bacteria or protozoans in the tissues (fresh or stained). w ith shaking a n d after a fu rth e r 3 0 m in u te s th e test is read : se d im e n ta tio n in dicates a positive H I reaction . drcumscribed button of unagglutmated. isolation in different selective culture m ed ia m ain tain e d at 3 7 °C for a p erio d from 24 h o u rs to several days. GelPrecipitation test or agar-gel im m u n o d iffu sio n test (A G ID ). T h e serological tests m o st com m o n ly u sed are: Agglutination tests. E D S. AGD test with feather tips: precipitation line versus positive serum Haemagglutination4nhibition (HI) test. antigen-antibody bin d in g is revealed by a d d itio n o f a n en zym e-labelled an tib o d y an ti-a n tib o d y a n d by su b seq u en t ad d itio n o f su b strate (crom ogen). d e p e n d in g on the m ic ro o rg a n ism . T h e su bstrate. slide (SA T) or tube (TAT) agglutination. a fixed quantity o f antigen (4-8 H A units) is placed in contact with successive dilutions (log2) o f serum to be tested in the well o f a plastic m icroplate. etc. etc. Serological tests are used to highlight these antibodies for diagnostic p u rp o ses. the in tensity o f the c o lo u r change is p ro p o rtio n a l to th e q u an tity o f a n tib o d ie s HI test: Hl-positive walls show a tight.Bacteriological examinations T h ese are d on e to identify the presence o f p ath ogen ic bacteria an d to test their sensitivity to an tibacterial dru gs (antibiogram s). after 30 m inutes. previously fixed at the b o ttom o f a micro-well. where the antigen and sera are placed in two ad jacen t wells previously cut in to the agar. in ad d itio n to m o n ito rin g and q u an tify in g the an tib o d y resp on se o f bird s to vaccin ation . a p r e c ip ita tio n lin e o f th e an tigen /an tib o d y com plex appears in the case o f a positive reaction. . to detect an tibacterial an tib o d ie s (Salmonella spp. an tibiogram s. based on the ability o f certain v iru ses o r b acte ria to agg lu tin ate red b lo o d cells (R B C ). epizoological m o n ito rin g a n d to c o n firm a d iag n o sis o f d isease. this test is used for IBV. a fte r 24-48 h o u r s. agglu tin atio n in d icates a negative reaction. IBD V . SAT: positivity is shown by a visible dumping of the stained antigen Serology In fection by a p ath o g e n n o rm ally in d u ces p ro d u c tio n o f specific an tib o d ies. IB.. after b ein g hydrolyzed by the enzym e. sedimented erythrocytes b o u n d to the an tigen . ch anges colou r. In flu en za. a 0 . Mycoplasmas)-. T h e sim p le st form (in d irect E L IS A ) is based o n th e b in d in g o f an tib o d y to an tig en . influenza. M any types o f E L IS A tests have b een d evelop ed . this test is used for N D . Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (E L ISA ).5 % su sp en sio n o f R B C is added. mycoplasmas. b io c h e m ic a l p ro file s.

nucleic acid segm en ts o f a m icroorganism are revealed in a sam ple o f tissue or body fluids (trachea.). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): the color change indicates the amount of captured antigen or antibody . in testin e etc. it allow s a large n u m b er o f seru m sam p les to be exam in ed an d can be used for nearly all p o u ltry d ise a se s.D IA G N O S IS O F D IS E A S E rap id an d ot low cost. Polymerase chain reaction (PC R ): this test was extensively introduced m ore recently in the d iag n o sis o f in fection . O th er E L IS A test are the “san d w ich ” an d the “com petitive” types.

Diagnosis of some most im portant Poultry Disease .

Vaccine type and strain . D iagnosis of ND Laboratory Serological tests (H lV .NEWCASTLE DISEASE Newcastle disease (ND) Clinical signs: Respiratory sym ptom s I Enteric sym ptom s I N ervous sym p to m s Necropsy Intestinal necrosis . e tc .C ontrol o f vaccination schedules . lung and brain YES NO NO C ontrol fo r o th e r diseases: ILT. and haemorrhages. IB.C ontrol o f vaccine a d m in istra tio n D iagnosis o f ND YES NO C on trol fo r o th e r diseases: ILT. IB. etc. v proventriculus haemorrhages I M o rta lity Laboratory Virus isola tio n fro m intestine. M ycoplasm osis. Mycoplasmosis..

are characteristic of nervous lesions j caused by certain neurotropic and mesogenic strains of ND Gastric and enteric lesions Haemorrhages /oca/ized in the stomach and intestine are characteristic of ND Normal stomach in a broiler: a) proventriculus. like twisted neck or torticollis.ND Lesions Nervous sym ptom s Nervous signs. b) gi22ard Haemorrhages present in the proventriculus and sometime in the gizzard Normal intestine Haemorrhages in the intestine Necrosis in the intestine 87 .

