electric power systems using the NewtonRaphson method. PhD thesis.
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Glasgow Theses Service
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UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW
Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
Dynamic Modelling and Simulation
of Electric Power Systems Using
the NewtonRaphson Method
by
Rodrigo Joel GarciaValle
A Thesis submitted to the
Department of Electronics and Electrical Engineering
of the
University of Glasgow
for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
c Rodrigo Joel GarciaValle
°
December, 2007
To my parents and sister,
for their hearten,
trust and love
To my beloved wife, Lorena
as a symbol of my love
and her forbearance
during this years
To my lovely daughter, Valeria
as a gift on her birthday.
Abstract
The research work presented in this thesis is concerned with the development of a dynamic
power flow computer algorithm using Newton’s method. It addresses both the development
of a positive sequence dynamic power flow algorithm for the dynamic study of balanced power
systems and a fullyfledged threephase dynamic power flow algorithm for the dynamic study
of power systems exhibiting a significant degree of either structural or operational unbalance.
As a prelude to the research work on dynamic power flows, a threephase NewtonRaphson
power flow algorithm in rectangular coordinates with conventional HVDC power plant modelling is presented in this thesis, emphasising the representation of converter control modes.
The solution approach takes advantage of the strong numerical convergence afforded by the
NewtonRaphson method to yield reliable numerical solutions for combined HVACHVDC
systems, where power plant and operational imbalances are explicitly taken into account.
The dynamic algorithm is particularly suited to carrying out longterm dynamic simulations and voltage stability assessments. Dynamic model representations of the power plants
components and the load tap changing transformer are considered, and to widen the study
range of dynamic voltage phenomena using this method, extensions have been made to include
induction motor and polynomial load modelling features. Besides, reactive power compensators that base their modus operandi on the switching of power electronic valves, such as the
HVDCVSC and the STATCOM are taken into account. The dynamic power flow algorithm
has primarily been developed making use of the positive sequence and dq representations.
Extensions are made to developing a threephase power flows dynamic algorithm.
Test cases for the various dynamic elements developed in this research are presented to
show the versatility of the models and simulation tool, including a trip cascading event leading
up to a widearea voltage collapse. Comparisons with the output of a conventional transient
stability program carried out where appropriate.
Prof. CONACyT Mexico. for the encourage and commitment given to me during all this period. talks and outdoors experiences spent together. I also fully appreciate the encourage and credence to me from my parents and sister during this long period. but also being critic judging my work. The National Council of Science and Technology. I would like to express my thankfulness to my friends and colleges. THANKS. To all of you I want to dedicate this space to express my gratitude. . Enrique Ortega and Carlos Ugalde for the time. I much appreciate their sincere friendliness. for helping me to forget about my problem being with you. Firstly. Maria Thompson. comprehension and encourage during latter years of hard work and sacrifices. He has always been up and keen to assist me at any time. Luigi Vanfretti and Rafael Zarate during their work visit at the University of Glasgow. I truly acknowledge to my wife Lorena. Without you I would not had done it. giving me the necessary guidance and advice. And last but not least. is gratefully acknowledge for the financial support provided during the research project. Enrique Acha. I would like to express my thankfulness for his sincere friendship. Sven Soell. I sincerely appreciate the collaboration work carried out by Federico Coffele. And to my daughter Valeria. Damian Vilchis. Mykhaylo Teplechuk.Acknowledgments The arduous effort that brings out doing a PhD thesis. to the working environment at the power system group at the department of electronics and electrical engineering and to its entire staff. my truthful greet to Pedro Roncero for his fruitful comments about my thesis and his worthwhile advice using LATEX. I want to acknowledge to my supervisor. will not be possible without the unestimated collaboration of many people. for her love.
. . 22 2.1 Modelling and data conditions . . . . . . . 6 1. . . . 21 Offline Functional Requirements . . . . . . . . 4 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . 35 2. 22 2. . . . .4. . . 39 . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Power Flows Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Objectives of the Project . .1 Steadystate stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 Dynamic Assessment 10 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. . . . . .4. . . . . . .2 Power flow equations . . . . . . . . 36 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2. . .4. . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Contingency analyses . . .2 Transient stability . .3 Literature Review .2 Background Review .1 The power flow problem formulation . . . . . . . 16 2. . . . 38 3. . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3. . . . . . . . . .3 Contributions . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 3 NewtonRaphson Power Flow Algorithm in abc Rectangular Coordinates 36 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 1 Introduction 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 The Trapezoidal Method . . . . . . . .2. .4 Stability Evaluation . . . 33 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Dynamic stability . .4 Outline of the thesis . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. 26 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. . . . .6 Dynamic Modelling Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . 61 3. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Test Case 1 . . . .3. . . . .5 HVDC Transmission Systems .Contents ii 3. . . . . . . . . . . . 101 4. . . . . . 45 3. . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 4. . . . . . . . . 60 HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Dynamic Load Tap Changer and Phase Shifting Transformer Modelling . .6. . . . . . . .2 Synchronous Machine Model . . . . 58 3. .1 Validation . . . . . . . . . . 40 3. . . 67 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Automatic voltage regulator . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Test case 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Advanced Representation . . . . . . 54 3. 77 4. . . . . . . . .6. . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . 79 4. . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 4 Dynamic Power Flows in Rectangular Coordinates 68 4. . . . . . 85 4. . . .Classical Representation . . . . . . 70 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Summary . . . . . . . . . 75 4. . . . . . . . . . 93 4. 52 3. . . 50 3.9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 4. . .6 Control mode C . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Control mode B . .1 Introduction . . 98 4. . . . . 83 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Time Domain Simulations . . . . . . .4 Voltage controlled bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Jacobian matrix formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4. . . . . . . .5. . . . . .2 Turbine .5 Network Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Test case 2 . .3 Test case 1 . . .3 Power System Loads . .4 Boiler .3 Linearised power equations . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Synchronous Machines Controllers . . . 74 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . 48 3. . . . . . . . . . . 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Numerical Evaluation of a Multiphase Power Network . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Governor . . . . . . . . . . .4 Synchronous Machine Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ThreePhase Power Equations . . . . . . . .2 A classical stability study . . . . . . . . . .5.3. . . . . . . . 95 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 4. 68 4. . .6 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Converter steady state modelling .4 Control mode A .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Transmission Line Model . . . . .8 Numerical Solution Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Summary . . . . . . . 79 4. . . . . . 59 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. .2 Test Case 2 . .
.5. . . . . . . 143 6. . . . . . . .5 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Dynamic Load Model .4 Test case 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 5. . . . . 160 Summary . . . . . . . 124 5. . .2 Dynamic threephase load tap changer model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Induction motor modelling . . .HVDC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 7. . . . . . .2 Test case 2 . . . . . . . . 114 Results . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Test case 1 .7 Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller . .1 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 5. . . . .2. . . . . .8 Test case 4 . . . . . . 165 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 6. . . . . .1 Polynomial representation . . . . . .2. . . .4 Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller . . . . . . . . . 146 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Test case 2 . . 111 5. . . . . . . . . 138 6 Modelling of FACTS Controllers 139 6.4. . . 169 . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . .4. .1 5. 139 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 STATCOM Modelling . . . . .1 Threephase synchronous machine modelling . . . . . . . . . 108 Static Load Model . . 108 5. . . . . .2 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) . . . . . . . . . . 155 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Test case 1 . .2 108 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 5. . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . 151 High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) . . . 121 5. 164 7 ThreePhase Dynamic Power Flows in abc Coordinates 165 7.5. . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . .6 VSCHVDC Modelling . .4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents iii 5 Power System Loads Modelling 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Voltage Source Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 6. . . . . . . .3 Test case 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 6. . . . . . . . . . 146 6. . 112 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 6. . . . . .1 Load Modelling Concepts . . . . . . .3 Frequency Load Model . . . . . . . . . 157 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . .2 Power System Modelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Test case 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exponential representation . . . . . . 121 5. . . 130 Summary . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Test case 1 . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3 Test case 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 7. .3 7. . . . . . . . .3. . . 173 Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Partial Derivatives . . . 178 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 8 Conclusions 8. . . . . . . . . .2 Test case 2 . . . . . .Contents 7. . . . . . . . . . 190 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 7. . . . .2 Discretised State Variables . . . . . . . .3. . . 211 C Power Networks Test Data 215 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 iv Threephase power loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 7. . . . .1 Jacobian Elements . . . 210 B. . . . 196 Bibliography 197 A HVDC Power Equations 206 B Jacobian Matrix Elements 210 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Test case 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . .1 195 Future work . . . . . 181 7. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . .1 Stable and unstable system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4. . . . . . . . . 61 3. respectively. . .5 Monopolar HVDC system. . . . 20 2. . . . 66 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Mode A. . . . 2 2. . . . . . . . . .2 IEEE simplified speed governor model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. . . . . . 49 3. . . . . 31 2. . .3 Time frame of various transient phenomena. . . . . . . . 65 3. . . 39 3. . . . 54 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Direct current of links 1 and 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4. . . .6 HVDCLCC monopolar converter station. . Control Mode B and C. .12 Firing and extinction angles of links 3 and 1. . . . . . . . . .2 Flow diagram for threephase power flows using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. . . . . . .1 Basic elements of a power system. . . . . . . . . .1 Threephase transmission line diagram. . . . . . . . . . 46 3. . . . . . . 32 3. . . . . 63 3. . . . . .7 Asymmetric threephase voltages. . . .4 Software environment to carry out static and dynamic power flows calculations. . . . . . 52 3. . . . . . . . . . .5 Flow diagram for dynamic power flows studies. . . . . . . .3 Oneline schematic representation of the 3 generators 9 buses power system. . . . . 23 2. . . . . . 65 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2. . . . . . Control Mode B and C. . . .2 Power angle characteristics. . . . 78 . . . . . . . . . .3 IEEE steam turbine model. . . . . . . . . .4 STA1 IEEE AVR model. . .10 Modified 16 generators power network. . . 52 3.11 Tap position of link 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. . . . . . .1 Synchronous machine scheme. . . . . . . . respectively. . . .9 Fivebus test network for threephase balanced conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Unbalanced converter voltage waveform. . . . . . . . .6 NewtonRaphson flow diagram for dynamic power flows calculations. . . . . . . 73 4. 53 3. . .4 Bus voltage magnitude for unbalanced loading conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .10 Discrete tap. . . . . . . . . . 82 4. . .30 Voltage magnitude at Bus 3. . . . . . . .18 δi responses to the fault. . . . . . . . .27 Oneline New England test system diagram. . . . . .15 Synchronous generators’ angular velocity. . . . . . . . . 105 4. 98 4. . . . . 100 4. . . . . . . . 122 5.26 Voltage magnitude at Buses 4. 100 4. . . . . .8 Airgap voltage profile. 84 4. .17 Bus voltage response to the fault. . . . . . . 7 and 9. . . . .3 Singlecage induction motor representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Dynamic load tap changer performance.5 Phasor diagram of synchronous generator in the transient state. . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.7 Transmission line representation. . . . . . . . . . .11 Bus voltage response to a load change. . . . . .20 Speed deviation ωi response to the fault. . . .12 PSAT simulation . . . . . . . . 95 4. . . . . .5 Bus voltage magnitude at Bus 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4. . . . . . . . . . .25 Dynamic Load TapChanger (DLTC) performance. .13 Electrical power deliver by generators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Dynamic load tap changer model. . . . . . . . . 101 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures vi 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 4.22 Synchronous generators’ mechanical power. . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4. . . . . . . . . . . . 112 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Active power injection at Bus 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 5. . . .6 Phasor diagram of synchronous generator in the subtransient state. . . . . 96 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 δi − δ1 response to the load change. . . 102 4. . . . . . . . . . 114 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Static load model representation.8 Tapchanger transformer equivalent circuit. . . . . . . . .28 Bus voltages’ response. . . . . . . . . . . . 84 4. . . . . . . 101 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Bus voltage response to a load change. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Simple load representation as ZIP loads. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Voltage magnitude for generator buses. . . . . . . . . . 125 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 5.19 δij differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4. 125 . . . . . . . .16 3 Generators 9 buses power system. . . . . 124 5. . . . . 106 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 4. . . . 99 4. . . . . . . . . . . .7 Reactive power injection at Bus 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4. . . . . . .23 Synchronous generators’ excitation voltage. . . . . . . .2 Induction motor equivalent circuit. . .24 Bus voltage magnitude. . . .9 Slip performance. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . .3 STATCOM block diagram. 148 6.List of Figures vii 5. .Loads with exponential indices equal to 1.. . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Slip performance of the induction motor. . 141 6. 152 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 132 5. . . 154 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 STATCOM voltage injection. . . . . . . . . . . . 147 6. . . . . . . 126 5. . . . . 136 5. . . . 151 6. . . . . . . . . . .7 Bus voltage profile for condition when NO STATCOM is placed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 5. . .15 Reactive power injected by the STATCOM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5. . . . .2 STATCOM model. . . . . . . . . . .12 Reactive power consumption by the induction motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Voltage magnitudes at N14. . .16 STATCOM voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Slip performance. . . . .6 STATCOM reactive power injection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Reactive power consumption of the induction motor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Bus voltage profile for condition when STATCOM is placed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Bus voltage profile . . . . . . . . .14 Bus voltage magnitude when no STATCOM device is connected. . . . . . 129 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 131 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Slip performance. . . . . . 130 5. . . . . . . . . . 143 6. . . . .22 Bus voltage profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Bus frequency deviation. 130 5. . . . . . . . 152 6. . . . 131 5. .13 Voltage magnitude comparison at Bus 14. . . . . 126 5. . . . . . . . . .11 Active power consumption by the induction motors. . . .24 Active power consumed by the induction motors. . . . . . . . . .Loads as induction motors. . . . . . . . 147 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Reactive power injection of the STATCOM. . . . . . . .20 Generators’ speed. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5. . . . . . . . 153 6. . 150 6. . . . . . . . . .14 Bus voltage magnitude at loadconnected buses. . . . . . . 150 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 5. . . 149 6. . . . . . 144 6. .19 Bus voltage profile. . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Slip performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 STATCOM oneline diagram. .21 Oneline New England test system diagram. . .4 Bus voltage response to a load change. . 133 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Reactive power consumed by the induction motors. . . . . .12 Bus voltage magnitude when STATCOM device is connected. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 5. . .11 STATCOM current absorbtion. . . . . . . . .16 Active power consumption of the induction motor. . . .10 Voltage magnitude injection of the STATCOM. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Generators’ field voltage. . . 153 6. . . . . . . . . . . 127 5.
. . .21 Rotor speed deviation under balanced condition. . . . . . . . . 187 7. . . . 158 6. . . . . . 158 6. . . . . .3 Schematic representation of the discrete tap changer. . . . . . . . .19 Angle differences under balanced condition. . . . 170 7. . . . . . .5 Stardelta transformer connection. . .13 Synchronous generators speed deviation under balanced loading conditions. . . . .20 Rotor speed deviation under unbalanced condition. . . . . .6 Deltadelta transformer connection. . . 162 6. . . .12 Synchronous generators speed deviation under unbalanced loading conditions. . . . .18 HVDC control block diagram for the rectifier stage. . . . .25 Phase c of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Rotor angle deviation under balanced loading conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 7. . . . . 172 7. . . . . . . .11 Threephase voltage magnitude at Bus 5 under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. . . . . . . .18 Angle differences under unbalanced condition. . 174 7. . . . . . . 185 7. . . . . . . . . 186 7. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Dynamic load tap changer model.22 Bus voltage magnitude for phase a under balanced condition. . 182 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Rotor angle deviation under unbalanced loading conditions. . . .10 Threephase bus voltage magnitude under balanced loading conditions.20 HVDC based VSC equivalent circuit. . . . .21 Bus voltage response of the power network. .17 HVDCVSC transmission link diagram. . . . . . . . 179 7. . . . . . .7 Starconnected load representation. . . . . . 189 . . . 171 7. . . . . .List of Figures viii 6. . . . 188 7. . . . . . 182 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 6. 185 7. . 187 7. . . . . . . . .17 Bus voltage magnitude under unbalanced condition. . . . . . . . . . . . 184 7. . . 180 7. . 168 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 7. . . . . . 171 7. .23 Phase a of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses. . . . . . 159 6. . . . . . . . . . . .22 Bus voltage magnitude at HVDC terminals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Dynamic load tap changer performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 6. 174 7. 183 7. . .23 Bus voltage magnitude at Bus 7. .24 HVDCVSC transferred power when dc link losses are considered. . . 183 7. . .24 Phase b of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses. . . . . . . . . .9 Threephase bus voltage magnitude under unbalanced loading conditions. . . . . . . . . . 181 7. . . . . . . .1 Schematic synchronous machine representation. 172 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Deltaconnected load representation. . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Starstar transformer connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 7. . . . . .16 Rotor angle differences under unbalanced loading conditions. .19 HVDC control block diagram for the inverter stage. . . . . . . . . 162 6.
. . . . . . . 192 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7. . . .32 Slip performance for threephase induction motor. . 190 7.27 Field voltage magnitude for synchronous generators . . . . . . . . . . .33 Voltage magnitude for induction motorconnected buses. . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures ix 7. . . . . . 207 . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Unbalanced converter voltage waveform. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 7. . . . . . . 192 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Threephase active power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 6. . . .31 Threephase reactive power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 6. . .30 Threephase reactive power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 A. . .28 Threephase active power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Six pulse converter station. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 49 3. . 64 3. . . . .9 Generation: Threegenerators. . . . . . .1 Unbalanced complex power loads.10 Power loads: Threegenerators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Parameters of Link 1. . . . .4 Power transformers: New England system . . . . . . .1 STATCOM parameters . . . 146 7. . . . . . . .7 Power loads: New England system . . . . . . . 219 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Bus voltages and generation results.2 Data for the HVDC link. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Power transformers: Threegenerators. . . . .7 Parameters of Link 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Generation: New England system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Tables 3. . . . . . . . . 218 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninebus system . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Power loads: Fivebus test system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 C. . . .2 Generation: Fivebus test system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninebus system .1 Final values for power loads. . . . . . . . . ninebus system . . . . . . . . . 216 C. . . . . . . . . 219 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3. .5 HVDC link control modes. . . . . . . ninebus system . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 3. . . .8 Parameters of Link 3. . . . . . 62 3. .1 Transmission line parameters: Fivebus test system . . . . 123 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 C. . . 62 3. . .8 Transmission line parameters: Threegenerators. . . . . . . 218 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Transmission line parameters: New England system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 C. . . . .4 Powers from generator buses and HVDC converters. . . . . . . . 179 C.1 Induction Motor Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List of Symbols and Acronyms Capital letters P Active power Pag Active power at the airgap Pl Active load power PdR Active power at the rectifier Ka Amplifier gain Ta Amplifier time constant Ae First ceiling coefficient Be Second ceiling coefficient Se Ceiling function I Complex current S Complex power V Complex voltage Iq Quadrature axis current Idq Axis armature current Id Direct axis current xi .
List of Symbols and Acronyms Idc Current at the dc link Ia Phase a current D Damping coefficient ∆−Y Deltastar connection Te Field circuit time constant BC1 Fire intensity BC2 Auxiliary variable K Governor gain Pgov Governor power T1 Governor time constant Zl Series impedance Yl Shunt impedance H Inertia constant J Jacobian matrix Tr Measurement time constant Mg Angular momentum abc abc frame of reference Pe Electrical power Pa Power of the synchronous generator Pm Mechanical power PM Equivalent mechanical input powers Pkm Active power through the phase shifter Pset Power set point xii .
List of Symbols and Acronyms Q Reactive power Qag Reactive power at the airgap QdI Reactive power at the inverter Ql Reactive load power Xr Rotors’ reactance Rr Rotors’ resistance Ysc Shortcircuit admittance matrix Kf Stabiliser gain Tf Stabiliser time constant Y −∆ Stardelta connection Y −Y Starstar connection SF Steam production Tk Tap ratio A Tap changer position HT Taps’ servomotor inertia P0 Target active power V0 Target voltage magnitude DP Throttle pressure 0 Tdo Transient time constant at the d axis 00 Tdo Subtransient time constant at the d axis 0 Tqo Transient time constant at the q axis 00 Tqo Subtransient time constant at the q axis FHP High pressure turbine power fraction xiii .
List of Symbols and Acronyms PHP High pressure turbine power FIP Intermediate pressure turbine power fraction PIP Intermediate pressure turbine power FLP Low pressure turbine power fraction PLP Low pressure turbine power TCH Steam chest time constant TCO Crossover or steam storage time constant TRH Reheat time constant Vd Voltage magnitude at the d axis Ea Excitation or behind the reactance voltage Ed0 Flux linkage voltage at the d axis Eq0 Flux linkage voltage at the q axis VdI Voltage at the inverter Vq Voltage magnitude at the q axis VdR Voltage at the rectifier Vr Regulator voltage Lowercase letters ra Armature resistance k3 Boiler gain dq0 dq0 frame of reference e Real part of the voltage f Imaginary part of the voltage xiv .
List of Symbols and Acronyms fag Imaginary voltage at the airgap it Iterations nbus Number of buses ngen Number of synchronous generators j √ Mathematical complex operator −1 k1 Constant associated with commutation overlap x0d Transient quadrature reactance at the d axis xd Direct axis reactance x00d Subtransient quadrature reactance at the d axis x0q Transient quadrature reactance at the q axis xq Quadrature axis reactance x00q Subtransient quadrature reactance at the q axis eag Real voltage at the airgap s Rotor’ slip y˙ State variable f0 Synchronous frequency x Vector of integrable algebraic variables y Vector of nonintegrable algebraic variables Greek symbols σ Acceleration α Firing angle ∆ Increment xv .
List of Symbols and Acronyms ε Roundoff error γ Extinction angle µ Exponential load model constant ν Exponential load model constant ρ Denote phases a. c θ Phase angle φk Phase angle mechanism on the primary side δ Power or rotor angle δ0 Initial power angle ω Synchronous generator speed ω0 Synchronous speed Acronyms ABB Asea Brown Boveri AC Alternate Current AVR Automatic Voltage Generator CCC Capacitor Commutated Converter ´ CIGRE ´ Conseil International des GrandsR´eseaux Electriques CPF Continuation Power Flows FPC Federal Power Commission NYPP New York Power Pool CPU Central Processing Unit DAE DifferentialAlgebraic Equations xvi . b.
List of Symbols and Acronyms DC Direct Current DLTC Dynamic Load Tap Changer FACTS Flexible Alternate Current Transmission Systems GTO Gate TurnOff thyristor SVC Static VAR Compensator HVDC High Voltage Direct Current IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IGBT Insulated Gate Polar Transistor LCC Line Commutated Current LTC Load Tap Changer NERC North American Electric Reliability Council ODE Ordinary Differential Equation OEL Over Excitation Limiter PES Power Engineering Society PSAT Power System Analysis Toolbox QSS QuasiStatic Simulation USA United States of America VSC Voltage Source Converter xvii .
diesel. at first sight. from a dynamic viewpoint. transmission lines. The transmission system is said to be the backbone of any electric power system and operates at high voltage levels (commonly. such as steam. 1994]. mix transmission structure and load capacity to serve. namely generating units. The generating stations may be far away from consumers centres and transmission lines make up the link between distribution systems. hydro.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. nuclear and internal combustion.1 Overview Electric power systems around the world are all of different sizes. residential and . 230 kV400 kV). transformers and loads. and generating units. Arguably. each having its own generation. all of them share similar construction and operating principles.5 kV. Industrial consumers are fed from primary feeders at these voltage levels. with four main elements becoming. Control and protection equipment have a vital function to play and they also constitute essential elements of the electric power system. more visible. generating units and loads are the most important elements of the electric power system.34. where the loads are. Nevertheless. which are driven by turbines of various kinds. Electric power is generated mainly using synchronous machines. Distribution voltage levels are typically in the range 4 kV . The generator voltages are in the range of 11 to 35 kV [Kundur.
transmission assets are being operated closer to their limits than ever before.1. Essentially. As a consequence. the limited supply of reactive power from synchronous generators and marked increases in system . Figure 1.47 kV 3 Phase primary feeder Distribution Small Generating Unit transformer 120/240 V Singlephase Secondary feeder Residential Commercial Figure 1.1: Basic elements of a power system.1 shows a oneline diagram with the basic elements of a power system. Overview 2 commercial consumers are supplied from secondary distribution feeders where the voltage levels are 400 volts for the threephase fed customers and 230 for the single phase ones (UK system). owing to financial and regulatory pressures which are thwarting the network expansion plans of many utilities around the world.1. G 22 kV 20 kV 500 kV 500 kV 230 kV G G 24 kV Tie line to neighTransmission system boring system 230 kV Trans Tie line mission 230 kV system 345 kV 500 kV Transmission To subtransmission and Bulk power distribution system Substation 115 kV Subtransmission Industrial consumer Subtransmission and distribution system Industrial consumer 115 kV Distribution substation G 12. a fact that weakens the network and makes it prone to developing voltage collapse conditions. The general perception is that transmission system used to be overengineered but that this is rapidly coming to an end.
Reactive power supply and demand must balance to maintain scheduled voltages. Operate the system in such a way that it remains in a reliable condition even if a contingency were to occur. Owing to the high social and economic costs that instances of voltage collapse carry. Generation and demand must balance continuously. the voltage collapse may engulf the entire power system or a large geographical area encompassing neighbouring systems. a local voltage instability may reach neighbouring equipment becoming more widespread and leading to a voltage collapse. Based on recent experience.1.1. Despite the techniques and methodologies available to keep blackouts and outages at . such as the loss of a key generation or transmission facility. If at a given point in time and space. Overview 3 load are factors that contribute to increase the likelihood of voltage instabilities. these adverse matters come together and the situation is not managed appropriately. Keep the system in a stable condition. the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) developed system and planning operator standards for controlling and avoiding such undesirable situations. 3. 7. 6. and maintain the system in such a way that it operates reliably. Monitor power flows transmission lines and other equipment to ensure that thermal (heating) limits are not exceeded. design. the power engineering community has made the study of this phenomenon a high profile issue. Plan. In extreme cases. gained from carrying out very detailed postmortum analyses of a series of major operational disasters which took place in the Autumn of 2003. The key recommendations of the NERC document are summarised as follows: 1. Prepare for emergencies. 4. an instance know by the public at large as a ”blackout”. 5. 2.
The technique possesses the advantage of being numerically stable. such as FACTS devices. a threephase dynamic power flow algorithm which considers the complete power system is developed in this research work. To try to incorporate a suitable representation of the impact that excessive imbalances have in the power system. Excessive imbalances in the phase voltages or currents of a threephase power system have always been a concern to power engineers. The software is robust and flexible enough to solve power networks undergo . single and threephase dynamic loads such as induction motors. A key aspect of paramount importance in this research is the development of new mathematical models and methods coded into software to carry out effective dynamic analyses of power networks. It is robust and capable of handling islanding and simultaneous faults. Objectives of the Project 4 bay. Machowski et al. a typical power system may contain untransposed transmission lines and feeders.2. capacitors banks and more advanced power electronics systems.. It must be said that the conventional methods of power systems simulation (transient stabilitylike algorithms) are known to incur problems when network islanding arises [Kundur. 1. most practising engineers concur that the most practical way to prevent blackouts from happening is to carry out comprehensive longterm voltage stability simulations. single and unbalanced threephase static loads. cogenerators. 1994. Such key advantage of the dynamic simulator developed in this research will be exploited to study blackouts and longterm dynamic assessments. transformers. in such a way that a simultaneous method becomes possible. Moreover.2 Objectives of the Project The main objective of this PhD project is to conduct research on the dynamic modelling.1. simulation and assessment longterm power system dynamics using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. 1997]. The solution algorithm combines the differential equations that represent the network dynamic with the algebraic equations that represent the static part.
Objectives of the Project 5 ing different circumstances.1. even when rather large integration time steps are used. . On the main. time domain dynamics simulations of nonlinear power systems in the combined use of the positive sequence and dq representations. The software developed is aimed at the study of longterm power systems dynamic when unfavourable conditions of the system are present. this PhD thesis is developed within the broad context of voltage stability. Again this contrast with the solution methods used in conventional transient stability application programs where the timedependent nodal currents at the generator nodes are injected into a nodal impedance matrix. in order to ensure numerically stable solutions. Hence. It describes fundamental concepts regarding power systems stability analysis. which may become necessary in the kind of studies that fall within the remit of this research. a simultaneous approach that uses the implicit trapezoidal rule in conjunction with the NewtonRaphson method is applied to carry out the time domain simulations. such as HVDCVSC and FACTS controllers. It has been observed in practice that voltage collapse phenomena may evolve over time scales that are several times the orders of magnitude of power systems phenomena studied with wellestablished transient stability application methods. electromechanicaltype transients and slow voltage oscillations. including steadystate operating conditions. The FACTS devices. These models are suitably combined with those of conventional sources of reactive power such as synchronous generators and those pertaining to a new bread of reactive power compensators that base their modus operandi on the switching of power electronic valves. including HVDCVSC control. focusing on aspects of dynamic modelling of power plat components. such as those looking at first and second swing assessments. The software developed in this research provides a flexible and robust test bed where the impact of traditional and emerging power system controllers on longterm dynamic simulations can be tested with ease.2. the load modelling and the synchronous machines have been all selected and modelled to be amenable with the objective of this research work.
implemented and applied to assess its impact on the voltage collapse phenomena. For completeness. • To widen the study range of dynamic voltage phenomena using the dynamic power flow algorithm. In general. as shown in this research. to enable suitable representation of the fast dynamic effects contributed by the synchronous generators. A flexible digital computer program has been written in MATLAB. Contributions 1.3. • A dq model of the synchronous generator with saliency and flux decay has been implemented within the dynamic power flow algorithm. which aid the power system response during both normal and abnormal operation. • A Static Synchronous Compensator model which takes account of the dynamics of the device is developed and suitably included into the dynamic power flow algorithm.1. • The implementation of a High Voltage Direct Current link model based on voltagesource converter is presented. VSCFACTS controllers are devices of great flexibility and speed of response. induction motor modelling features have been developed. • A discrete dynamic LTC transformer model suitable for the dynamic power flow algorithm has also been developed. This is a flexible simulation tool for the study of dynamic reactive power assessments and voltage stability phenomena.3 6 Contributions The main contributions of the research work are summarised below: • A complete methodology for a developing dynamic power flow algorithm using Newton’s method in rectangular coordinates has been developed. . • A general framework of reference for the solution of unified dynamic power flow solutions problems is presented. voltage and frequency dependant load models have also implemented.
three different control strategies for LCCHVDC links are developed. taking the following structure. 1.4. Chapter 2 outlines the main concepts involved in power system stability. . The justification for selecting a dynamic modelling approach to study power system contingencies and related problems of voltage stability is given. including this introductory chapter. using different control modes. the modelling and data required to carry out voltage stability assessments are discussed. it derives the nodal power flows equations. LCCHVDC are modelled on a threephase basis. The allimportant problem of contingency analyses is brought into discussion. In order to expand the flexibility representation of contemporary power systems. Test cases of unbalanced multiphase power networks are solved. the Jacobian matrix entries and the linearised threephase power flow equations. A global definition of the power system stability is given.1. Chapter 3 presents the theory of phase domain power flows using rectangular coordinates. Starting from first principles. The integration method applied in this research to solve the differential equations that characterise the electrical power systems is described.4 Outline of the thesis This PhD thesis is organised in 8 chapters. describing the main kinds of stability and their importance in power systems planning and operation. • A comprehensive and robust threephase power flow algorithm in rectangular coordinates is developed. To make this representation more realistic. In addition. Outline of the thesis 7 • A fullyfledged threephase dynamic power flow algorithm using abc coordinates is developed to study power networks with significant degree of unbalance. • Conventional LCCHVDC controllers with different control operating modes have been introduced.
validation results for the solution technique and some test cases are included. An induction motor load model and its inclusion into the dynamic power flow algorithm. The basic dynamic power flow algorithm is discussed in a comprehensive manner in this chapter. The traditional power system elements and the conventional synchronous machine representation with its classical controllers such as governor. A realistic tap changer transformer model for dynamic assessments taking due account of the discrete nature of the transformer tap. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the modelling and simulation of FACTS devices based on voltage source converters. The algorithm is suitably applied to the dynamic assessments of unbalanced power systems. Chapter 8 draws overall conclusions for this research work and suggests directions for . A classical transient stability study. and critically assesses the most popular static and dynamic load models used in stability analyses. Outline of the thesis 8 Chapter 4 focuses on the dynamic power flow algorithm using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. is clearly shown. An assessment of the response of the static load models and that of an induction motor model is presented.4. automatic voltage regulator and boiler are considered and suitably modelled within the dynamic power flow algorithm. Chapter 7 deals with the extension of the basic dynamic power flow algorithm into a full threephase dynamic power flow algorithm in ABC coordinates. Several case studies are presented using different load representations. is developed. where the control improvements in the power system response when the STATCOM and HVDC controllers are used. Several tests cases are solved. Chapter 5 deals with power system load modelling. turbine. is put forward.1. An advanced synchronous machine model which considers the transient saliency and flux linkages in each axis of the synchronous machine is implemented. It stresses the importance of load modelling in dynamic studies. The STATCOM and HVDCVSC are single out for development and their inclusion into the dynamic power flow algorithm. The dynamic load tap changer and the static and dynamic load models are expressed in ABC coordinates and implemented in the threephase dynamic power flow algorithm.
5. R. ”The Incorporation of a Discrete. Coffele. August 2007. Paper presented at the Power and Energy Systems EuroPES Conference IASTED. Lausanne. GarciaValle and E. Publications 9 future research work in this timely area of electric power systems. . 1. Dynamic LTC Transformer Model in a Dynamic Power Flow Algorithm”. Paper presented at the IEEE Power Tech Conference. July 2007. Palma de Mallorca. ”The Inclusion of HVDC Control Modes in a ThreePhase NewtonRaphson Power Flow Algorithm”. Acha.5 Publications During the process of this doctoral thesis and as part of it. Acha. Switzerland. GarciaValle and E. Spain. • F. the following publications have been generated.1. • R.
To be able to carry out these studies. This chapter deals with general aspects of power system stability. Stability studies. and it is very important to understand where the limits lays and how close to such limits the system can be pushed and still maintain normal operation. the results derived from any stability simulation directly relies on the mathematical models of each one of the devices taken into consideration. transient rotor angle and voltage stability studies are effective tools for the evaluation of power system performance under abnormal operating conditions. Besides.Chapter 2 Dynamic Assessment 2. A background and lit . such as small signal. Within its limits. voltage regulators and the broad number of control systems involved in the dynamic operation of power systems. prime movers. Thus. the usefulness of these studies is in the design and implementation of control strategies for the enhancement of the overall stability of the system. it becomes first necessary to use the adequate mathematical models of synchronous machines. all the equipment in the network naturally tends to operate in synchronism.1 Introduction The maintenance of stability between the rotating masses of all the synchronous generators in the power network and system load is an essential requirement for the operation any electrical power system.
The justification for the dynamic modelling. The Chapter concludes with a brief description of the trapezoidal method of integration. The integration method applied to solve the differential equations that characterise the electrical power systems is reported. 1991]. prepared a report for the president of the USA. land availability and economic constraints. with a recommendations to create the Northeast Reliability Council (NERC) and the New York Power Pool (NYPP). Knight. After such a disaster the Federal Power Commission (FPC). This blackout lasted for about 19 hours. limited transmission expansion. 2. . One of the most sever power failures in history was experienced in November 1965 in the United Stated.2. 2001]. affecting millions of people.2 Background Review Power systems around the world are being faced with great many challenges concerning overall system security. The main technical reason behind the disturbance was the faulty setting of a relay and the resulting tripping of one of five heavily loaded 230kilovolts transmission lines [IEEE Power Engineering Review. 2004. as well as promoted the reliability of bulk electric utility systems in North America. reliability and stability issues because of the unprecedented increase in electricity demand. Background Review 11 erature on the subject are presented to lay the ground for the description and classification of power system stability phenomena.2. together with the modelling and data set required to carry out voltage stability assessments are presented. and the fact that new power plants are not being built close to the population centers because of environmental. exemplify these issues rather well. Several major blackouts [US . simulation and analyses is presented towards the end of the chapter. Both institutions have developed industry standards for equipment testing and reserve generation capacity. which was the regulatory body overseeing the American power system at the time.Canada Power System Outage Task Force.
the Bronx. a new outage occurred in 1977 in New York city. These system failures took the industry by surprise since generation from the Pacific Northwest had been at its all time peak. many others widearea voltage collapses have happened in the USA. Following these events. the USA underwent another two largescale blackouts. Such adverse combination of conditions led to a widearea voltage collapse in the Consolidated Edison system. inadequate presentation of data to system dispatchers and communication difficulties [Corwin and Miles. A case in point is Italy. two transmission lines coming from France came out of operation. Queen and Westchester Country. mal operation of protective devices. fortunately the consequences were not as severe as the previous two. with the exception of the island of Sardinia [Commission de R´egulation de L’´energie. Nevertheless. All of this led to the new fatal blackout.2. and a voltage depression in the Southern Idaho system. Within the last five years. the generation capability and the power transfer from Canada to the USA was at almost peak value but the weather was very warm. which is a country highly dependent on electricity supplies from neighbouring countries. resulting the remaining lines in corridor becoming overloaded. Over a period of time. in the months of July and August of 1996. Background Review 12 Notwithstanding all this effort. Furthermore. 2004]. Brooklyn.2. This outage affected more that 4 million people in the USA and even in some parts of Mexico. the faulty operation of a ground unit of an analogue electronic relay. The new blackout was a consequence of a combination of natural phenomena. Following on the steps of these two large blackouts. events turned for the worst. For the case of the July’s blackout. In August 1996. the whole of Italy suffered a power outage. The blackout occurred due to branches of a tree falling on a 380kV transmission line coming from neighbouring Switzerland. . the power grid started to overload due to insufficient generation. a series of blackouts have struck many countries around the world. the Consolidate Edison system is one of the 8 members of the New york Power Pool (NYPP) and it supplies electricity to five regions of New York city Manhattan. the main reason was a flashover in a tree and near a 345kV line. 1998].
2.2. Background Review
13
Another recent, is the blackout that took place in London, where the system failure was
traced to a wrongly installed fuse at a key power station. [National Grid, 2003].
The latest most recent blackout took place, once more in the USA. This outage has
been attributed to the loss of generation in Cleveland power station which was, in turn,
due to the sequential loss of three overloaded 345kV transmission lines in Ohio, South of
Cleveland. The unbalance between load and generation produced a cascading effect leading
to the blackout [US  Canada Power System Outage Task Force, 2004].
Other key aspects which are making the system more fragile, is the way in which the interconnected system is being operated, transferring power in large blocks from generation excess
areas to generation deficit points, thus leading to increased transmission congestion problems.
Power system operators are constantly dealing with the challenge of operating their systems
in a secure manner, while taking into account the uncertainty in demand and supply and the
availability of enough security margins. Thus, offline system studies are performed to ensure
the overall system security ahead of time. In addition to the static application studies dealing
with the constrained optimal operation of the network, dynamic studies are also carried out.
These are mainly classified into voltage stability analysis and angle stability analysis, based
on short, mid and longterm stability studies. These dynamic studies are based on power
system models that are represented by differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs); by necessity,
these mathematical models are based on approximate system representation and limited data,
since obtaining comprehensive and reliable data for a power system is a rather troublesome
task [Concordia and Ihara, 1982].
In spite of the many investigations into methods of assessing voltage stability such as,
Liapunov’s method, continuation power flows, extended equalarea criterion, bifurcation analyses, a different way to approach this issue is the use of simultaneously solution techniques.
This method is numerically more stable than the traditionally solution algorithms, robust
and inherent capable of handling islanding and fault analyses [Gear, 1971b, Rafian et al.,
1987].
2.3. Literature Review
14
This thesis studies various issues regarding offline modelling of power system, i.e. longterm stability analysis, which are associated with phenomena that may lead to significant
problems in power systems. The possibility of predicting the voltage collapse using these
system simultaneous solution technique combined with the NewtonRaphson method is explored, as the dynamic effect of the different system plant components, load modelling and
FACTS devices models on the unified frameofreference.
2.3
Literature Review
Over the years, various computational methods have been developed to carry out offline and online security assessments of the power system enabling prediction and corrective
actions of problematic dynamic system instances.
These tools have been developed to carry out more realistic dynamic reactive power system
margins and voltage collapse assessments. The existing computer programs use one of the
following approaches: QuasiStatic Simulation (QSS), Continuation Power Flows (CPF).
The QSS uses a suitable combination of detailed dynamic models and simplified steady state
models [Van Cutsem and Vournas, 1998]. The sdomain is used to access the problem of
voltage collapse from a dynamic perspective; carrying out sensitivity analyses to determine
the nature of the equilibrium point with data information obtained from a state estimator
[IEEE Power Engineering Society, 2002]. Continuation power flows takes the approach of
tracing the PVcurves to determine the critical equilibrium point [Qin et al., 2006].
In spite of the great numerical robustness, modelling capabilities and software flexibilities
of these application tools, they may not be able to take into account the full dynamics of
power system elements. Besides, these simulation approaches may not be able to incorporate
protection action, the long term dynamics response of the system after shortcircuit events
and when islanding conditions. These factors are important issues to be considered when
carrying out voltage stability assessments.
2.4. Stability Evaluation
15
An alternative solution approach for the study of voltage phenomena based on full time
domain simulations is developed in this thesis. It is a unified framework where the power
flows representation of the network is combined with the dynamic models of the power system
to enable combined solutions at predefined discrete time steps using the NewtonRaphson
method. The result is a dynamic power flows algorithm where all dynamic components in
the power system are fully taken into account.
These offline tools may be used by system operators to gain information on available
security margins and in taking proper corrective actions to overcome system problems.