D iagnosis o f IB Laboratory S erological tests at the tim e and 15-20 days later ■Control of vaccine adm inistration Control of vaccine schedules Positive D iagnosis of IB N egative C ontrol fo r o th e r diseases: ILT.IN F E C T IO U S B R O N C H IT IS Infectious Bronchitis (IB) Clinical signs: R espiratory sym ptom s D iarrhoea Egg drop YES Necropsy Laboratory Virus isola tio n fro m trachea a n d /o r kidneys Characteristic lesions in: . Mycoplasmosis.trachea . Mycoplasmosis. e tc . ND. etc.kidneys NO Y ES NO C on trol fo r o th e r diseases: ILT. ND.

compared with a trachea with IB lesions characterized by a catarrhal-hemorrhagic exudate Kidney In nephropathic infection. a decline in egg production and quality occurs.Poultry Disease Manual IB Lesions Trachea i Piccure of a normal trachea. m addition to more or less evident respiratory symptoms Normal eggs compared with typical altered egg shells (ri ght and left eggs) alter IB infection Normal reproductive tract compared with an atrophic oviduct of a hen of the same age. swollen and pale kidneys due to interstitial nephritis and 1 distended ureter with urates are present A) normal kidneys and ureter B) nephritis caused by IBV Egg qua lity In laying flocks affected by IBV. affected by IB (bottom) and a physiologically silent oviduct (top) .

vaccination schedule and typ e o f vaccine . .INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE Infectious bursal disease (IBD) < 3 weeks 3-6 weeks AGE Control for: .lesions in th e BF (edema and haemorrhages). anorexia.proventriculus haemorrhages.C ontrol health status of the g roup . . diarrhoea.presence of IBD in the area . £ c o li Mortality D iagnosis o f IBD O ccu rred in past weeks Present at the tim e of visit positive Symptoms: depression. ru ffle d feathers Necropsy: .m uscle haem orrhages .Size of BF or atrophy ~ Take b lo o d sam ples fo r serology NO C heck and a d ju stm e n t of vaccination schedule C on trol of vaccine a d m in istra tio n Vaccine type and strain D iagnosis of IBD ■Verify verifica tio n and a d ju stm e n t o f vaccination schedule ■Control of vacrine administration ■Vaccine typ e and strain 90 YES i kS Further examinations take b lo o d sam ples d u rin g the visit and 2-3 w eeks later Laboratory S erological tests NO C ontrol fo r o th e r diseases .sym ptom s: nearly absent.vaccination schedule and type of vaccine Control for: . salm onella.presence of IBD in the area . atrophy of bursa of Fabricius (BF) Laboratory Virus isolation and histological lesions negative C ontrol fo r o th e r diseases: coccidia.

IBD Lesions lesions m bursa of F ab ricius an d in m uscles Presence of edema in the bursa of Fabricius Presence of haemorrhages in the bursa Haemorrhages in muscle Micrograph of a bursa of Fabricius in a normal chicken and in a chicken after infection | with IBD virus .

MAREK'S DISEASE Marek's disease (MD) NO C ontrol fo r o th e r diseases.Virus vaccinal type and strain .n eoplastic lesions in viscera and skin .nerve lesions YES Feather tip exam ination by AGD test D iagnostic and prog n ostic value for M D . p articula rly lym p h o id and m yelo id leucosis Clinic/Necropsy: .C ontrol of vaccine a dm in istra tio n in hatchery 92 .depression .leg paralysis .

in affected birds. compared with a normal nerve (at the top) V isceral le s io n s Neoplastic lesions as infiltrates or nodules in the liver due to MD Neoplastic lesions in the proventriculus due ro MD Skin lesions Skin nodules in a bird affected by MD Microscopic section of a lymphoma caused by MD. a precipitation line is observed between the central positive serum well and feather tips 93 . the lesion 15 characterized by a pleomorphic population of tumoral cell that infiltrate organs AGD test for diagnosis and prognosis of MD.MD Lesions Nerve lesions Characteristic leg paralysis in a 12 week old chicken due to MD Sciatic nerve lesion due to neoplastic infiltration caused by MD Vagal nerve lesion clue to neoplastic infiltration caused by MD.