2.4
Stability Evaluation
Power system stability is a term denoting a condition in which the various synchronous
machines of the system remain in synchronism with one another [Kimbark, 1948a]. The
´ joint Task Force on stability [IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability
IEEE/CIGRE
Terms and Definitions, 2004] has defined the problem of power system stability as follows:
”Power system stability is the ability of an electric power system, for a given initial operating condition, to regain a state of operating equilibrium after being subjected to a physical
disturbance, with most system variables bounded so that practically the entire system remains
intact.”
Power system stability has always been recognized as an important issue for secure system
operation [IEEE/CIGRE Joint Task Force on Stability Terms and Definitions, 2004], and
the many blackouts caused by system instability highlight the importance of the problem
[IEEE Power Engineering Review, 1991, Anderson et al., 2005]. As power systems have
evolved through continuing growth in voltage and power rating and interconnections have
sprawled, different forms of stability have emerged. Hence, a classification of the problem of
power system stability has become necessary. This is a key issue which needs to be clearly
understood to be able to properly design, operate and control an electrical power system.
2.4. Stability Evaluation
16
The current steadystate stability consensus is that power system stability can be classified
into steadystate stability, transient stability and dynamic stability.
2.4.1
Steadystate stability
During the normal operation of a power system, the total load is undergoing constant and
relatively small fluctuations, the generators adjusting to maintain the load at the specified
frequency. When the loading of a power system is greater than the normal working level, the
fluctuations become more significant. A limit is reached when the transfer of synchronism
power cannot increase and a further small increase in loading causes a loss in synchronism
between generators or groups of them. This point is known as the steadystate stability
limit. The power transfer between two machines varies, approximately, with terminal voltage
and the size of the angle between the voltages and inversely with the transfer impedance as
described in Eq. 2.1. This approximation is known as the power angle characteristic.
P '
V1 V2
sinδ
X
(2.1)
From Eq. 2.1, when the angle δ takes the value of zero there is no power transferred
between the associated elements. As soon as a power transferred conditions exists, the angle
is increased and after a certain angle, normally 90◦ , an additional increment in angle will
produce a reduction in power transferred [Kundur, 1994]. Thus, there is a maximum steadystate transfer capability between the involved elements. This condition is only valid when
there is no more than two elements, i.e. a synchronous generator and a static load. For
the case when more than two elements are considered, the power power transferred and
the angular deviation are a function of generation and load distribution. At this point, an
angular separation of 90 degrees between any two synchronous generators has no particular
significance [Stevenson Jr, 1982, Kundur, 1994].
The damping of a generator is also a very important factor in maintenance stability. When
transients due to load fluctuations die out. but it may only apply to systems of no more than generators. By making excitation a function of the power output. when it has a value equal to zero. due to the inertia of its rotating parts. 1982] and does not require an explicit solution of the generator’s swing equation. Stevenson Jr. 1948a.2 Transient stability When a change in load occurs. The system is unstable if the angle of a synchronous generator or between any two of them tends to increase without limit. There is a simple and direct method for assessing the stability of the system. To identify if the system is stable after a disturbance it is necessary to solve the generator’s swing equation. The swing equation describes the synchronous generator rotor dynamics through a differential equation of the form: . the oscillations increase and the angle between voltages eventually exceed the limit. the synchronous generator cannot respond immediately. Stability Evaluation 17 the damping is positive.4. the machines could remain stable and when negative.4. 2. which in turn varied the steadystate stability limit. The addition of an automatic voltage regulator improves the stability of a synchronous generator. the terminal voltage is varies. Some simplifying assumptions are: • The mechanical power is constant • The synchronous generator is represented by a voltage source of constant magnitude behind a transient reactance. the system may be stable. It is know as the equalarea stability criterion [Kimbark. On the other hand. if the angle reaches a maximum value and then decrease.2.
Therefore the stability is checked by monitoring the rotor speed deviation dδ dt .1 where an unstable and a stable condition are presented. The key concept behind the equalarea criterion is illustrated in Fig.4. dd =0 dt Unstable Stable d1 d0 t Figure 2. δ increases indefinitely with time and the machine loses synchronism. which eventually disappear because of damping. to the synchronous speed. In the unstable case. Stability Evaluation 18 d2 δ = Pa dt2 (2.2) Pa = Pm − Pe (2. d d2 dδ dt = 0. i.1: Stable and unstable system. Pe is the electrical power.2. which must be zero at some point.e. It is clear that in the stable case the gradient od the δcurve reaches a value of 0. the stable case undergoes oscillations. In contrast.3) M where δ is the rotor angle. Pm is the mechanical power. M is the inertia constant. this means that: with respect . 2. Pa is the accelerating power.
For the criterion for stability stability given by Eq. 2.4. A1 = A2 (2.6) In a multimachine system a definite criterion for stability is not so easily defined. It is assumed that the machine is connected to a large power system and there is also a constant field current which maintains the internal voltage constant.2. 1999]. Assuming the inertia of the synchronous machine to be constant and a slight value of damping. At this position. the system as a whole is relatively stable [Kundur. Point a. at point b.5) The method is illustrated with reference to Fig. 2. Pa . Frequent drifts of generators do occur and whilst each machine considered individually would be appeared to be unstable. 1994.5 and with reference to Fig. the initial steadystate operating point. Thus. corresponding to δ0 .2 it can be stablished that Z Z δi δ0 (Pi − Pmax sin δ) dδ = δ2 δ1 (Pmax sin δ − Pi ) dδ (2. Pavella . the accelerating power. the rotor establishes to the point b. 2. Pa is negative and δ finally reaches a maximum value δ2 or point c and then swings backwards b. Pi = Pe and δ = δ0 . is equal to the developed power Pe0 .4) This condition requires that. the positive (or accelerating) area under the graph must be identical to the negative (or decelerating) area [Nasar and Trutt. When a sudden increase of the input power Pi occurs due to a large change in the network. becomes positive and the rotor moves towards point b. the input power to the machine. At this moment. Pi0 . which is the new steadystate stable operating point. the rotor accelerates and the power angle begins to increase. Hence.2. for stability. Stability Evaluation 19 Z δ δ0 Pa dδ = 0 (2. the area under the graph of accelerating power Pa versus δ must be zero for some value of δ.
The generators accelerate because of power unbalance between the mechanical and the electrical powers. Normally faults are cleared quickly by opening the circuit breakers before the clearing critical time.. but the most onerous is normally a threephase shortcircuit. it is necessary to prolong the study to ensure that interactions between synchronous generator swinging do not induce instabilities in other generators during the second or third swing. . 1997]. and Murthy. Transient stability studies are usually performed for a frame time of a few seconds following the disturbance.2: Power angle characteristics. The most common fault is that of a singlephase being shortcircuited to ground.4. 1995. if the system firstswing is stable. In the case of two machine systems. Machowski et al. When a fault occurs the transfer impedance rises instantaneously to a new value and the powerangle curve changes. then stability is usually assured. Stability Evaluation 20 P Pmax c Pe = Pmax sin d b Pi P A2 A1 a Pi 0 d0 d1 d2 d Figure 2. For multimachine systems.2. The problem of stability during the transient period is usually most acute when faults occur in the electrical network. the amplitude of the oscillations are usually diminishing and if the system is still stable there is little chance of later instability. By the end of the the third swing.
then a voltage reduction occurs which causes the motor to slow down. lasting up to tens of minutes of time phenomena representation.4. which in turn may experience further instability. or in a sequence of such changes. This situation has become more pronounced recently as large blocks of power are transmitted over very long distances. This will cause an increment of current and reactive power flowing into the motors and a further voltage decrement will follow. it is unstable and the system may be divided into disconnected subsystems. During the dynamic stability. This is a voltage instability phenomena. may cause instability. A transient period occurs when this equilibrium state is disturbed by a sudden change in input. If for any reason the transfer impedance between the synchronous generators and an induction motor load increases. If it does not. the system is transiently stable if after a transient period. small perturbations such as those normally experienced in a powersystem.2.4. Dynamic stability of power systems is a nonlinear phenomenon which arises from the fact that generators are operated in a parallel structure and during steadystate they are operated in synchronism. In studies of this type the simulation time is very long. Stable operation of a power system depends on the ability to continuously match the electrical output of generating units to the electrical load of the system. there is a very common scenery called outages of voltage . It is possible in a situation like this that the voltage may collapse in the vicinity of the load.3 21 Dynamic stability When a system is working close to the stability limit even or when operating in a dynamically stable region. The model of the system for dynamic stability studies must be very accurate and the software used for the study must include components not normally modelled in software used for transient stability studies. maintaining synchronism. The evaluation of a power systems’ ability to cope with large disturbances and to survive transitions to normal or acceptable operating conditions it is termed transient stability assessment. Stability Evaluation 2. the system returns to a steady condition. load. structure.
2. should bare in mind the timescale for the problem at hand. Traditionally. unfavourable weather conditions or poor reactive power supply.5. Modelling and simulation are issues of paramount importance in the design and operation of any power system. simulations are a fast and economic method to conduct studies in order to analyse the system performance and this type of devices. it is possible to develop a simulation model which consider all the dynamic phenomena.1 Offline Functional Requirements Modelling and data conditions Experimentation with power system components is expensive and time consuming. therefore. whereas the latter ones are described by unscheduled events such as wrong relay coordination scheme. Due to the great electrical and mechanical stress that these devices support during transient conditions.3 shows the main areas for the power systems’ dynamic assessment [Arrillaga and Watson. 2. Fig. Correct modelling selection. the design of these components relies on the dynamic characteristics of these elements. Offline Functional Requirements 22 collapse.5 2. Historically. from the fast inductive/capacitive effects of the network. . In principle at least. The first ones are mainly related to the maintenance of equipment or upgrade of the power network. Power system elements should be designed to endure overvoltages and faults. Power flow analyses allows simulation of a snapshot of time. This approach was satisfactory since these problems have been governed by essentially static or timeindependent factors. power and reactive power flow problems have been analysed using static power flow programs. 2. planned and unplanned outages. This outages can be divided into two major groups. power system engineers have used two main classes of programs for analyses of bulk power systems performance: 1) power flows and 2) transient stability. 2002]. to the slow effects associated with plant dispatch. but this would be a very hard task and it is not done in practice.5.
3: Time frame of various transient phenomena. Dynamic issues. etc Power System Phenomena Daily load following Tieline regulation Long term dynamics Transient stability Subsynchronous resonance Switching Lightning 107 105 103 101 1 cycle 101 103 105 1 second 1 minute 1 hour 1 day Timescale (seconds) Figure 2. Static analyses involve only the solution of algebraic equations and are therefore. such as first swing transient stability problems have normally been ad . Static analyses are ideal for the bulk of studies in which voltage stability limits for many precontingency and postcontingency cases must be determined. SVC.2. computationally much more efficient than dynamic analyses.5. Offline Functional Requirements 23 Power System Controls Operator actions LFC Prime mover control Protection Generator control HVDC.
and corresponding variables will remain constant. Offline Functional Requirements 24 dressed using transient stability programs. yet frequently evolves very slowly. These component models and the accompanying solution algorithms are suitable for analyses of phenomena from tens of milliseconds up to several seconds. Conventional analytical tools. The recent emergence of a new class of computer simulation software provides utility engineers with powerful tools for analysis of longterm dynamic phenomena. Therefore. timedomain simulations are time consuming in terms of CPU and are essentially for postmortem analyses and the coordination of protection and control. Sekine and Ohtsuki. 1990. by enforcement of their steadystate response. 2002. Conversely. These programs ordinarily include dynamic models of the synchronous machines with excitation systems. which is based on algebraic considerations. Power flow analysis will take into account all these effects. Hill. heavily compensated power systems. It has been argued that slower acting devices such as generator over excitation limiters (OEL) and the characteristics of the system loads will contribute to the evolution of a voltage collapse [IEEE Power Engineering Society. In actual practice. voltage stability has emerged as the limiting consideration in many systems. 1993. The ability to perform longterm dynamic simulations with detailed dynamic modelling permits more accurate assessment of critical power system problems than what it is possible with conventional power flows and transient stability programs. thus leaving voltage collapse in a nomansland between these two analytical domains. from the perspective of a transient stability program. as well as other dynamic models.2. The phenomenon of voltage collapse is dynamic. including power flows and transients stability programs may . the most effective approach for studying voltage instability is to make use of an analytical technique which consider the full dynamics of an electrical power network. With the evolution of modern. turbines and governors. neither of these assumptions can be relied upon.5. However.. 1998]. such as loads and fast acting devices. transient stability analysis will typically assume that these phenomena are slow. Anrborg et al.
So then. The dynamic nature of the aggregate system load.5. This modelling technique will give utility engineers the ability to conduct studies that reflect the behaviour of the systems in a more realistic manner. in terms of the overall system response. long term dynamic simulations require good models of the slow dynamics associated with voltage collapse and also the modelling of important slow acting controls and protective devices. Generally. A contingency may be initiated by a small disturbance. High fidelity simulations are dependent on good representation of all these elements. load behaviour is a main part of longterm dynamic modelling.5. load tapchanger transformer control and shunt compensation plays a key role in the progress of a voltage collapse. so that they will be .2 Contingency analyses A contingency consists of one or more events happening simultaneously or at different instants of time. Moreover.2. the change in characteristics between the transient and the longterm period. that is. the interaction of customer loads and system equipment such as generator protection. Specifically. Offline Functional Requirements 25 not be particularly well suited to the analyses of all voltage stability problems. has important consequences for analyses of voltage stability. It is impractical and unnecessary to analyse in detail the impact of every conceivable contingency. with each event resulting in a change in the state of one or more power system elements. Modelling of frequency dependence of the loads may therefore be as important as voltage dependence. It is required therefore to define a reliable list of contingencies and provide the capability to screen and select those most likely to cause problems. 2. only a limited number of contingencies might impose a immediate threat to voltage stability and these might be different from the ones impacting on transient stability. or a switching action. which may be a fault. There is a strong relationship between the load modelling and the modelling of other system components.
6 Dynamic Modelling Philosophy Before it is possible to study the methods of solving the electrical powersystem stability problem. it should contain generator and governor dynamics. Besides. while others can be made only where it leads to a pessimistic result. The classical model of a synchronous machine is that of a fixed voltage magnitude behind a reactance. This model was adequate for investigations of multimachine stability performance . 2. • Generator tripping. Engineering judgement must be used to establish the approximations. preferably with automatic time step adjustment. Some of the approximations have selfcancelling effects and can be justified. tap changing time delays and prime mover dynamics mainly. The approximations are necessary harder to avoid the expense of an overelaborate model which would require an unduly large programme using excessive computer storage and execution time. Another reason for the approximations is that data on the elements of the powersystem is limited and the models should reflect this limitation. which can safely be made in order that the model behaves in a similar manner to the actual system.6. For contingency analyses. the dynamic simulation should be able to analyse both fast and slow dynamics. it is necessary to adequately define the elements of the system in such a manner that a time solution is both feasible and practical.2. The following types of switching operations should be considered as a contingency: • Breaker opening/closing. • Load shedding. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 26 addressed in detail.
When digital computers became available it was possible to further improve the results by including damper winding and speed governor models. and may be divided into two groups. The set of equations that describe the system for stability studies may be more involved. It led to pessimistic results often indicated that the system was unstable when in practice it maintained stability. moving on from the constant impedance representation to include constant power and constant current types. Differential equations are used to describe the rotational motion of synchronous generators and induction motors. This together with the inclusion of automatic voltage regulators (AVR) actions. yields an algebraicdifferential initial described as: . To compensate for the increased accuracy of the generator models. Models of machines close to large disturbances were made more accurate accounting for changes in the flux linkages in the field winding. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 27 before the advent of digital computers. the representation of loads was also improved. improved results by a considered margin. Combing the two sets of equations.2. and their controllers. Algebraic equations therefore describe the network very well for the range of phenomena which are of concern in this research. corresponding to the active and reactive powers injected at the nodes of the network. Similarly variables associated with the algebraic equations may be referred to as algebraic or nonintegrable variables. If only steadystate performance of the networks is on interest. The electrical network responds very rapidly to changes and a good assumption is that the response is instantaneous.6. large induction motors were beginning to be modelled in a similar fashion to synchronous machines. the slowly changing voltages representing the internal characteristics of the machines. it is standard to model the networks by a set of nonlinear equations. These equations are linearised around a base operating point determined by the system load powers and the mechanical/electrical power contributed by the generators in the system. Variables associated with the differential equations must be solved using a suitable integration method and may be referred to as integrable variables. Moreover.
In consequence. This is followed by a combined solution of Eq.6. This approach is termed simultaneous approach method.7.8) where x and y are vectors of integrable and nonintegrable algebraic variables.8 consists of network equations and the stator equations of all synchronous generators transformed into the network reference frame. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 28 y˙ = F (y. 2. The most common way of solving the sets of Eq. 2. Ca˜ nizares.8. The two set of equations are codependent so then the solution technique should be a simultaneous one for high solution reliability. y) (2. Pavella and Murthy.. The differential equations are transformed into algebraic equations and combined with the network algebraic equations. Claudio A. 1998. Eq. Machowski et al. The other solution approach consists in solving the algebraic and differential equations at the same time. Arrillaga. 2.2. 1995.7) 0 = G (x. The starting conditions for the stability simulations are determined by using only the algebraic set Eq. is to use the partitioned method.8 to carry out power system dynamic assessments. Van Cutsem and Vournas. and it is termed partitioned method. In power system research there are two main approaches proposed to carry out the solution of Eq. Eq. 2. This remark . 1997. 2.7 is a collection of separate subsets. 1994. 2. 2. 1995]. the objective of the dynamic assessment is to solve x and y as a function of time. Since each generator is coupled to the power plants only through a single connecting bus of the network. 1998.7 and Eq.8 [Stott.8 as a function of time. x) (2. 1979]. 2. to be able to carry out the dynamic assessments. In the first approach the solution of the algebraic and differential equations is carried out in an independent fashion.7 and Eq. Equation 2. 2. comprises the differential equations of all synchronous generators and their controllers.7 and Eq. The open literature offers a rich list of solution techniques [Kundur.
In either case.6. dynamic loads. As a first approach. and FACTS controllers. It contains four main blocks. a dynamic power flow algorithm using the trapezoidal rule and the NewtonRaphson technique has been developed. where the simultaneous method is applied very elegantly [Rafian et al. This technique approaches the problem by modelling only the slow dynamics. developed a technique for voltage stability using a simultaneously method. bring out a reliable simultaneously technique for voltage stability assessment. loads. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 29 applies to both academic and commercial software alike. this algorithm has been extended to the phase coordinates system to cover situation of natural imbalances in the power network and also cases of unbalanced loading. converting them into algebraic equations. turbinegovernor. the balanced of the unbalanced solution approach. boiler). Moreover. there are two notable exceptions.. which is based mainly in the simultaneous solution of the differentialalgebraic equations (DAEs) [Gear. Van Cutsem and Vournas. enabling quasistatic simulation (QSS). 1987]. 1987. Figure 2. For instance. 1998]. such as generation. The most important power plant components which should be modelled dynamically for dynamic voltage assessments are: the synchronous generators and their controls (AVR. The second block encompasses a list of faults and perturbations which are predefined during the simulation study. In the third block.4 depicts the general algorithm developed during this research project. 1998]. load tapchangers and phaseshifters. while the fast dynamics are neglected. the solution of static power flows in rectangular coordinates is carried . Van Cutsem [Van Cutsem and Vournas. The first one makes provisions for all the relevant data related to the power network. The solution technique adopted for voltage stability assessment in this work is a simultaneous method.. 1971b. loadtap changers and FACTS equipment. as referred to by the author. Rafian et al. the differential equations are discretised and transformed into algebraic equations ensuing that the discretised equations are in such a way that can be solved in conjunction with the algebraic equations.2.
the dynamic assessment block presented in Fig. LTC. the blocks where the differential equations are discretised using the trapezoidal rule are established. out.6. The last block describes the dynamic power flow algorithm. block represented by Fig. FACTS controllers Fault Data Conditions Static Power Flow Calculations Dynamic Power Flow Calculations Figure 2. This block is further described in the following chapter.2. Generation. Fig. .5 presents a more descriptive diagram of it. Besides.5. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 30 DATABASE Network. 2. 2. Loads. At this flow diagram.4: Software environment to carry out static and dynamic power flows calculations.
6. 2.5: Flow diagram for dynamic power flows studies. .2. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 31 Set time t = 0 Electromechanical Calculations Power Plant Components Calculations Dynamic Load Tap Changer settings Induction Motor settings Dynamic STATCOM settings Dynamic VSCHVDC settings Advance time t = t + Dt ThreePhase Fault &Perturbations function Dynamic Assessment with full detail in Fig.6 Power Flows Calculations Check VSCFACTS limits Save Data Figure 2.
2.6. Calculated nodal powers Calculated power for VSCFACTS devices Static load modelling features Calculate Jacobian elements Extend Jacobian to incorporate the dynamic effects from the Synchronous Generators. LTC and VSC FACTS controlles Calculate Mismatch vector Advance iteration k=k+1 Check convergence YES Out of function NO Solve for state variable corrections Update state variable vector Figure 2.6 presents the NewtonRaphson algorithm for the dynamic process. Induction Motors. Dynamic Modelling Philosophy 32 2.6: NewtonRaphson flow diagram for dynamic power flows calculations. .
The trapezoidal method is derived from the general multistep equation. Lapidus and Seinfeld. The solution at the end of n + 1 steps is given by: yn+1 = yn + hn+1 (y˙ n+1 + y˙ n ) 2 (2. and has gained recognition as a very powerful method.9) i=0 where αi and βi are constant. This is specially true in the solution of ODEs where the choice of method can make the difference between good and bad results.7 33 The Trapezoidal Method Prior to the advent of digital computers only a few methods of solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs) were practical. RungeKutta and Euler. 1971a. Thus the trapezoidal . GaussSeidel.7. Gear. forming an algebraic equation. numerical analyses has become very important. The stability of a method for the solution of ODEs is of great importance and has received a great deal of attention [Gear.9 by a (3) 1 3 Taylor’s series. 2. The accuracy of the method may be determined by expanding each term in Eq. having great advantages over the more traditional methods such as Gauss. 1971. 1972]. 1971b. The lowest nonzero coefficient is for yn and is − 12 h . 1972]. k X αi yn−i+1 + h i=0 k X βi y˙ n−i+1 = 0 (2. Each problem requires special consideration in order to get the best available solution method. The solution can be made directly if the derivative can be replaced by the differential equations. not only to the mathematicians but also to the scientists and engineers. Hand calculation precluded the use of complex formulae and also made large system studies impossible. Since then. The implicit trapezoidal integration method has been used as a method of solving the multimachine transient stability problem [Dommel and Sato. The Trapezoidal Method 2. Williams. and with k equal to unity it becomes a single step method.2.10) This is implicit and requires an iterative solution.
The two are equivalent when the method is linear but may not be equivalent otherwise. With the more traditional methods. the method is sigmastable (multivariable version of Astability). single step methods.11) where εn+1 represents the roundoff error at the n + 1th step. The trapezoidal method is therefore Astable. The Trapezoidal Method 34 method has second order accuracy and the true solution may be given as: y(xn+1 ) = yn + ´ h ³ (1) yn+1 + yn(1) + 0(h3 ) + εn+1 2 (2.14) with y(0) = y0 is where If <(λ) < 0 then 0 ≤ bn+1 ≤ 1 and z1  ≤ 1. The great advantage of this method is that the solution of all the variables is simultaneous.7. interface errors occurred due to the out of step solution of the two groups of variables in the problem. .2. y˙ = λy (2. Back Euler and the trapezoidal method are sigmastable.13) hn+1 ¢ bn+1 = ¡ hn+1 − λ2 (2. The characteristic root of the method when applied to the ordinary differential equations is. This means that the method has an infinite stability boundary (unconditionally stable).12) z1 = (1 − 2bn+1 ) (2. The trapezoidal method is linear and thus in a multivariable problem. using explicit integration methods. like the power system stability problem.
Summary 2. The data modelling which is an issue of noteworthiness for voltage stability studies is addressed. Key concepts regarding dynamic stability studies. The definition of contingency for voltage stability studies and the significance of slow and fast dynamics are described. are described within the context of the current research project. The main requirements for offline analyses of electric power networks are assessed.8. Besides.8 35 Summary This chapter has outlined the issues of power system dynamics. a clear explanation about the integration method used to discretised the differential equations is introduced. the great importance of equipment modelled for voltage stability simulation is remark. The difference between this approach and the conventional techniques to solve the problem are stated.2. . Moreover. The main tools available for voltage stability assessments and their main drawbacks compared to the models and algorithms developed in this research work. emphasising current agreement on the classification of power system stability phenomena and its importance in power plants modelling development. focusing on voltage stability assessment. The modelling philosophy adopted to tackle the voltage stability problem is described.
taking advantage of load diversity in time and space leading to a more economical and environmental way of supplying electricity to consumers. the creation of larger markets.Chapter 3 NewtonRaphson Power Flow Algorithm in abc Rectangular Coordinates 3. the pooling of generation capability with the opportunity to utilise diverse primary energy resources. 2007]: 1. .. 3. The key advantages of interconnected systems are [Arrillaga et al. significant flexibility for the introduction of competition into electricity supply.1 Introduction Modern system interconnections enable the safe exchange of electric power between regions or countries. 2. which enable economies of scale to be realised in the operation of power plants and in accommodating demand growth.
1994].2. 1967] and fast decoupled load flow [Stott and Alsac. It is argued by HVDC enthusiasts that the probability to decrease blackouts and bottlenecks in power systems can be substantially alleviated with the use of HVDC interconnection. Power Flows Concepts 37 Such advantages have been conventionally alighted by the use of additional AC lines between the various interconnected systems. 3. 2001]. the most general and reliable algorithm is the NewtonRaphson method. However. Smith and Arrillaga. The steadystate conditions relating to transmission systems are obtained by assuming balanced operation in most cases.3. Wilsun Xu and Dommel. Consequently. strengthening the transmission system is vital to the reliability of block power interchanges among interconnected power systems. the reliability of power supply has deteriorated. 2001. The classical Newton [Tinney and Hart. 1974] have been extensively used in power flow analyses for the last decades. bringing about.2 Power Flows Concepts Power flows solutions is the most frequently performed kind of study in power systems engineering. To solve the power flow problem. 1991. Nevertheless. a great number of blackouts in various parts of the world [Knight. The basis of this iterative method relies on successive linearization of the nonlinear set of equations that represent the electrical power network using only the first . Zhang. The thrust of this chapter is the development and modelling of threephase power ACDC networks making use of the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. The power flow formulation is at the heart of power system analyses and is closely associated with voltage stability analyses [Taylor. with the increasing complexity of power systems and consumers’ appetite for electricity. 1996]. in order to reinforce the interconnections. as a consequence. the proposals and developments of algorithms for threephase power flows calculation for unbalanced power system conditions are increasing [Arrillaga and Watson. 1998.
2. 1968. As voltage magnitudes and angles are involved. is less wellknown but it is equally effective and it goes on well with the method of dynamic power flows which is the central focus of this thesis. expressed as real and imaginary parts are the state variables rather than the magnitude and phase angles used in the polar coordinate analyses. 2001]. such an increase in size is of little significance. Arrillaga and Watson. the nodal voltages are expressed as a function of their real and imaginary parts. 3. These constraints are different for different types of buses.3. it follows that for each bus. Power Flows Concepts 38 term of the Taylor’s series expansion. when sparsity techniques are applied. . The NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. as applied to the threephase power flow problem in rectangular coordinates. with the slack bus being treated as a special case of the generator bus.1 The power flow problem formulation The main object of the power flow solution is to obtain the nodal phase voltages at all buses of the network corresponding to specified system level of generation and load patterns. is dealt with detail in this chapter. The NewtonRaphson method. The complex voltages. In power flow analyses using rectangular coordinates. six independent constraints are required in order to solve for the six unknowns. The two main types are load and generators buses. as opposed to the one in polar coordinates. Each iteration carried out in rectangular coordinates analyses is faster than in polar coordinates because no trigonometric operations are involved [Stagg and ElAbiad. Despite the fact that the number of equations and variables involved in the solution of power flows in rectangular coordinates is greater than in polar coordinates.2.
3.c is the current at the threephase bus. Power Flows Concepts 3.b.c = V a. V a.c is the voltage at the threephase bus.c is the active power injected into the threephase bus.b.b.2.b.b.2.c is the complex power injected into the threephase bus.b. In rectangular coordinates analyses. can be written as. as shown in Fig. c referring to the three phases of the system. b. 3.c is the reactive power injected into the threephase bus.c = P a.1) where S a. P a.c + jQa.c (I a.1. Iak Bus k Vak La Ra Ca } } Bus m Vam Iam Ca Lab Ibk Vbk Rb Cb Ick Vck Rc Cc Lb Vbm Lac Ibm Cb Lbc Vcm Lc Cc Figure 3.2 39 Power flow equations The power balance equation for a threephase transmission line component. I a.b.c )∗ (3. with a. Qa.b. the bus voltages and the admittances are expressed as. S a. Icm .b.b.1: Threephase transmission line diagram.
3. leads to nodal active and reactive power expressions for phase ρ.m j=a. Expressions for the active and reactive power injected at node m are similar in form with subscript m replacing k and viceversa.3) Separating the real and imaginary parts of Eq.3.4) i=k. in expanded form.m j=a. Power Flows Concepts 40 ebk Vkρ jfkb + b b = ek + jfk eck + jfkc (3. 3.2.5) i=k.3 The Jacobian matrix formation The linearised threephase power flow expression using rectangular coordinates is constructed using the real and imaginary parts of the voltage to form the Jacobian matrix and the mismatch voltages vector.2) and aa Ykm ρρ Ykm ab Ykm ac Ykm ba bb bc = Ykm Ykm Ykm ca cb cc Ykm Ykm Ykm Gaa km aa jBkm Gab km ab jBkm Gac km ac jBkm + + + = Gba + jB ba Gbb + jB bb Gbc + jB bc km km km km km km ca cb cb cc cc Gca km + jBkm Gkm + jBkm Gkm + jBkm (3.1.c where ρ is used to denote phases a.b.b.c Qk ρ = fkρ X (3. b and c.m j=a.b.m j=a. X Pk ρ = eρk ´ X ³ ρj j X ρj j Gki ei − Bki fi + fkρ i=k. .c ´ X ³ ρj j ρj j Gki fi + Bki ei ´ X ³ ρj j ρj j Gki fi + Bki ei (3.b.c ´ X ³ ρj j X ρj j Gki ei − Bki fi − eρk i=k.2.
. .m ρ2 ∂fk. ..6) Each element of the Jacobian matrix in rectangular coordinates may take one of the following forms: ρ1 ∂Pk.m ∂eρ2 k.m where ρ1 and ρ2 refer to the a.7 is a 3x3 matrix.7) ρ2 ∂fk.. c ∆Pnbus ∆Qa1 . .. ··· .. ··· ∂P1a c ∂fnbus ... .. Consider the ith transmission element connected between buses k and m in Eq. . b and c phases. ··· ··· . ··· ∂P1a ∂ecnbus ∂P1a ∂f1a c ∂Pnbus ∂ecnbus c ∂Pnbus ∂f1a ∂Qa 1 ∂ecnbus ∂Qa 1 ∂f1a ∂Qcnbus ∂ecnbus ∂Qcnbus ∂f1a . . .m (3.m ∂eρ2 k. with the matrix being symmetric if it represents a geometrically balanced network.. ... ∂Qcnbus ∂ea 1 41 ··· . .6. 3. ∂Qcnbus c ∂fnbus ∆ea1 .m ∂Qρ1 k.m ρ1 ∂Pk. .. ∆e1nbus ∆f1a . .. ··· ··· .3. c ∆fnbus (3. for which self and mutual Jacobian terms are given below. otherwise it becomes an asymmetric matrix. 3. c ∂Pnbus ∂ea 1 ∂Qa 1 ∂ea 1 . .. . . Each one of the elements of Eq. . Power Flows Concepts ∆P1a . .. For k 6= m . .m ∂Qρ1 k.. c ∂Pnbus c ∂fnbus ∂Qa 1 c ∂fnbus .. ∆Qcnbus = ∂P1a ∂ea 1 .2. .
9) ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 f − B e km k km k (3.i ∂Qρ1 k.i ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 e + B f km k km k (3.i ρ1 ∂Pk.i For ρ1 6= ρ2 ³ ´ ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 e + B f + < Ikρ1 kk k kk k (3.i ∂Qρ1 k.12) ³ ´ ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 f − B e + = Ikρ1 kk k kk k (3.i ∂Qρ1 k.i ∂eρ2 k.i ρ2 ∂fm.10) ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = − Gρ1ρ2 e + B f km k km k (3.15) .14) ³ ´ ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = − Gρ1ρ2 e + B f + < Ikρ1 kk k kk k (3.i ∂Qρ1 k.3.13) ³ ´ ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 f − B e − = Ikρ1 kk k kk k (3.i ρ2 ∂fk.i ∂eρ2 m.2.8) ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 f − B e km k km k (3.i ∂eρ2 m.11) For k = m.i ρ2 ∂fm.i ∂eρ2 k. with ρ1 = ρ2 ρ1 ∂Pk.i ρ2 ∂fk.i ρ1 ∂Pk. Power Flows Concepts 42 ρ1 ∂Pk.
m − Qρk.16) ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 f − B e kk k kk k (3.m ³ ´cal.2.it ∆Qρk.20) l=k.m (3.it and Qρk.c The Jacobian matrix and mismatch vector are evaluated at each iteration.it ρ mined by the net amount of power generation and load connected to the bus. (eρ + jf ρ )it .m are the calculated active and reactive injections at the bus using the corresponding nodal voltages.21) (3.i ∂eρ2 k. At each iteration the nodal voltages are updated . respectively.m ρ2=a.i ³ ´ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gρ1ρ2 e + B f kk k kk k (3. while phases b and c are initialised at − 21 − j √ 3 2 and − 12 + j √ 3 2 respectively.19) ρ1 where the current Ii. Normally. and Pk. The generic power mismatch equations at bus k are: ³ ´sp ³ ´cal.17) ´ ³ ρ1ρ2 ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 = Gkk fk − Bkk ek (3.i ρ1 ∂Pk.b.i ∂eρ2 k.m − Pk. Power Flows Concepts 43 ρ1 ∂Pk.m = Pk.i ∂Qρ1 k.m are the specified active and reactive power injections deter³ ´cal.m and Qρk.it ρ ρ ρ ∆Pk.i = X X h³ ´ ³ ´i ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 Gρ1ρ2 e − B f + j B e + G f kl l kl l kl l kl l (3.18) ´ ³ ρ1 ρ1ρ2 ρ1 f + B = − Gρ1ρ2 e kk k k kk (3.j is: ρ1 Ik. the nodal voltage for phase a is initialised at one and zero for real and imaginary part.3.m ³ ´sp ³ ´cal.22) ³ ´sp ³ ´sp ρ where Pk.m = Qρk.i ∂Qρ1 k.i ρ2 ∂fk.i ρ2 ∂fk.
a nodal voltage magnitude mismatch equation is needed for each PVtype bus [Stagg and ElAbiad.2.g. say k.23) The process is repeated until the complex power mismatches are within a specified tolerance.2. 1968]. the Jacobian elements are: (3.m For the ith element connected to a PVtype bus.m (3.m ρ2 ∂fk. The equation for a voltagecontrolled bus become.25) Accordingly.m ∂eρ2 k.4 Voltage controlled bus In the NewtonRaphson method using rectangular coordinates. Power Flows Concepts 44 according to the following expression. new types of Jacobian elements are needed for the Jacobian matrix in rectangular coordinates where: ³ ´2 ρ1 ∂ Vk.26) and ³ ´2 ρ1 ∂ Vk. (eρ + jf ρ )it+1 = h¡ ¢ h¡ ¢ ¡ ¢it i ¡ ¢it i it it eρk + ∆eρk + j fkρ + ∆fkρ (3.24) m=1 ³ ´2 ³ ´2 ³ ´2 ρ1 Vk = eρ1 + fkρ1 k (3.3. 3. e. Pkρ1 = nbus Xh ³ ´ ³ ´i ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1ρ2 ρ2 ρ1 eρ1 G e − B f + f G f + B e m k km m km m km m km m (3. 1e − 12.27) .
3. which can be connected either in an star or delta arrangement [Chen and Dillon.i ³ ´2 ρ1 ∂ Vk.i ρ2 ∂fk.i ³ ´2 ρ1 ∂ Vk.i ∂eρ2 k.i ∂eρ2 m.i ³ ´2 ρ1 ∂ Vk. e.32) At iteration it the reactive power at each voltage controlled bus is reviewed using Eq.3.i = 2eρk. . 3.5 to calculate reactive power and to check its limits. 3. equal to the violated limit.i (3. The process is repeated until complex power mismatches are within a specified tolerance.g. 1974]. Power System Loads 45 ´2 ³ ρ1 ∂ Vk. 1e − 12.31) Changes in voltage magnitude for the RVtype buses at iteration it are calculated as follows: ∆ h³ ´ii h¡ ¢ ii h¡ ¢ ii 2 2 ρ t Vkρ t = Vk(scheduled) t − Vkρ (3.3.29) =0 (3.30) =0 (3.i ρ2 ∂fm.3 Power System Loads Load modelling has a significant influence on power systems operation.2 depicts the flow diagram for threephase power flows using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates. the power system loads are modelled as constant threephase power sink.28) ρ = 2fk. Fig. simulation and analyses. Usually.i (3. If the source of reactive power exceeds the limits the bus changes to a load bus with fixed reactive power.
2: Flow diagram for threephase power flows using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates.3. .3. Power System Loads 46 Read Data Form bus admittance matrix Ybus Assume initial bus voltages (0) V Set iteration count k=0 Calculate threephase active and reactive bus powers r r Pk and Qk Calculate threephase mismatch vector r r DPk and DQk Check convergence YES Output results Advance iteration k=k+1 NO Calculate Jacobian elements Solve for voltage corrections Update voltage vector Figure 3.
Temporary the unbalance between the power generation and the power demand reduce systems security margins and increase the risks unsafe operation. In common practice. (b) and (c). that it very simple to model certain types of loads. However. In spite of the fact. The effect of voltage angle on reactive load power is zero whilst its effect on the active load power is of a transient nature which persists for less than a second [IEEE Working Group on Power Plant Response to Load Changes. 1973]. a.3.34) . system studies have to be carried out with more realistic models for all systems components. (b) constant current and (c) constant impedance. A very substantial part of the system load actually consists of induction motors. Normally the load power varies with respect to the voltage and frequency. b and c are phases of the load system represented by the superscript ρ.3. if data is available induction motor modelling must be considered and carry out. the load is refer as the active and reactive power delivered to specific buses of the network at subtransmission and distribution level. this kind of model is inadequate for some power system studies such as dynamic and voltage collapse studies. including load models. Hence. and sometimes it is modelled as a combination of (a). the load is modelled as (a) constant power. Power System Loads 47 Slρ = Plρ + jQρl (3. In order to reduce such risks.33) where Pl and Ql are the active and reactive load powers. For power system analyses. The mathematical load model that includes the effect of the voltage magnitude may be approximated by µ S = P0 V  V0  ¶n µ + jQ0 V  V0  ¶m (3. usually it is very difficult to find the exact composition of the load.
2 Gen. 3.3 [Anderson and Fouad. The threephase loads are represented by their static load model. V0 is initial voltage. the ninebus system shown at Fig. Numerical Evaluation of a Multiphase Power Network 48 where P0 is the active power at initial voltage.4 Numerical Evaluation of a Multiphase Power Network The threephase power flow algorithm using the NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates is used to solve a simple threephase network.4.3: Oneline schematic representation of the 3 generators 9 buses power system. n and m are the rational coefficients representing the degree of dependency of active and reactive power with voltage magnitude. Q0 is the reactive power at initial voltage. 3 TRANF2 Bus 8 TRANF3 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 5 Bus 6 Bus 4 TRANF1 Bus 1 Gen. 1997]. Bus 7 Bus 9 Gen. 1 Figure 3. .3. 3. In Chapter 5. a more detailed description for the power loads is presented.
01 1 0.05 Phase a Phase b Phase c Bus voltage magnitude 1. generators Buses 2 and 3 located at Buses 2 and 3.02 1.25 0.04 pu.10 + j0. and the highest voltage magnitude is for phase b of Bus 4 being 1.40 + j0.04 1.99 1 2 3 4 5 Bus number 6 7 8 9 Figure 3. It is observed in Fig. respectively.4 depicts the bus voltage profile for unbalanced power loads conditions.35 S5 S6 S8 Phase b 1.4. Fig. that the lowest voltage magnitude is at phase c of Bus 5.50 0.996 pu.4. .50 Phase c 1.0253 pu. Phase a 1.90 + j0.4.15 1. It is clearly observed the unbalanced voltage response of the system due to the unbalanced loading condition.45 1.10 + j0. are nominated as voltage controlled buses (PV Buses) and their nodal voltage magnitudes are both maintained at 1. 1.4: Bus voltage magnitude for unbalanced loading conditions.00 + j0. 3.03 1.3. its specified voltage magnitude is 1.15 + j0.1: Unbalanced complex power loads.90 + j0.15 In this study the generator Bus 1 is taken as the compensator Bus (or slack Bus).70 1. connected at buses 5.0481 pu. 6 and 8 are shown in Table 3.25 + j0. being 0.30 0. 3. Table 3.75 + j0. Numerical Evaluation of a Multiphase Power Network 49 The unbalanced complex threephase powers in per unit.
An HVDC link can be configured in many ways. interest in HVDC technology for bulk power transmission. The two units are identical and each can be used on the rectification or inversion modes. and voltage source converters (VSC) with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and pulse width modulation (PWM) control. In order of increasing complexity. one at positive and the other at negative polarity with respect to ground (middle). at present. the solutions were achieved in 6 iterations to a power mismatch tolerance of 1e − 12. 3. bulk power DC transmission remains the realm of thyristorbased HVDC technology [Carlsson.5 HVDC Transmission Systems Over many years. the bipolar link which consists of two monopolar systems combined. when thyristor valves were taking over the mercury arc valves. However. the two converter stations are joined by a single conductor line. 2002]. and earth or the sea is used as the returning conductor. termed line commutated current (LCC). Next. by virtue of the strong convergence characteristics of the NewtonRaphson method. which is an upgrading of the traditional technology. and other more specialised applications. requiring two electrodes capable of carrying the full current. manufacturers have taken maximum benefits from the accelerated pace of power electronics technology.5. HVDC Transmission Systems 50 In this study. In each of these applications. the simplest is the backtoback interconnection in which the two converters are located in the same site and there is no transmission line. but dramatics developments have taken place in the reliability and in the performance of HVDC equipment and systems. HVDCVSCbased systems. two other lines of development in HVDC technology have appeared. will take over a large portion of the traditional HVDC market. Further to the traditional HVDC technology. has remained strong. based on the use of conventional thyristors.3. In the monopolar link. It is believed that in a few years time. Each monopolar side can operate on its . capacitor commutated converters (CCC). The HVDCLCC converter technology of today dates back to the mid 1970s. as ordered by the system control.
i.5. a DC filter is needed to reduce the level of harmonic currents in the DC overhead line. A large inductance (smoothing reactor) is installed on the DC side current to prevent resonance in the DC circuit. The central components of any HVDCLCC converter are the thyristor valves. In such cases. harmonics current are prevented from entering the AC network by using AC filters. The high performance thyristors installed in HVDC plants today are characterized by silicon wafer diameters of up to 125 mm. blocking voltages up to 8kV and current carrying capacities of up to 4kA DC [Siemens AG Power Transmission and Distribution High Voltage Division. when one pole is temporarily out of service. The reactive power consumption of an HVDC converter is a function of active power. Other more complex configurations are possible such as multiterminal links and series connections. In addition. they cancel out each other’s ground current to practically zero. 2007]. with part of the reactive power produced by filters and the rest by shunt capacitor banks or synchronous condensers when dynamic compensating is deemed necessary [Siemens AG Power Transmission and Distribution High Voltage Division. The thyristor valves are made of highly pure monocrystalline silicon. On the AC side. The converter stations are connected to the AC busbars by means of converter transformer. Full reactive power compensation is a standard requirement in a converter station. which scaledown the voltage of the grid to the required entry voltage of the converter. It increases with increasing active power. The converter transformer is equipped with an onload tap changer.e. transformer reactances and control angle. 2007]. . HVDC Transmission Systems 51 own with ground return. resonant circuits comprising capacitors. but if the two poles have equal currents.3. the ground path is used for limited periods in emergency. used to perform the conversion from AC to DC and vice versa. reactors and resistors. to reduce the ripple in the direct current and to limit telephone interference.
currents.7. as illustrated in Fig. is used to explain the model developed and its inclusion in a threephase power flow using the full NewtonRaphson method. Fig. requiring two electrodes capable of carrying the full current. the unbalanced threephase voltages of the terminal buses are considered. To control the firing or extinction angles in a real system. 3. and the earth (sea) is used as the return path. to analyse the HVDCLCC converters. where Ak is the LTC’s tap ratio.3.5. each converter station comprises a threephase tap changing transformer (LTC).6. In the unbalanced case. shown in Fig. HVDC Transmission Systems 3.5. In addition to the six pulse bridge. 3. two converter stations are joined together by a line conductor. The approach can easily be expanded to include some of the most common HVDC configurations. In the monopolar HVDC link. a k Idc b k + a Ika g b Ikb g c Ikc g a qk b qk c qk Vk Vk VdR  c k Vk k Ak Figure 3. voltages or impedances in all three phases.1 52 Converter steady state modelling The monopolar HVDC transmission system scheme. such as bipolar HVDC systems.6: HVDCLCC monopolar converter station.5.5: Monopolar HVDC system. Ika g a a qk b qk c qk Vk Ikb g b Vk Ikc g c Idc PdR a k Converter Station b k c k k Vk + Rdc VdR  Ima g PdI + VdI  a m a a qm b qm c qm Vm Converter Station Imb g k Imc g b m b Vm c m c Vm m k Figure 3. where the voltages are not . Practical systems rarely have perfectly balanced loads. 3.
3. which varies with system frequency. like the filter’s inherent phase error. so a constant delay (or extinction) angle is maintained for all the valves in steady state with respect to the voltage crossing. symmetrical. whereas the . Arrillaga and Callaghan. • Equidistant firing control. 1991]. the control system will ignore the presence of harmonics on the AC voltages. In theory. Moreover. Operating difficulties encountered in this method indicated that the distorted converter current cause ACvoltage distortion which can influence the firing pulse spacing and often reinforce the original distortion [Harker and Arrillaga. so as to attenuate the harmonics. with filters included. there are two basically different control methods: • Individual phase control. this situation can be improved by placing control filters between the AC system and the control system. However. The first approach is used in the early HVDCLCC converters. The firing instants are determined individually for each valve. the use of control filters has disadvantages too.7: Asymmetric threephase voltages. HVDC Transmission Systems 53 Im Vac qca Vab qbc Re qab= 0 Vbc Figure 3. the effect of which is precisely to cause irregular firingpulse spacing. and its inability to attenuate negative sequence fundamental voltages. 1979.5.
Arrillaga. 1979.5.2 ThreePhase Power Equations To derive the power flow NewtonRapshon model. The difficulties encountered with the individual phase control system encouraged the development of an alternative control philosophy which could get away from the voltage waveform dependence. 3. Ainsworth. Similarly the pulses for inverter operation of the converter are obtained [Ainsworth. Then. HVDC Transmission Systems 54 valves will respond to the actual voltages reaching them. as shown in Fig. 1988]. the threephase power consumed by the converters is written as a function of AC voltages and DC variables.5.8: Unbalanced converter voltage waveform. 1988.3. including harmonics [Rashid and Maswood. 1991. the equidistant firing control system. 3. the complete set of six pulses normally occurs at successive intervals of 60◦ .8. Harker and Arrillaga. 1998]. . 1988. adding the firing control α. The basis of this control system for the rectifier is to find the voltage crossing for the first phase and to define when it produces a short pulse to turn on the valve. Figure 3. Arrillaga and Callaghan.
The full derivation is given in Appendix A.36) where Pk and Pm are active powers at buses k and m.b. Ak and Am are the tap changers positions at buses k and m.5. The power through the dclink can be controlled by varying the DCvoltages as indicated .3 Linearised power equations A threephase power network with nbuses is described by 6×(n−1) non linear equations.37) (3. The inclusion of one HVDC link in the network model augments the number of equations by six. the DC variables. and Idc is the current in the dclink. Qm are the complex and reactive powers at buses k and m respectively.b.c . X represents. The reactive powers are. HVDC Transmission Systems 55 ³ ´ Pkρ = f Vka.5. respectively. in generic form at this stage.b. θka. Vk and θk and Vm and θm are the voltage magnitudes and phase angles. respectively.c Pm = f Vma. k1 is a constant associated with the commutation overlap.X (3. at the sending and receiving buses k and m.35) (3. respectively. ρ denotes the a.c .3. Qρm s ¢2 ¡ k1 Ak Vkρ Idc − (Pkρ )2 3 s q 2 (k1 Am Vmρ Idc ) ρ 2 ρ 2 ρ 2 = (Sm ) − (Pm ) = − (Pm ) 3 q Qρk = (Skρ )2 − (Pkρ )2 = (3.b. Sm and Qk . 3.c .38) where Sk . X ³ ´ ρ a. and c phases of the system. b. The solution of the combined system of nonlinear equations is carried out by iteration using the full NewtonRaphson method. θm .
the control angle is the firing angle α. α is fixed to its minimum value and γ is regulated to maintain constant power. The firing angle rather than the tap transformer is preferred for control. The set of linearised power flow equations for the complete system is. The latter is clearly undesirable and there is thus some benefit in keeping the control angles at low values [Arrillaga. . There are several modes of operation in converter control. three other control modes are defined. An increase in the control angle gives a decrease in DCvoltage.5. In this paper only the mode A. the extinction angle γ. HVDC Transmission Systems 56 by the following two basic relations: PdR = VdR Idc (3.3. the extinction angle γ. In control mode C. 1998]. respectively. The power is controlled by varying the firing angle α at the rectifier. when the firing angle α. and at the inverter. since the tap changer control is too slow compared to the firing angle. If the current Idc is kept constant instead of the power PdI . In control mode B. VdI and PdI are specified. the control angle is the extinction angle. is called control mode A. an increase in reactive power consumption (since the current will lag the voltage) and an increase in harmonics generation. The DCvoltages can be controlled either with the transformers tap ratios or with the converters control angles. The first one. At the rectifier. respectively. The converter transformer taps are varied in order to meet these specifications. and VdR and VdI are the DC voltages. γ. is kept at its lower limit at the inverter and the transformer taps and the power PdI are specified.39) PdI = VdI Idc (3. The Jacobian used in conventional power flows is suitably extended to take account of the new elements contributed by the HVDC link. at the rectifier and inverter. B and C with constant power are addressed.40) where PdR and PdI are the DC powers at the inverter and rectifier ends.
sch cal ∆PdR = PdR − PdR (3.43) P sch and P cal are the scheduled and calculated powers for the HVDC link. ∆Qρn ] t ∆θ = [∆θ1ρ . (i. ∆θnρ ] h ρ it ∆V1 ∆Vnρ ∆V = ρ . X1.··· . There are two additional state variables X1 and X2 . · · · .e. The power mismatches for buses k and m. where the HVDC link is connected to become: .3. · · · .41) where t ∆P = [∆P1ρ .2 ). ∆Pnρ ] t ∆Q = [∆Qρ1 .42) sch cal ∆PdI = PdI − PdI (3. ρ V V V 1 n ∆P and ∆Q are the normal power mismatch equations. respectively. and two power mismatch equations introduced by the HVDC link. and ∆θ and ∆V V are voltage increments of phase angle and magnitude.5. · · · . HVDC Transmission Systems 57 ∆P ∆Q J11  J12 −− = −− + −− ∆PdR J21  J22 ∆PdI ∆θ ∆V V −− ∆X1 ∆X2 (3.
47) where PGk . ρ Matrix J12 includes the partial derivatives of the threephase powers Pk. the variables α.3. HVDC Transmission Systems 58 ∆Pk = PGk − PLk − PN k (θ.44) ∆Pm = PGm − PLm − PN m (θ.5.46) ∆Qm = QGm − QLm − QN m (θ. VdI and PdI are specified. respectively.m . V ) − QdR (Vk . X1. J22 represents the self partial derivatives of the HVDC link.5. V ) − PdI (Vk . X1.n with respect to the HVDC link state variables and J21 represents the partial derivatives of PdR and ρ ρ PdI with respect to the threephase voltage angles and magnitudes θk. 3.45) ∆Qk = QGk − QLk − QN k (θ. X1. Vm . X1. QLk and PLm and QLm represent the active and reactive powers drawn by the load at buses k and m. making it possible to calculate the current Idc . PLk . The J11 matrix corresponding to the AC network at buses k and m ∂Pkρ ∂θkρ ∂Pkρ ρ V ∂Vkρ k ∂Pkρ ρ ∂θm ∂Pkρ ρ ρ Vm ∂Vm ∂Qρk ∂θkρ ∂Qρk ρ V ∂Vkρ k ∂Qρk ρ ∂θm ∂Qρk ρ ρ Vm ∂Vm ρ ∂Pm ρ ∂θk ρ ∂Pm Vρ ∂Vkρ k ρ ∂Pm ρ ∂θm ρ ρ ∂Pm ρ Vm ∂Vm ∂Qρm ∂θkρ ∂Qρm ρ V ∂Vkρ k ∂Qρm ρ ∂θm ∂Qρm ρ ρ Vm ∂Vm (3.2 ) (3.48) is augmented with the partial derivatives of the active and reactive powers contributions by the HVDC link. Vm . QGk and PGm and QGm represent the active and reactive powers injected by the generator at buses k and m.m and Vk. γ.4 Control mode A In control mode A. the voltage VdI and the power PdR : . respectively. V ) − PdR (Vk .2 ) (3.2 ) (3. V ) − QdI (Vk . Vm .m and Qρm. Moreover.2 ) (3. Vm .
5. HVDC Transmission Systems 59 Idc = PdI VdI (3. Ak and Am .3. γ and PdI are specified and the new state variables are the current Idc and the firing angle α.49) VdR = VdI + RDC Idc (3. J21 and J22 having the following structure: ∂Pkρ ∂Ak ∂Qρk ∂Ak ∂Pkρ ∂Am ∂Qρk ∂Am ρ ∂Pm ∂Ak ρ ∂Pm ∂Am ∂Qρm ∂Ak ∂Qρm ∂Am ∂PdR ∂θkρ ∂PdR ρ V ∂Vkρ k ∂PdR ρ ∂θm ∂PdR ρ ρ Vm ∂θm ∂PdI ∂θkρ ∂PdI ρ V ∂Vkρ k ∂PdI ρ ∂θm ∂PdI ρ ρ Vm ∂θm J12 = (3. the variables ak . 3. am .5 Control mode B In control mode B. J21 has the same structure as in control mode A.53) ∂PdR ∂Ak ∂PdR ∂Am ∂PdI ∂Ak ∂PdI ∂Am (3.51) The new state variables for this control mode are the tap changers. The other two terms of the Jacobian are: .54) It should be noted that a single tap changer is used to regulate voltage magnitude at all three phases.50) PdR = VdR Idc (3.5. with the Jacobian elements J12 . For this control mode.52) J21 = J22 = (3.
whereas matrices J12 and J22 take the following structure.5.5.3.58) It is important to remark that this is a threephase formulation. and that all elements in the above equations are vectors of order 3 × 1. HVDC Transmission Systems 60 J12 = ∂Pkρ ∂α ∂Qρk ∂α ∂Pkρ ∂Idc ∂Qρk ∂Idc ρ ∂Pm ∂α ρ ∂Pm ∂Idc ∂Qρm ∂α ∂Qρm ∂Idc ∂PdR ∂α ∂PdR ∂Idc ∂PdI ∂α ∂PdI ∂Idc J22 = 3. the variables ak . α and PdI are specified and the new state variables are the current Idc and the extinction angle γ. .55) (3. am .6 (3.56) Control mode C In control mode C. Matrix J21 has the same structure as in the previous control modes. except for J11 which are vectors of order 3 × 3 and J22 which are single terms. J12 = ∂Pkρ ∂Idc ∂Qρk ∂Idc ∂Pkρ ∂γ ∂Qρk ∂γ ρ ∂Pm ∂Idc ρ ∂Pm ∂γ ∂Qρm ∂Idc ∂Qρm ∂γ ∂PdR ∂Idc ∂PdR ∂γ ∂PdI ∂Idc ∂PdI ∂γ J22 = (3.57) (3.
3 0. The HVDC link is made to operate in control mode A.1 0. The fivebus network is modified to include one HVDC link connected between Lake and Main buses.4 shows the generated powers in the North and South buses.6+j0..9: Fivebus test network for threephase balanced conditions.20 0.237 76 89 0.3.020 1. Table 3.754 90 0.0 80 0.177 0.132 0. the AC network and HVDC converters are assumed to work under threephase balanced conditions.479 0. In this contrived example.3.6.130 0.132 0.135 0.1 0.2 and the threephase nodal voltage magnitudes and phase angles are given in Table 3.15 0.4+j0.6.45+j0. and the powers in both the rectifier and the inverter.3 0.800 0. respectively.510 0. All . All necessary data to carry out a balanced threephase AC power flow is taken from [Acha et al. 1.190 0.129 Elm 0.139 0.333 North 0. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 3.029 0.412 Main 0.130 0.6 61 HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 3.486 0.0 South 0.1 Test Case 1 To show the applicability of the proposed approach.469 0. 3. 2004].40 Figure 3.2+j0. the fivebus network depicted in Fig.169 0.823 Lake 0. Notice that voltage values are given in per unit and angles are given in degrees.9 is used.259 0.4 0. The data used for the HVDC link is given at Table 3.05 0.070 0. which are connected to Lake and Main.760 0.
10 pu 15 deg 18 deg 0.9610 125.9.4 pu per phase Table 3. for phase A only.9610 114. Table 3.333 1.40 0. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 62 Table 3.4: Powers from generator buses and HVDC converters.412 0.6911 0.20 0.1772 Generator buses North South P Q P Q 1. each operating with a different .6.3089 0.40 0.8845 Phase C Voltage Angle 1.4053 1. 1982].060 0 1.333 1.9634 122.4053 Test Case 2 To show the wider applicability of this technique.9634 2.000 121.5998 0.9648 124.333 1.02 0.02 0.20 0.1772 0. is used. link resistance Firing angle for the rectifier Extinction angle for the inverter Transmitted power 0.2 HVDC converter Main Lake P Q P Q 0.1902 0.000 1.051 pu 0. the test system [Chow.8126 0. The system has been modified to include three HVDC links. Phase A Phase B Phase C 3.C.6.060 120 1.1874 0.4002 0.1902 0.9648 115. 16 generators and 86 transmission lines.6911 0.1902 0. 3.8126 0.9610 5.412 0.02 0.1772 0.2: Data for the HVDC link.9648 4.9634 117.5998 0.1155 other active and reactive power flows are shown in Fig.4053 1.3: Bus voltages and generation results.000 118.20 0.8845 Phase B Voltage Angle 1.060 120 1.3. Transformer reactances D.412 0. which consists of 68 nodes.40 0. Bus name North South Lake Main Elm Phase A Voltage Angle 1.
5: HVDC link control modes. Table 3.5. 14 8 N66 1 N48 N40 N60 N41 N26 N28 N53 N47 N29 N25 N1 N61 N2 N27 9 N30 11 LINK 2 N31 N63 N18 N62 N17 N3 LINK 1 N46 N16 10 N32 N24 N38 N15 N33 N4 N21 N14 N34 N49 N22 N9 LINK 3 N19 N8 N42 N36 N5 N35 N67 N12 N20 N6 15 N58 N64 12 6 N56 N57 N45 N51 N23 4 5 N13 N11 N7 N44 N50 N37 N52 N54 N10 N59 2 N39 N55 N65 7 N43 N68 3 13 16 Figure 3. 3.3. by ±10% with respect to the balanced .10 and described in Table 3. as shown in Fig.10: Modified 16 generators power network.6. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 63 operational control mode. Bus code Link 1 Link 2 Link 3 from bus 41 bus 1 bus 23 to bus 42 bus 27 bus 24 Control mode C A B Imbalances are introduced into the network by changing the active and reactive power loads at the buses where the HVDC stations connect.
8: Parameters of Link 3.9899 6.3567 0.9941 0.9973 0.3940 0.4428 0.7: Parameters of Link 2.6.6938 136.2329 0.6252 Sending Node B C 1.7897 167.4343 116.2211 Receiving Node A B C 0.6.0142 1.4048 0.5493 0.0142 109.0982 0.9992 1.3342 0. V  θ P Q A 1.6575 116.3566 0.6295 0.9845 1.1452 71.6705 125.8 show the unbalanced threephase voltage profiles and the active and reactive powers for each HVDC converter.9976 0.2196 0.9942 0.9822 0.5374 0.4012 0. 3.0112 131. .6366 0.3253 Receiving Node A B C 0.0014 0.4430 0.5354 0.3361 0. Tables 3. Phase A is subtracted 10%.4502 0.3.7 and 3.6372 0.2205 0.0113 9. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 64 case.3784 0.6391 A 0.1403 0.0015 1.0899 0.5272 0.3255 0.3857 0.9966 18.3561 0.3292 0.8528 102.6707 124.4563 114.3634 0.5826 The three HVDC links are set to operate with different control schemes and the state variables are Ak and Am (control mode A) for link 1.2338 Table 3.6: Parameters of Link 1.0024 5.5692 Receiving Node B C 0.6696 0.5812 0.9941 47.9696 6. α and Idc (control mode B) for link 2. V  θ P Q Sending Node A B C 0. The solution was achieved in 6 iterations to a power mismatch tolerance of 1e−12 .4401 0. Table 3.2234 0.3737 Table 3.9749 124.3297 0.1454 0. Phase B is added 10% and Phase C is kept unchanged.6270 0. V  θ P Q Sending Node A B C 0.
Am and Idc have initial values of 1 per .06 HVDC 2 − Ak HVDC 2 − Am 1.13 show the behaviour towards the convergence for each state variable during the power flow solution. 1. degrees 35 30 25 20 15 0 1 2 3 iterations 4 5 6 Figure 3. It should be noticed that the state variables Ak . Figures 3.1 Tap position.11: Tap position of link 2.12 1.11.6.12: Firing and extinction angles of links 3 and 1. Control Mode A.04 1.08 1. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 65 and γ and Idc (control mode C) for link 3. pu 1.12 and 3.3. 3.02 1 0. Control Mode B and C. HVDC 3 − alpha HVDC 1 − gamma Firign and extinction angles.98 0 1 2 3 iterations 4 5 6 Figure 3. respectively.
2 1.4 1. For the remaining state variables.6. Control Mode B and C. pu 1.13: Direct current of links 1 and 3.3 1. and upon convergence. α and γ. respectively. Arrillaga and Arnold.5 1.6 HVDC 1 − Id HVDC 3 − Id Direct current. unit. which are typical specified control angles [Smed.3. respectively.1 1 0 1 2 3 iterations 4 5 6 Figure 3. settle to final values. are given values of 15◦ and 18◦ degrees. . 1990]. 1989. HVDCLCC Numerical Evaluation 66 1.7 1.
The problem formulation. this chapter presents a threephase power flow method to include conventional HVDC link models where several control modes are applied. the Jacobian formation and its power equations.3. in threephase rectangular coordinates making use of the NewtonRaphson method is mentioned. . Summary 3. Despite of the number of equations to solve the load flow problem in rectangular coordinates are increased in comparison with the polar algorithm. The adopted technique posses the quadratic convergence capability given by the NewtonRaphson method.7. the problem can be alleviated using sparsity techniques. Moreover. each operating with its own control mode. A test case is presented for a large network including unbalanced loading and three HVDC links.7 67 Summary This chapter presents the theory and modelling to carry out threephase power flows analyses in rectangular coordinates making use of the NewtonRaphson method. The approach takes advantage of the strong convergence characteristics of the NewtonRaphson technique to ensure reliable iterative solutions.
the mathematical model which described the dynamic plant components such as generators and their controls are represented by a set of differential equations. aimed to at time response calculations of largescale power networks. For dynamic power system assessments.1 Introduction Power flows in a power network can be assessed very affectively by modelling the power system as a set of nonlinear algebraic equations corresponding to active and reactive nodal injections. By suitable combination of both sets of equations the complete power system model. y˙ = F (y. x) (4.1) . valid for a predefined set of system generation and load. can be reduced to an algebraicdifferential problem of the form.Chapter 4 Dynamic Power Flows in Rectangular Coordinates 4.
y) (4. 1979.3. Generally.1. 1990]. Hill and Mareels.2 must be solved simultaneously as a function of time [Gear. Equations 4. transformed into the network reference frame. Eq.2. ∆P ∆Q −− ∆F (y) ˙ Jacobian = −− ˙ ∂F (y) ˙ ∂F (y) ∂e ∂f  ∂P ∂e  ∂Q ∂e + −−  ∂F (y) ˙ ∂y ∂P ∂f ∆e ∆f −− −− ∂F (y) ˙ ∆y ∂y ∂Q ∂f (4. whereupon the Jacobian from conventional power flows must be modified to include the appropriate elements of the other components. Eq. . consists of network equations and the stator equations of each machine.2) where y and x are vectors of integrable and nonintegrable algebraic variables.4. comprises the differential equations of all synchronous generators. This set of equations is independent so then the solution technique must provide a simultaneous solution. 1971b. The objective of the unified framework is to solve y and x as a function of time. Equations 4. 4. Stott. 4.1 and 4. Equations 4. The Jacobian matrix. since each generator is coupled to the power plants only through the network. Introduction 69 0 = G(x.3) The important feature of the task in hand being the solution of a dynamic stability analysis in combination with numerical techniques to get a simultaneous solution of coupled differential and algebraic equations.1. takes into account the network elements and generators variables.1 is a collection of separate subsets. F and G are nonlinear vector functions and thus the nonintegrable network variables cannot be eliminated algebraically.
Machine rotor speed does not vary greatly from synchronous speed. 3. Mg is the angular momentum and the powers are given in per unit. several synchronous machine models have been put forward in the open literature. There are many kinds of power system dynamics problems. However. Owing to the wide range of dynamic phenomena. power system dynamic problems are basically those of the synchronous machines.2. so they are only briefly outlined. Mechanical power shaft is smooth. . The mechanical equations of synchronous machines are well established [Weedy. Synchronous Machine Model .Classical Representation Synchronous generators are the most important and principal sources of electric energy at any power system. like high or low frequency oscillations. it means the power which comes from the shaft is constant except for the action of a speed governor. Stevenson Jr. Machine rotational losses due to windage and friction are neglected.Classical Representation 4. Three basic assumptions are made in deriving the equations: 1. Elgerd.2 70 Synchronous Machine Model . The power system stability problem is mainly related keeping to interconnected synchronous machines in synchronism. The acceleration is thus: σ= Pm − Pe Pa = Mg Mg (4. From the previous assumptions. the power of the machine Pa is the difference between the shaft power Pm as supplied by the prime mover and the electrical power Pe .4) where σ represents the acceleration of the machine. 1991]. 1967. and so on. in particular from the second one. 1971. Thus.4. Chapman. 1982. It is convenient to choose a synchronously rotating reference to define the rotor angle δ. large or small system disturbances. 2.
. A deceleration power can be introduced into the mechanical equation to account for this damping. An internal voltage behind the daxis transient reactance is defined and its magnitude is assumed constant. robust and inherently capable of handling islanding and fault analyses [Rafian et al. It is argued that the method is numerically stable.4.7) This section describes a classical representation of the synchronous machines assuming constant flux linkages in both axis and neglecting transient saliency. Equation 4. it is mandatory to use the swing equation of each machine in the system Eq.6) In the above equation f0 represents the system base frequency. the Jacobian matrix of a conventional power flow method [Stagg and ElAbiad.7.5) The angular momentum may be further defined by the inertia constant Mg which is relatively constant regardless of the size of the machine. leading to d2 δ 1 = 2 dt Mg µ ¶ dδ Pm − Pe − D dt (4. Bearing in mind the fact that the problem of stability involves the rotors of synchronous machines. in suitable form the network dynamic equations. it means the axis armature current Idq do not fluctuate during the transient period. Synchronous Machine Model . in the solution. 1987]. . In the approach used in this research. 4. 1968] is expanded to include.7 can be discomposed into two first order differential equations.Classical Representation d2 δ Pm − Pe = 2 dt Mg 71 (4. Eddy currents induced in the rotor iron or in the damping windings produce torques which opposes the motion of the rotor relative to the synchronous speed. This model neglects the effects of damper circuits. Mg = H πf0 (4.2.
All inductances are independent of the current. f0 is the synchronous frequency.2. δ is the load angle. pu. 2. The classical derivation of the voltages and reactances which exists in a synchronous machine are well established [Kimbark. There are no hysteresis losses in the iron. Pe is the electrical output power. the algebraic equations that describe generator voltage relations can be written by a set of equations based on direct and quadrature axis parameters.1. 4. rad. pu. D is the damping coefficient. The machine is represented by a voltage behind the reactance. Synchronous Machine Model . Pm is the mechanical input power.Classical Representation ω˙ = πf0 [Pm − Pe − D (ω − ω0 )] H δ˙ = ω − ω0 72 (4. assuming balanced conditions. s/rad. .4. 6. 1951]. MW*s/MVA.8) (4. 5. Machine winding can be represented as constants.9) where H is the inertia constant. Concordia. Distributed windings may be represented as concentrated windings. The electrical quantities will be defined under the following assumptions: 1. The leakage reactance occurs only in the stator. Hz. 3. 1948b. With reference to Fig. Using these assumptions the classical model for a synchronous machine is constructed. 4.
4.2. Synchronous Machine Model  Classical Representation
73
b
Quadrature axis
q
Direct axis
d
a
d
c
b
f
a
b
f
c
a
c
Figure 4.1: Synchronous machine scheme.
Ea = V + ra Ia + jxd Id + jxq Iq
(4.10)
Ia = Id + jIq
(4.11)
where
V is the terminal voltage of phase a.
Ea is the excitation voltage.
ra is the armature resistance for phase a.
xd is the direct axis reactance.
xq is the quadrature axis reactance.
Id is the direct axis current.
Iq is the quadrature axis current.
Ia is the phase a current.
Another manner to calculate the voltage source behind the transient reactance where the
effects of saliency and changes in field flux linkages are neglected is,
4.3. Synchronous Machines Controllers
Ea = E (cos δE + j sin δE )
4.3
74
(4.12)
Synchronous Machines Controllers
Powergenerating plants consist of various components involved in energy conversion from
mechanical to electrical. The main elements involved in most dynamic voltage stability
analyses are the generators, voltage regulators, governors, turbines, boilers, and auxiliary
equipment.
This section illustrates suitable models for voltage stability assessment.
4.3.1
Governor
The governor is a frequency controller which plays an important role in power system
operations. It has three main functions which are:
1. To keep the generator speed as close as possible to its nominal value.
2. To guarantee a fast and automatic participation of the generator to any change in
generation, which is required in order to maintain a balanced generationload in the
system.
3. To offer a way to adapt the active power production of the unit, via speedchanger
adjustments.
The governor adjusts the steam or water input to the turbine. To achieve this, it senses the
difference between the actual rotor speed and the angular frequency and adjusts accordingly
the turbine valve.
Figure 4.2 shows the block diagram adopted to represent the speed governing system for
steam generators. This is the simplified model proposed in [IEEE Committee Report, 1973].
4.3. Synchronous Machines Controllers
PSET
+
75
PGOV(max)
1
1 + sT1
S
w
Turbine and
Generator

PGOV(min)
Dw
K
+
wo
S

Figure 4.2: IEEE simplified speed governor model.
From Figure 4.2 we derive the following mathematical expression,
∆P − Pg
P˙g =
T1
(4.13)
with,
∆ω =ω − ωo
∆P =PSET − K∆ω
where
K is the governor gain.
Pset is the power set point.
T1 is the governor time constant.
4.3.2
Turbine
All compound steam turbine systems utilize governorcontrolled valves at the inlet to
the high pressure or in some cases very high pressure turbine to control steam flow. The
steam chest and inlet piping to the first turbine cylinder and reheaters and crossover piping
downstream all introduce delays between valves movement and change in steam flow. The
4.3. Synchronous Machines Controllers
76
main objective in modelling the steam system for stability studies is to consider these delays.
Flows into and out of any steam vessel are related by simple time constant.
Pressure changes at the entrance to the governorcontrolled valves may also be important
in stability studies. Boiler controls are designed to regulate valve pressure, but the controlled
boiler response is not fast enough to compensate for pressure variations due to the movements
of governorcontrolled valves.
For steam turbines the model is selected from the IEEE committee report [IEEE Committee Report, 1973].
+
PM 1
å
+
FHP
PGOV
1
1 + sTCH
FLP 2
1
1 + sTCO
1
1 + sTRH
FLP 2
FHP
+
+
å
PM 2
Figure 4.3: IEEE steam turbine model.
Figure 4.3 shows the block diagram of a cross compound, single reheat steam turbine
system. The mathematical equations corresponding to this diagram are,
Pg − PHP
TCH
˙ = PHP − PIP
PIP
TRH
˙ = PIP − PLP
PLP
TCO
˙ =
PHP
PM = PHP FHP + PIP FIP + PLP FLP
From Figure 4.3 we have that,
PGOV is the output power of the control valve.
(4.14)
(4.15)
(4.16)
(4.17)
From Figure 4. FLP is the LP turbine power fraction. TRH is the reheater time constant (including the intermediatepressure (IP ) stage of the turbine time constant). 4. In addition. is the STA1 IEEE model [Energy Development and Power Generating Committe of the PES.4. Synchronous Machines Controllers 77 TCH is the steam chest time constant (including the highpressure (HP ) stage of the turbine time constant).4. hence. The model adopted in this simulation tool. the following expressions are derived: . IEEE Committee Report. The protective functions ensure that the capacity limits of both synchronous machine and excitation control system will not be exceeded. PM 1 and PM 2 are the equivalent generator input mechanical powers. Several Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) models have been developed for transient stability studies. FHP is the HP turbine power fraction. 1981]. the enhancement of system stability. FIP is the IP turbine power fraction.3 Automatic voltage regulator The basic function of an AVR is to provide direct current to the field winding of a synchronous machine. 2003. TCO is the steam storage or crossover time constant (including the lowpressure (LP ) stage of the turbine time constant).3. the excitation system can provide a broad number of control and protection functions necessary for the satisfactory performance of the machine and the power system by means of the control of the field voltage. The main objective of an AVR is to provide an effective control of the generator terminal voltage and.3.
19) (4. V − Vm V˙m = Tr ³ Ka Vref − Vm − Vr2 − V˙r1 = Ta V˙r2 = − Kf Tf Vf (4. Ta is the amplifier time constant. pu.4.4: STA1 IEEE AVR model. sec. pu.18) Kf Tf Vf + Vr2 Tf (Vf (1 + Se (Vf )) − Vr ) V˙f = − Te ´ − Vr1 (4. Ka is the amplifier gain. pu. (4. Vr max is the maximum regulator voltage.22) . Kf is the stabiliser gain.21) where the ceiling function Se is defined as: ³ ´ Se (Vf ) = Ae eBe Vf  − 1 where.20) (4. Vr min is the minimum regulator voltage. Tf is the stabiliser time constant. Synchronous Machines Controllers 78 Se Vr(max) Vref  +   Ka 1 + sTa Vr  1 1 + sTe + E Vr(min) 1 1 + sTr Kfs V 1 + sT f Figure 4.3. sec. pu.
sec.24) (4. Ae is the 1st ceiling coefficient.25) where. throttle pressure. Synchronous Machine Model . The equations that formulate the boiler storage. 1968].25 will replace Eq. sec.4 Synchronous Machine Model .4.Advanced Representation 79 Te is the field circuit time constant. SF is the steam production. and the change in the flow of the steam into the steam chest according to the boiler response are: ˙ = SF − ∆PHP ∆DP CB ∆PHP = PHP − (Pset − k3 ∆ω) ˙ = PHP Pg + k1 ∆DP − PHP TCH (4. DP is the throttle pressure. assuming constant flux linkages in each axis and neglecting transient saliency [Stagg and ElAbiad.4 Boiler The boiler model presented here is a simple model which takes into account the slow plant response. Tr is the measurement time constant. Equation 4. 4.3.12 to allow the effects of pressure change in the boiler an the steam flow into the turbine.23) (4. B. 4. k3 is the gain factor to regulate the effect of frequency deviation on boiler response. In these simple models an internal voltage behind the daxis .4. B e is the 2nd ceiling coefficient.Advanced Representation In early stability studies calculations the generators were commonly represented by a simple model.
Ei Ed E’q Eq Direct axis IqXq Quadrature axis Ef Iq E’ IdX’d IqX’q E’d IdXd V I IRa Id Figure 4. faster changes in the conditions external to the synchronous machine are presented. The differential equations that describe the variation in time of the rotor flux linkages are: Ea + (xd − x0d ) Id − Eq0 0 Tdo ¡ ¢ −Ed0 − xq − x0q Iq 0 ˙ Ed = 0 Tqo E˙q0 = (4. To obtain these voltages.5: Phasor diagram of synchronous generator in the transient state. should be obtained with the voltages. the voltage behind synchronous reactance Ea .27) .26) (4. and these changes are not reflected throughout the whole of the model immediately. Thus.5 depicts the phasor diagram of synchronous machine in the transient state. it is essential to consider transient saliency and the flux linkages in each axis of the synchronous machine. it is necessary to obtain the voltages which will represent the flux linkages of the rotor windings. Figure 4. Due to the inertia of the flux linkages.4.4. In order to get a more realistic representation of the power system behaviour.Advanced Representation 80 transient reactance xd is determined and its magnitude is assumed constant. Ed0 and Eq0 . Synchronous Machine Model .
. The expressions for active and reactive powers used to form the term Jacobian. Figure 4.4.6 shows the phasor diagram for this subtransient condition.29) Eq00 − Vq = ra Iq − x00d Id (4.30) Ed00 − Vd = ra Id + x00q Iq (4. then the subtransient synchronous machine model is used. Eq. 4. Network Modelling 81 where Eq0 . Eq0 + (x0d − x00d ) Id − Eq00 00 Tdo ¡ ¢ Ed0 − x0q − x00q Iq − Ed00 0 ¨ Ed = 00 Tqo E¨q0 = (4. 1990]. Eq0 − Vq = ra Iq − x0d Id Ed0 − Vd = ra Id + x0q Iq If a more detailed synchronous machine model representation is required. 4.5 Network Modelling The basic form of the power flows equations for balanced threephase power systems involve the set of nonlinear algebraic equations which represent the network under steady state.28) (4.5. for bus k are. Ed0 and are obtained as follow.31) This subtransient synchronous model is derived assuming that the transient time constant are large compared to the subtransients ones [Arrillaga and Arnold.3.
ek and fk are the voltage’s real and imaginary parts at bus k. each plant component of the power network is represented by its own form of nodal admittance elements Gkk . Gkm and Bkm .7. As shown below. It should be noted that k = m corresponds to the self admittance of bus k. 4. Gkm and Bkm are the real and imaginary parts of the nodal admittance relating buses k and m. Transmission Line Model 82 Ei Ed E’’q Eq Direct axis Iq IqXq Quadrature axis Ef E’ E’’ IdX’’d IqX’’q E’’d IdXd V I IRa Id Figure 4. corresponding to a transmission line l of series impedance Zl and shunt admittance Yl .6 Transmission Line Model In power system studies it is common to represent a transmission line by its nominal π circuit.n X m=1. The transmission line is connected between buses k and m.n Qk =fk X X (Gkm fm + Bkm em ) (4.33) m=1. Bkk .6: Phasor diagram of synchronous generator in the subtransient state.32) (Gkm fm + Bkm em ) (4. shown in Fig.4.n (Gkm em − Bkm fm ) − ek m=1. 4. giving rise to the following transfer .n where Pk and Qk are the active and reactive powers injected at bus k. Pk =ek X (Gkm em − Bkm fm ) + fk m=1.6.
7. Dynamic Load Tap Changer and Phase Shifting Transformer Modelling 83 m k Zl Yl 2 Yl 2 Figure 4. with the tap mechanism located on the primary side Tk .4. and connected between buses k and m is as shown in Fig 4. there are power transformers that are provided with an onload tap changing mechanism to regulate voltage magnitude at a specified point of the network or to control the amount of active power that flows through the transformer.34) where Ykk = Ymm = Gkk +jBkk are the nodal self admittances at buses k and m.8. In addition to those that perform the basic functions of transforming an AC supply voltage into one or more different AC voltages and providing electrical insulation between the supply voltage and the user’s equipment. respectively. .7 Dynamic Load Tap Changer and Phase Shifting Transformer Modelling Power transformers are essentials plant components of the power system. and Ykm = Ymk = Gkm + jBkm are the mutual admittances between buses k and m and m and k. They are known as tapchanging and phaseshifting transformers. respectively. respectively. The nodal transfer admittance matrix of a tapchanging transformer of impedance Zl . 4. admittance matrix: Ykk Ykm = Ymk Ymm Zl−1 + Yl 2 −Zl−1 −Zl−1 Zl−1 + Yl 2 (4.7: Transmission line representation.
Dynamic Load Tap Changer and Phase Shifting Transformer Modelling 84 Tk Z l (1 . As indicated in Fig. according to the block diagram of Fig.9: Dynamic load tap changer model. the tap step size ∆Tk and its predefined operating . 4.35) The tap’s dynamic is represented by the following firstorder differential equation.9. ek and fk are the real and imaginary parts of the voltage at the regulated bus.4.8: Tapchanger transformer equivalent circuit. according to the values of ek and fk . 1 T˙k = HT µq ¶ e2k + fk2 − V0 (4.7. V0 is the target voltage magnitude. 4. Current Tap position V0 Vk +  n 1 HT T&k 1 s Tk +  Tap step size DTk Tk max Tk1 Tk min Figure 4.Tk ) Zl Vm Vk (T 2 k . The transfer admittance matrix for this equivalent circuit is: Zl−1 Ykk Ykm = Ymk Ymm −Tk Zl−1 −Tk Zl−1 Tk2 Zl−1 (4.36) where HT is the tap’s servomotor inertia.Tk ) Z l Figure 4.10 the transformer tap is discrete. and it will be varying over the time.
P0 is the target active power. Vhigh 4 3 2 1 Tpos Vlow Vk 0 Figure 4. and connected between buses k and m. with the phase angle mechanism located on the primary side φk . 4.4. The nodal transfer admittance matrix of a phasechanging transformer of impedance Zl .38) where Hφ is the phase shifter’s servomotor inertia. Pkm is the active power through the phase shifter.8 Numerical Solution Technique The set of algebraic and differential equations that describe each plant component of the power network are interdependent and it has been suggested that their simultaneous calcu .10: Discrete tap.8. Numerical Solution Technique 85 range. is: Zl−1 Ykk Ykm = Ymk Ymm −Zl−1 (cos φk − j sin φk ) −Zl−1 (cos φk + j sin φk ) Tk2 Zl−1 (4.37) The tap’s dynamic is represented by the following first order differential equation: 1 (Pkm − P0 ) φ˙k = Hφ (4.
40) Substituting in Eq. where the effects of saliency and flux decay are considered. a technique known for giving reasonably accurate results even when relatively large integration time steps are selected [Kundur.39 the expression of electrical power Pe . but assuming constant Pm .4.9: · ¢¢ ¡ ∆t πf0 ¡ ω(t) − ω(t−∆t) = Pm − Pe(t) − D ω(t) − ω0 2 H ¸ ¢¢ ¡ ¡ πf0 + Pm − Pe(t−∆t) − D ω(t−∆t) − ω0 H ´ ∆t ³ ˙ δ(t) − δ(t−∆t) = δ(t) + δ˙(t−∆t) 2 (4. 1987]. Machowski et al.8. we have. One way of ensuring a numerically stable transformation is to use the implicit trapezoidal method. 4.8 and 4. To exemplify the procedure. the differential equations are transformed into algebraic equations and appended to the existing set of algebraic equations for a unified solution. the method is applied to dynamic Eqs. Numerical Solution Technique 86 lation provides for a more stable numerical solution [Rafian et al. 1997]. 4.2. To this end. .39) (4... 1994. The first step in the application of the trapezoidal method is to express the system differential equations in the form of Eq. 4.
43) where ¢ ∆πf0 ¡ Pe(t) + Dω(t) 2H ¢ ∆πf0 ¡ Fω(t−∆t) = −ω(t−∆t) + Pe(t−∆t) + Dω(t−∆t) 2H ∆tπf0 (Pm + Dω0 ) Cω = − H Fω(t) = ω(t) + . Rearranging terms.4. to keep the expression at a manageable level. Fω = Fω(t) + Fω(t−∆t) + Cω = 0 (4.41) Notice that in this equation only the transient effects have been represented. Numerical Solution Technique ω(t) − ω(t−∆t) = 87 · ∆t ¡ πf0 Pm 2 H 0 +(Ed(t) − ra Id(t) + (Xq0 − Xl )Iq(t) )Id(t) 0 +(Eq(t) − ra Iq(t) + (Xd0 − Xl )Id(t) )Iq(t) ¡ ¢ ¢ πf0 ¡ −D ω(t) − ω0 + Pm H 0 +(Ed(t−∆t) − ra Id(t−∆t) + (Xq0 − Xl )Iq(t−∆t) )Id(t−∆t) 0 +(Eq(t−∆t) − ra Iq(t−∆t) + (Xd0 − Xl )Id(t−∆t) )Iq(t−∆t) ¸ ¢¢ ¡ −D ω(t−∆t) − ω0 (4.8. leads to a more compact expression. as opposed to subtransient ones.42) Fδ = Fδ(t) + Fδ(t−∆t) + Cδ = 0 (4.
32.42 is rearranged. One option to achieve this is to solve the equation set. l.44 for generator buses form the necessary set with which to carry out dynamic power flow solutions of a power system.8.4. Equations 4..32 and 4. the following linearised equation..42 to Eq. . expression 4.l (4. 4... nbus and l = 1. Fδ(t) = δ(t) − ∆t ω 2 (t) Fδ(t−∆t) = −δ(t−∆t) − ∆t ω 2 (t−∆t) Cδ = 2πf0 ∆t Equations 4. at generator buses only.44) Qk + Qe. Hence. using the NewtonRaphson method. provides the computing engine with which to carry out the solution by iteration: . Hence. ngen. . 4. are augmented to incorporate explicitly the active and reactive powers contributed by all generators in the network. 4. around a base point.l for k = 1.... . including the slack bus. Numerical Solution Technique 88 Likewise. Pk + Pe. which is nonlinear. describing the active and reactive powers injected in the network buses.33 and 4.44 for load buses and Eq...33.
45) .8.4. Numerical Solution Technique where ∆P ∆Q −− Fω J11  J12 Fδ = −− + −− J21  J22 FEd0 FEq0 FEd00 00 FEq 89 ∆e ∆f −− ∆ω ∆δ ∆Ed0 0 ∆Eq 00 ∆Ed 00 ∆Eq (4.
. . . . . . ∆Eq0 m ¤t £ ∆Ed00 = ∆Ed001 . . . . . . . . FEq0 m 1 h it FEd00 = FEd00 . ∆Ed0 m £ ¤t ∆Eq00 = ∆Eq001 . . FEq00m 1 . . . . ∆en ]t ∆f = [∆f1 . . . . ∆fn ]t ∆ω = [∆ω1 . FEd0 m 1 h it FEq0 = FEq0 . . . . . . . ∆Pn ]t ∆Q = [∆Q1 . . . . . . . ∆Qn ]t ∆e = [∆e1 . . . . . ∆Ed0 m £ ¤t ∆Eq0 = ∆Eq0 1 . . . Fδm ]t h it FEd0 = FEd0 . Numerical Solution Technique 90 ∆P = [∆P1 . . .4. . . . . ∆ωm ]t ∆δ = [∆δ1 . ∆ + δm ]t ¤t £ ∆Ed0 = ∆Ed0 1 . . . . . . . . . ∆Eq0 m Fω = [Fω1 .8. . . . . Fωm ]t Fδ = [Fδ1 . . . FEd00 m 1 h it FEq00 = FEq00 . . . . . . .
. = . ... 1 . . ... . . . ... . . ∂Pn ∂Pn ··· ∂e1 ∂f1 ∂Qn ∂Qn ··· ∂e1 ∂e1 J22 = ∂P1 ∂en ∂P1 ∂fn ∂Q1 ∂en ∂Q1 ∂fn ∂Pn ∂en ∂Pn ∂fn ∂Qn ∂en ∂Qn ∂fn .4.8..... ∂Q1 ∂ω1 = . . . . . 0 n 0n ∂P1 ∂δ1 ∂P1 ∂Ed0 1 ∂P1 ∂Eq0 1 ∂P1 ∂Ed00 ∂P1 ∂Eq00 ∂Q1 ∂δ1 ∂Q1 ∂Ed0 ∂Q1 ∂Eq0 1 ∂Q1 ∂Eq00 ∂Q1 ∂Eq00 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n 0n . Numerical Solution Technique J11 91 ³ ´ ³ ´ ∂Pe1 ∂Pe1 ∂P1 ∂P1 + + ··· ∂e1 ∂f ∂f1 ∂e1 ´ ³ 1 ´ ³ ∂Qe1 ∂Q1 + ∂Qe1 ∂Q1 ··· ∂e1 ∂e1 ∂f1 + ∂f1 . ∂Fω1 ∂ω1 ∂Fω1 ∂δ1 ∂Fω1 ∂Ed0 1 ∂Fω1 ∂Eq0 1 ∂Fω1 ∂Ed00 1 ∂Fω1 ∂Eq001 ∂Fδ1 ∂ω1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fδ1 ∂δ1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fδ1 ∂Ed0 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fδ1 ∂Eq0 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fδ1 ∂Ed00 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fδ1 ∂Eq001 ∂FE 0 ∂ω1 ∂FE 0 ∂δ1 ∂FE 0 ∂Ed0 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Eq0 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Ed00 1 ∂FE 0 ∂Eq001 ∂FE 0 ∂ω1 ∂FE 00 ∂δ1 ∂FE 00 ∂Ed0 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Eq0 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Ed00 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Eq001 ∂FE 00 ∂ω1 ∂FE 00 ∂δ1 ∂FE 00 ∂Ed0 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Eq0 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Ed00 1 ∂FE 00 ∂Eq001 ∂FE 00 ∂ω1 ∂δ1 ∂Ed0 ∂Eq0 1 ∂Ed00 ∂Eq001 d1 d1 q1 q1 d1 q1 d1 q1 d1 q1 d1 q1 1 d1 q1 d1 q1 d1 d1 q1 q1 d1 d1 q1 q1 1 ∂P1 ∂ω1 J12 . ...
with respect to nodal voltages e.8. Eq0 . are linearised and solved together with the normal power flow equations.45 may be seen as an extended NewtonRaphson power flow formulation in rectangular coordinates. in addition to the entries corresponding to the generating plant itself there are mutual terms corresponding to the interface between the network and the generating plant. Ed0 . 4. In practice. The active and reactive powers contributed by the generators are taken into consideration in the Jacobian term. J12 is a matrix of first order partial derivatives of active and reactive power at generator buses with respect to generator state variables.42 and Eq. including those of the slack bus generator. for the sake of simplifying the equation.42 and Eq. e. J21 is a matrix of first order partial derivatives of generator discretised functions of the form of Eq. Numerical Solution Technique J21 = 92 ∂Fω1 ∂e1 ∂Fδ1 ∂e1 ∂FE 0 ∂Fω1 ∂f1 ∂Fδ1 ∂f1 ∂FE 0 ∂e1 ∂FE 0 ∂f1 ∂FE 0 ∂e1 ∂FE 00 ∂f1 ∂FE 00 ∂e1 ∂FE 00 ∂f1 ∂FE 00 ∂e1 ∂f1 d1 d1 d1 q1 ··· 0n 0n ··· 0n 0n d1 ··· 0n 0n d1 ··· 0n 0n d1 ··· 0n 0n q1 ··· 0n 0n J11 is a matrix of first order partial derivatives of the active and reactive power. Equation 4.45 the mechanical power Pm contributed by the boilerturbinegovernor set has been taken to remain constant.43. 4.45 should be suitably expanded to accommodate an expression of the form: . In the overall Jacobian. in discretised form. with respect to generator state variables ω.f .43. J11 . with respect to nodal voltages.f . It should be remarked that in Eq. 4. P and Q.4. Ed00 and Eq00 . where the generating plant equations. J22 is a matrix of partial derivatives of generators discretised functions of the form of Eq. δ. 4. however. 4. 4. the boilerturbinegovernor set is an important dynamic element in power systems long term dynamics and the linearised Eq.
DP is the throttle pressure and Pm is the mechanical power. threemachine power system depicted at Fig.4. 2006]. PIP is the equivalent power from the intermediate pressure stage. Milano.9 4.1 Time Domain Simulations Validation To validate the solution technique. a time domain simulation has been carried out and compared with PSAT [Milano. 2005. Milano. BC2 is an auxiliary variable. 4. PLP is the equivalent power from the low pressure stage. SF is the steam production. The test system used is the ninebus. 2007. Anderson and Fouad.9. Pgov is the equivalent input power to the turbine. 1997]. Time Domain Simulations 93 FPHP = FPHP (t) + FPHP (t−∆t) + CPHP = 0 FPIP = FPIP (t) + FPIP (t−∆t) + CPIP = 0 FPLP = FPLP (t) + FPLP (t−∆t) + CPLP = 0 FPgov = FPgov (t) + FPgov (t−∆t) + CPgov = 0 FDP = FDP (t) + FDP (t−∆t) + CDP = 0 FBC1 = FBC1 (t) + FBC1 (t−∆t) + CBC1 = 0 FBC2 = FBC2 (t) + FBC2 (t−∆t) + CBC2 = 0 FSF = FSF (t) + FSF (t−∆t) + CSF = 0 Pm = PHP FHP + PIP FIP + PLP PLP where PHP is the equivalent power from the high pressure stage of the turbine.16 [Chow. 4. .9. BC1 is the fire intensity. 1982.
4.035 Bus 3 1.045 VBUS1 VBUS2 VBUS3 Bus Voltage Magnitude (pu) 1.11: Bus voltage response to a load change.12: PSAT simulation . The scenario considered for this study is a load change at Bus 8. A load of 10MW is added at t = 1s.035 1.025 1.02 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time (sec.04 VBus  1 V  V  Bus 2 1. Time Domain Simulations 94 The synchronous generators are presented by their 4th order model with no controls.5 5 Figure 4.5 4 4.9.03 1. pu 1.02 0 0. The simulation runs for five seconds.Bus voltage response to a load change. load are modelled by their static representation and tap changing transformers are not considered.5 1 1.045 Bus voltage magnitude Vi. using a 10 pu resistive impedance.) Figure 4.025 1.03 1.5 time. 1.5 2 2. sec 3 3. .04 1. 1.
6 Gen 2 1.9.5 5 Figure 4. the solution technique is illustrated by solving the classical transient stability study depicted at [Anderson and Fouad.4 Gen 3 e Electrical power P . 4.11 and Fig. The ninebus system [Chow. 1997]. Fig.8 0.12.14 presents the machines angle differences.2 1 0.Anderson and Fouad. sec 3 3.5 1 1. . it can also handle transient stability analyses. Fig. Time Domain Simulations 95 It should be noted from Fig. that the system response at Bus 1.6 0 0. pu Gen1 1.5 4 4.13: Electrical power deliver by generators. 4. 4. This is due to the fact that former buses are closer to the perturbation point. 1982.16.9. shown at Fig. 4. 4. So then. 1997]. is used to conduct this analyses. It is noted that the angular differences of the machines are small.5 2 2.13 shows the electrical power delivered by the generators during the transient simulation.5 time.4. Fig. 1. the system will remain stable after the disturbance.15 shows the speed deviation for the synchronous generators.2 A classical stability study Even when the simultaneous solution technique adopted is particularly suited to carrying out longterm assessments of voltage stability in power systems. thus.8 1. 4. is more damped than those at Buses 2 and 3. 4.
993 0 0.02 1 Angles differences δij.5 time.86 0.9. pu 0. 1. pu 0.14: δi − δ1 response to the load change.5 2 2.5 5 Figure 4.5 4 4.92 δ31 0.001 ω1 1 ω 2 ω3 Speed deviation ωi. .997 0. sec 3 3.5 time. The fault is cleared by opening line 57 through the breaker approximately 5 cycles after the fault occurred.5 1 1.995 0.5 4 4.4.996 0.998 0. Time Domain Simulations 96 1.5 5 Figure 4. sec 3 3.5 2 2.15: Synchronous generators’ angular velocity.9 0.96 0. The disturbance is initiated by a symmetric threephase fault occurring near Bus 7 at the end of line 57. It is assumed for this analyses that the base operating frequency is 50 Hz.84 0 0.994 0.5 1 1.94 δ21 0.98 0.999 0.88 0.
3 TRANF2 Bus 8 TRANF3 Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 5 Bus 6 Bus 4 TRANF1 Bus 1 Gen.174. 1 Figure 4. with Fig. δi . This fact is clearly indicated by the angular differences of the machines which are not divergent even though their response is oscillatory. and the buses voltage magnitude. Fig.9. 2 Gen. 4.4. Figures 4. δi .21 show the result for this dynamic assessment.18 the response of the machine’s rotor angle. namely. Vi . 4.17 showing the voltage magnitude at the system buses. . In Fig. and Fig.16: 3 Generators 9 buses power system. For this stability assessment. δ21 = δ2 − δ1 and δ31 = δ3 − δ1 . is presented. 4. Figure 4. synchronous generator are modelled by their classical representation with no controls. Time Domain Simulations 97 Bus 7 Bus 9 Gen.19 gives the angle differences between machines. This plot indicates that the system remains stable.21 shows the voltage magnitude for the buses where the synchronous generators are connected to. ωi .20 shows the speed deviation for the synchronous generators. 4. generator’s rotor angle. The variables plotted are the generator’s speed.
2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. The simulation period is 10 minutes. sec 6 7 8 VBus 1 VBus 2 VBus 3 VBus 4 VBus 5 VBus 6 VBus 7 VBus 8 VBus 9 9          10 Figure 4. For this simulation.9.9. 25 Rotor angle deviation δi. 4. .3 Test case 1 To demonstrate the applicability of the dynamic power flow algorithm. Time Domain Simulations 98 1 i Voltage magnitude V .4 0. pu 0. the load connected at Bus 8 is increased by 50%. the boilerturbinegovernor set model is included.18: δi responses to the fault.17: Bus voltage response to the fault. sec 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.6 0.4. rad 20 15 10 5 δ1 δ2 0 δ3 −5 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.8 0.
4 1. sec 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.4. Time Domain Simulations 99 1.9.01 1 ω1 0.03 Speed deviation ωi.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.6 0.4 0. continuous line.22 shows the system with a mechanical power Pm constant. rad 1.19: δij differences. 1.8 0. whereas the dash line represents the mechanical power associated with the boilerturbinegovernor set model. rad 0. 4.2 1 δij. As in the previous case the synchronous generators are modelled in detail by means of .2 0 δ21 δ31 −0.02 1. sec 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 4.98 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.99 ω2 ω3 0.20: Speed deviation ωi response to the fault. Fig.
Fig 4.1 0.9.7 0.8 0. sec 6 7 8 9  3 10 Figure 4.2 1 0.21: Voltage magnitude for generator buses. Fig 4.4.22: Synchronous generators’ mechanical power.6 1.9 i Voltage magnitude V . . the subtransient model.6 0 2 4 6 8 10 time. min Figure 4. Time Domain Simulations 100 1. 1.4 1.8 0. pu 1 0.6 VBus V  1  Bus 2 0.23 shows the excitation voltage Ef  for the case when the boilerturbinegovernor set is considered.8 m Mechanical power P . pu 1.24 depicts the voltage magnitudes for the systems’ buses.5 VBus 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.
99 0. A load increment in Bus 8 is used as the source of the perturbation.9. Fig.1 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 time. 4. a separate test case is carried out. 1.4 Test case 2 To assess the performance of the dynamic LTC transformer model.5 1. 4.4.24: Bus voltage magnitude.8 1 Ef 2 Ef  3   1. Dynamic tapchangers 2 and 3 are .03 1.01 1 0.23: Synchronous generators’ excitation voltage.04 Bus voltage magnitude Vi.02 1.9 1.4 1. pu 1.05 1. pu 1.3 1.6 f Field volatge E .97 0 2 4 6 8 10 time. min Figure 4.7 Ef 1. min Figure 4.98 0.2 1. Time Domain Simulations 101 2 1.25 shows the LTC performance following the perturbation.9.
transmission lines which connect Bus 17 with buses 27. given by the dashed line. The system has been modified to include one tapchanging transformer between buses 40 and 3.4. given by the continuous line. Fig.9.01 1. min Figure 4. as DLTC1 DLTC2 1.985 0. ’OFF’. the New England system [Chow.26 gives the voltage profiles at buses where the load tap changers are connected to. In this test case.99 0. it returns to a value closer to its predisturbance value.97 0 2 4 6 8 time. At first. 4.015 Tap performance.98 0.25: Dynamic Load TapChanger (DLTC) performance.005 1 0. Time Domain Simulations 102 closer to the perturbation point and their action is more pronounced than the dynamic LTC 1 which is farther away.9. it is noted that after an initial drop. ’ON’. 10 . and when the load tap changer is inactive.5 Test case 3 To show the wider applicability of the proposed approach. When the load tap changer is active. is used. 5.21.975 0. the dynamic load tap changer plays a very important role in improving the voltage profile at these specific points of the system. pu 1.02 DLTC 3 1. 4. 16 and 18 are tripped.995 0. 1982] depicted in Fig.
.10.03 1.u. even when the system is undergoing unfavourable conditions. the tapchanger transformer is able to control the voltage around its specified value. min Figure 4. is isolated from the system. Time Domain Simulations 103 1.01 1 0.02 1. 4.05 VBus 4 1. As shown. a consequence Bus 17 including its load.01 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 15 20 25 15 20 25 time.04 1. an event that triggers a voltage collapse of the entire system.26: Voltage magnitude at Buses 4. Next. 4.30 shows the voltage profile at the bus where the voltage is controlled by the tapchanger.98 0 5 10 time.02 1.04 1.4. producing a voltage drop at the majority of nodes.28 shows the voltage magnitudes in the remaining 37 buses of the system. 7 and 9. Fig. causing that node 18 and its load become separated from the system. The tap changer performance can be observed in Fig.9. This is followed by a tripping of the transmission line connecting buses 3 to 4. the transmission line connecting buses 3 and 18 is taken out of service. 1 p..29. bringing a recovery of system voltages. Fig. It can be seen that this device works in its prespecified working range. min 1.99 0 5 10 time. which is from 0.04 VBus 9 1.03 1.90 to 1. 4. 4. min VBus 7 1.02 1 0. Fig.29 shows the discrete response of the tapchanger under abrupt voltage changes.
Time Domain Simulations 104 8 N26 N37 N25 1 N30 N28 N29 N2 N38 N27 N17 N18 N1 N24 9 N16 N3 6 N35 N15 N22 10 N21 N4 N14 N39 N5 N6 N12 N23 N19 N7 N13 N31 N8 N9 N20 N11 N36 N33 2 7 N34 4 N10 5 N32 3 Figure 4.9.4.27: Oneline New England test system diagram. .
2 Figure 4.05 1 0.9.06 1.94 0.1 Bus voltage magnitude Vi.29: Dynamic load tap changer performance. min 0.05 0.75 0.05 0.28: Bus voltages’ response.8 0.92 0 0.1 0.04 1.15 time.95 0. pu 1. min 0.2 0. 0.25 Figure 4.15 time. pu 1.1 0.02 1 0.1 1.12 1.98 0.08 Tap position.7 0 0. Time Domain Simulations 105 1.9 0.85 0. 1.25 .4.96 0.
15 time.1 0.1 Bus voltage magnitude V3.98 0 0.02 1 0.9. 0. min 0.06 1. Time Domain Simulations 106 1.04 1. pu 1.4.08 1.30: Voltage magnitude at Bus 3.25 .2 Figure 4.05 0.
such as tripping lines. load variations and balanced threephase faults have been studied using the developed algorithm. 2006]. mathematical models of the classical synchronous machine model and the advanced representation of it. in a balanced threephase frame of reference have been developed. a widely used transient stability simulation package within the academic community. the differential equations of each component are transformed into an algebraic form taking advantage of the implicit trapezoidal rule.10 107 Summary This chapter focuses on the dynamic model of generating plants. A set of ordinary differential equations describing the components was obtained for each generating plant component. The trapezoidal rule is applied to discretise the dynamic equations corresponding to all the synchronous generators’ variables and power plant components.Milano. the results reported are compared with the output of PSAT [Milano. yielding satisfactory agreement. Where appropriate. dynamic stability assessment. turbine. 2007.10. In each case. Summary 4. For the purpose of this research.Milano. . 2005. Several network disturbances. speedgovernor and boiler. An implicit trapezoidal integration method embedded with a NewtonRaphson iteration technique has been selected to solve simultaneously. The models and the solution method have been proven capable of performing adequately the longterm dynamic assessment of power systems. with automatic voltage regulator. The differentialalgebraic model of the network has been coded in software to carry out time domain analyses of power networks with combined dynamic and static elements. the differential and static system equations.4.
devices. In gen .1 Load Modelling Concepts Introduction Over the past several years. and loadshedding schemes. 2002. Since voltage stability is characteristically different from other forms of stability. new analytical and modeling approaches were required. and controls which are key to the voltage stability phenomenon.1. An important step in the development of analyses methods involves identifying and developing models for system components. automatically switched capacitors.. Both steadystate (static) analyses methods (such as PV curves and modal analyses) and dynamic analyses (such as timedomain simulation) have gained industry acceptance and are now widely used. such as transient stability or small signal stability.1 5.Morison et al.IEEE Power Engineering Society. Static Var Systems. automatic underload tapchanger transformers. the increasing concern over voltage stability has lead to an enormous effort in industry to develop acceptable techniques and tools for analysis of this phenomena [Taylor.Chapter 5 Power System Loads Modelling 5. These include such examples as the modelling of reactive capability of generators including overexcitation limiters. 1994. 1993].
5. including numerous IEEE and CIGRE publications. 1993. Studies have shown that the results of stability simulations can be drastically affected by variations in load models. models must be developed for all relevant system components. which can be considered highly statistical in nature and.1. this is particularly true for voltage stability studies in which loads may be subjected to large variations in system voltages and in which shortterm and longterm nonlinear load characteristics may come into play. 1995. and load representation has received a lack of attention and continues to be an area of greater uncertainty. Power system engineers base decisions concerning system performance in large part on the results of power flow and stability simulation studies. Therefore. While there has been significant attention given to load modelling in industry [IEEE Load Task Force. 1993. it remains a challenge to properly develop load models which can be used with confidence in practical daytoday studies. Load Modelling Concepts 109 eral. for most engineers. Much attention has been given to models for generation and transmission/distribution equipment as described in Chapter 4. In performing power system analyses. Hagajos and Danai. much more of a challenge when developing practical models which are generically applicable. therefore. the term ”load” refers to the equivalent representation of the aggregate effects of many individual load devices and the interconnecting distribution and subtransmission systems that are not explicitly represented in the system model [IEEE . including generating station. these can be considered deterministic modelling issues. can be modelled with a reasonable degree of certainty. transmission and distribution equipment and load devices. IEEE Task Force on Load Representation. the device structures/functions are not explicitly timevarying and once known. Many studies have shown that load representation can have a significant impact on analyses result [IEEE Load Task Force. Xu and Mansour. However. IEEE Task Force on Load Representation. For purposes of system studies. load modelling is of major importance and should be address and considered for dynamic performance analyses. the driving force for voltage instability is usually the loads. 1998]. 1995]. 1994.
refrigerators. 1994]. season). there are many other factors like time (hour. motors. 1995] published in 1995 contained 118 references on the subject. Load modelling for dynamic performance analyses has been greatly advanced in the past few years.5. A bibliographical review [IEEE Task Force on Load Representation. Load characteristics affect the dynamic behaviour of a power system and the importance of proper representation of loads in power system stability studies has long been recognized [Concordia and Ihara. arc furnaces and so on. and the load models can be divided into two main categories: a Static load model. day. The precise representation of load is difficult to estimate. ovens. Even when the precise representation of load is known. heaters. load representation in stability studies is based on a considerable amount of simplifications.1. 1982]. Hence. 2002]. weather conditions and the state of the economy that prevent the load modelling in power systems [Kundur. Load Modelling Concepts 110 Power Engineering Society. However. The active and reactive power consumed by the load could be represented by a simple mathematical model. . 2002]. the representation of loads for voltage stability analyses involves several aspects not required for conventional stability studies. For stability studies load representation is very common to be denoted by a load bus which represents incandescent and fluorescent lamps. The modelling of these effects is not wellestablished and is still the subject of ongoing investigation [IEEE Power Engineering Society. Induction motors constitute a major portion of the system load. b Dynamic load model. air conditioner.
1) (5. 5.2. P0 and Q0 are normally taken as initial operating conditions. Fig.2. static models were used in earlier attempts to model load elements. Regularly. leading it to a load expression where only the voltage dependency is considered. Static Load Model 5.1 Polynomial representation Typically both active and reactive power loads are represented by quadratic polynomials given by " µ P = P0 a0 " Q = Q0 b0 µ V  V0  V  V0  ¶2 µ + a1 ¶2 µ + b1 V  V0  V  V0  # ¶ + a2 # ¶ + b2 where V0 . (algebraic) functions according to their time responses to voltage and frequency variations in the system.5.1 shows this load model representation. to simplify the mathematical load expression frequency was considered constant. The load model can be defined as a mathematical representation of the relation between the active or reactive power (or the current injection) in a load bus and the complex voltage of this same bus. The load elements were divided into: i Constant impedance ”Z”. ii Constant current ”I” and iii Constant power ”P”.2 111 Static Load Model In transient stability studies simulations. (5. loads are typically modelled as purely static. 5.2) . However.
1: Simple load representation as ZIP loads.5.2.2 are fractions of the constant power. The coefficients a0.2 and b0.4) Note that by setting the exponents np and nq to 0. A constraint is imposed: a0 + a1 + a2 = 1 b0 + b1 + b2 = 1 This load representation in not appropriate for cases involving large voltage variations.3) (5. µ ¶ V  np P = Po Vo  µ ¶ V  nq Q = Qo Vo  (5. 1 or 2.2.1.1. 5. constant current and constant impedance components in the active power loads. Static Load Model 112 VS VL Power Source Z ”Constant Impedance” I ”Constant Current” ZIP Loads P ”Constant Power” Figure 5. 1993]. It is represented by. the model represents con .2 Exponential representation This load model has a voltage dependence of load characteristics and expresses the characteristics of the load at any instant or time as algebraic functions of the bus voltage magnitude at that moment [IEEE Load Task Force.
Finally. 1982]. it can be computed by taking the numerical derivative of the bus voltage angle. For constant power model. .3 Frequency Load Model For this load modelling. for constant impedance model.5. f0 is the rated frequency. given by. the bus voltage frequency is not an inherent state variable of the system however. Usually. a static load model representation may includes frequency dependance. The value of apf normally ranges from 0 to 3. This is usually represented by expressing either a polynomial or exponential load model multiplied by a factor of the following form. This is a practical representation of the real power demand as a mixture of resistance and motor devices.3.0 to 0 for the reactive power contribution [Concordia and Ihara. (f − f0 ) where f is the frequency of the bus voltage.0 for the active contribution and from −2. The constant current model gives a load demand that varies linearly with voltage np ≈ nq ≈ 1. 1993]. Frequency Load Model 113 stant power. This model represents lighting loads but it does not model stiff loads satisfactorily. constant current or constant impedance characteristics. Exponents greater than 2 or less than 0 may be appropriate for some types of loads [IEEE Load Task Force. respectively. the voltage is invariant and allows loads to be represented with a stiff voltage characteristic. (1 + apf ∆f ) where ∆f is the frequency deviation. the load power changes proportionally np ≈ nq ≈ 2. 5.
to modelled the dynamic load behaviour in more detail where the voltage/frequency parameters and the dynamic itself of any electrical power system could be represented. and corresponds to a single cage induction motor. 1998]. 1990.2: Induction motor equivalent circuit.. airgap line Rs Eim Xs Ia Rc Xm Ib Vag Xr Rr (1 .4 114 Dynamic Load Model Despite the effort to get more accurate load models where the voltage/frequency dependance is present [Hill. There is wideranging agreement that load characteristics have a marked influence on system stability. Dynamic Load Model 5. 5. It is based on the equivalent circuit shown in Fig.2. 1993]. in particular. Anrborg et al. 1993. the motors consume a large fraction of the electricity generated. Hill. In today’s power systems. in general.s ) s Figure 5. and that induction motor loads play a dominate role during the initial stages of a voltage instability occurrence [Sekine and Ohtsuki. an induction motor load representation is more than necessary. 5. accurate modelling of these motors is required to capture the dynamics associated with the motors. these models do not take into account the dynamic of the load and are still being modelled as static loads. Hence.4. .1 Induction motor modelling A simple and yet realistic model of the induction motor is used in the dynamic power flows algorithm. Thus.4.5.
Pim is the mechanical output power. while Ia and Ib are the currents through stator and rotor. . and equations for active and reactive powers at the airgap line are: µ ¶ 1 Pim s˙ = − Pag 2Him 1 − s µ ¶ ¡ 2 ¢ sRr 2 Pag = eag + fag 2 2 2 R + s Xr µ r 2 ¶ ¡ 2 ¢ s Xr 2 Qag = eag + fag 2 2 2 Rr + s Xr (5. with the airgap line providing the interface between the two circuits. Dynamic Load Model 115 Where Rs and Xs are the resistance and reactance of the stator. Rc stands for core loses.7) where s = (ω0 −ωr )/ω0 . As already has been described at Section 4. Eq. The applied voltage of the induction machine is Eim = Vim ejθim .5) (5. eag and fag are the real and imaginary components of the airgap voltage. Pag and Qag are the active and reactive powers at the airgap line. 5.6) (5. respectively. Hence. ωr is the rotor speed. the rotor model consists of a first order differential equation where the rotor slip s is the state variable. The same procedure applied at Chapter 4 is applied for the differential equation of the induction motor. respectively. Rr and Xr are the rotor’s resistance and reactance. respectively. the set of DAE describing each plant component of the power network are interdependent and the simultaneous calculation provides for a more stable numerical solution.5.8. Him is the induction motor’s inertia constant. Rr and Xr are the rotor’s resistance and reactance.5. f is the base operating frequency. ω0 = 2πf is the synchronous speed. Xm represents the magnetizing reactance. The induction motor’s stator and magnetizing branch impedances may be lumped together with the impedances of the transmission network and only the rotor is taken to be the dynamic element of it.4. and s is the slip. respectively.
Dynamic Load Model s(t) − s(t−∆t) = 116 µ µ · ¶ ¶¸ 1 Pm 1 Pm ∆t − Pag(t) + − Pag(t−∆t) 2 2Him 1 − s(t) 2Him 1 − s(t−∆t) (5. are augmented to incorporate explicitly the active and reactive powers contributed by all induction motors and generators in the network.4. respectively.11) . Fs = Fs(t) + Fs(t−∆t) + Cs = 0 (5. P(k) + Pe(genbus(l)) (5.10) Q(k) + Qe(genbus(l)) P(m) + Pag(imbus(n)) Q(m) + Qag(imbus(n)) (5.5.5.33 describing the active and reactive powers injected in the network buses reported at Section 4.9) where · µ ¶¸ ∆t 1 Pm Fs(t) = s(t) + − Pag(t) 2 2Him 1 − s(t) · µ ¶¸ 1 Pm ∆t − Pag(t−∆t) Fs(t−∆t) = −s(t−∆t) + 2 2Him 1 − s(t−∆t) Cs = 0 Equations 4.8) in a compact way. Hence.32 and 4. at generator buses and load buses with an induction motor load representation. it can be rewritten as follow.
.44 for load buses.ngen...nim.. 4. . .5. the NewtonRaphson method may be used to carry out the solution using a linearised system of equations. 4.12) . 4.45 must be modified to include the dynamic effects of the induction motor.33 and Eq.. . Dynamic Load Model 117 for k=1. Eq.32. . yielding to the following linearised system of equations: where ∆P ∆Q −− Fω Fδ = FEd0 FEq0 FEd00 FEq00 −− Fs J11  J12  J13 −− + −− + −− J21  J22  J23 −− + −− + −− J31  J32  J33 ∆e ∆f −− ∆ω ∆δ 0 ∆Ed 0 ∆Eq ∆Ed00 ∆Eq00 −− ∆s (5. .44 for generator buses and Equation 5. When induction motors are considered.nbus and l=1.. .4.42 to Eq.9 for induction motors form the necessary set with which to carry out dynamic power flows solutions of a power system with induction motor loads. To solve the equation set. . Eqs. Eq. 4. 4. 4.nbus and n=1. . where imbus(n) is an array of induction motorconnected buses.. where genbus(l) is an array of generatorconnected buses and for m=1.. For this case.
FEq00r £ ¤t Fs = Fsj . . . ∆Eq00r ∆s = [∆sj . . FEq0 r h it FEd00 = FEd00 . . . . ∆Pn ]t ∆Q = [∆Qg . ∆Qn ]t ∆e = [∆eg . ∆Ed00r h it ∆Eq00 = ∆Eq00g . . . . . . . . ∆δr ]t h it ∆Ed0 = ∆Ed0 g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fδr h it FEd0 = FEd0 . . . . ∆ωr ]t ∆δ = [∆δg . . . . . . Fωr ¤t £ Fδ = Fδg . . . . .4. . . Fsm with the various Jacobian entries defined as: . . . . ∆Eq0 r h it ∆Ed00 = ∆Ed00g . . . . . .5. Dynamic Load Model 118 ∆P = [∆Pg . . . . ∆Ed0 r h it ∆Eq0 = ∆Eq0 g . . ∆sm ]t ¤t £ Fω = Fωg . . . . . . . . . FEd0 g r h it FEq0 = FEq0 g . ∆fn ]t ∆ω = [∆ωg . ∆en ]t ∆f = [∆fg . . . . . . . . . FEd00 g r h it FEq00 = FEq00g . . . . .
. . . It should be noted that in matrix J11 .nim). where m = 1. . . J22 = ∂Fωg ∂ωg ∂Fωg ∂δg ∂Fωg ∂Ed0 g ∂Fωg ∂Eq0 g ∂Fωg ∂Ed00g ∂Fωg ∂Eq00g ∂Fδg ∂ωg ∂FE 0 ∂Fδg ∂δg ∂FE 0 ∂Fδg ∂Ed0 g ∂FE 0 ∂Fδg ∂Eq0 g ∂FE 0 ∂Fδg ∂Ed00g ∂FE 0 ∂Fδg ∂Eq00g ∂FE 0 ∂ωg ∂FE 0 ∂δg ∂FE 0 ∂Ed0 g ∂FE 0 ∂Eq0 g ∂FE 0 ∂Ed00g ∂FE 0 ∂Eq00g ∂FE 0 ∂ωg ∂FE 00 ∂δg ∂FE 00 ∂Ed0 g ∂FE 00 ∂Eq0 g ∂FE 00 ∂Ed00g ∂FE 00 ∂Eq00g ∂FE 00 ∂ωg ∂FE 00 ∂δg ∂FE 00 ∂Ed0 g ∂FE 00 ∂Eq0 g ∂FE 00 ∂Ed00g ∂FE 00 ∂Eq00g ∂FE 00 ∂ωg ∂δg ∂Ed0 g ∂Eq0 g ∂Ed00g ∂Eq00g dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg dg qg .. ∂Pl ∂Pl ∂em ∂fm ∂Ql ∂Ql ∂em ∂fm ..5.. . . (ii) the Jacobian terms of the generator stator powers are added to the self elements contributed by the network at generator buses (bus g in matrix J11 . (iii) the Jacobian terms of the induction motor stator powers are added to the self elements contributed by the network at induction motor buses (bus m in matrix J11 . .. . . load buses with no induction motor load are termed l.... Dynamic Load Model ³ J11 ∂Pg ∂eg ∂Peg ∂eg ´ ³ 119 ∂Peg ∂fg ∂Pg ∂fg + + ´ ³ ´ ³ ∂Qeg ∂Qg ∂Qg + ∂Qeg + ∂eg ∂eg ∂fg ∂fg . . .. . . . ∂Pl ∂Pl ∂eg ∂fg = ∂Ql ∂Ql ∂eg ∂fg . .. ··· ∂Pm ∂el ∂Pm ∂fl ··· ··· ∂Qm ∂el ∂Pm ∂fl ··· . . .. ³ ´ ³ ´ ∂Pem ∂Pem ∂Pm ∂Pm ∂em + ∂em ∂fm + ∂fm ³ ´ ³ ´ ∂P ∂P ∂Pm em ∂Pm em ∂em + ∂em ∂fm + ∂fm Entry J11 is essentially the Jacobian matrix of the conventional NewtonRaphson method in rectangular coordinates but with the following extensions: (i) full contribution of the slack bus is included. . . ..ngen).. ∂Pl ∂el ∂Pl ∂fl ··· . .. . . . ∂Pm ∂Pm ∂eg ∂fg ∂Qm ∂eg ´ ∂Qm ∂fg ··· ∂Pg ∂el ∂Pg ∂fl ··· . . ∂Pg ∂el ∂Pg ∂fl ··· . . ··· ∂Pg ∂em ∂Pg ∂fm ∂Qg ∂em ∂Qg ∂fm . .4.. . . ··· ∂Pl ∂el ∂Pl ∂fl ··· ··· . .. where g = 1. .
4. . . ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 ··· 0 d1 ··· 0 q1 ··· 0 d1 ··· 0 q1 ··· 0 ∂s1 ∂FE 0 ∂s1 ∂FE 00 ∂s1 ∂FE 00 ∂s1 . = ∂Fω1 ∂s1 ∂Fδ1 ∂s1 ∂FE 0 . .. .. .5.. Dynamic Load Model 120 ¸ · ∂Fsim ∂sim J33 = J12 = ∂Pg ∂ωg ∂Pg ∂δg ∂Pg ∂Ed0 g ∂Pg ∂Eq0 g ∂Pg ∂Ed00g ∂Pg ∂Eq00g ∂Qg ∂ωg ∂Qg ∂δg . .. ∂Qg ∂Ed0 g ∂Qg ∂Eq0 g ∂Qg ∂Ed00g ∂Qg ∂Eq00g 0 0 0 0 0 0 J21 = .. . ∂Fωg ∂eg ∂Fδg ∂eg ∂FE 0 ∂Fωg ∂fg ∂Fδg ∂fg ∂FE 0 ∂eg ∂FE 0 ∂fg ∂FE 0 ∂eg ∂FE 00 ∂fg ∂FE 00 ∂eg ∂FE 00 ∂fg ∂FE 00 ∂eg ∂fg dg dg qg qg dg dg qg qg J23 . ..
1982.IEEE Task Force on Load Representation. ∂Fsim ∂Ed00g ∂Fsim ∂Eq00g 0 · J31 = ¸ ∂Fsim ∂eg ∂Fsim ∂fg ··· 0 In matrix entries J12 .5. a time domain simulation has been carried out and compared with a dynamic simulation where the load is represented by its voltage/frequency dependence load model [Concordia and Ihara. . J21 . J13 and J31 all zero terms are null vectors of suitable dimensions required to pad out the various matrix entries.5 5. In addition to the entries corresponding to the generating plant itself the Jacobian also considers mutual terms corresponding to the interface between the network and the generating plant.5. . 1995]. Results 121 · J32 = ¸ ∂Fsim ∂ωg ∂Fsim ∂δg J13 ∂Fsim ∂Ed0 g ∂Fsim ∂Eq0 g = ∂Pg ∂sim ∂Qg ∂sim .5. Notice also that if no induction motors and generators share the same bus. matrix entries J23 and J32 are null entries.1 Results Test case 1 To validate the induction motor model.. 5.
Rs + jXs . using a 0. Fig.2. as shown in Fig. Results 122 The test system used for the induction motor validation is depicted at Fig. 5. for the induction .5. The simulation is run for five minutes. To fully model the induction motor as depicted at Fig.5. 5. is replaced by a load represented by its voltage/frequency dependance load model. 5. 2005] described in Table 5.7 depict the active and reactive consumed powers at Bus 2. and the magnetizing branch.2 is neglected.25 pu resistive impedance. The scenario considered for this study is a load aggregation at Bus 2. For validation purposes.05m. 5.1. 5. Rc of Fig. Xm are grouped with the impedances of the transmission network and only the rotor is modelled according to Eq.4: Static load model representation. Fig.6 and 5. Singlecage induction motor representation 1 Rs 2 Xs 3 Xr Xm Rr s Figure 5..3.4.5.7. The core resistance.3. the circuit delimited by the dashed line of Fig. The simulation is carried out with a 200kW induction machine [Pedra et al. 5. 5. There is the notion that the exponential representation with index equal to 1 may be used to good effect to represent an induction motor load.3: Singlecage induction motor representation. 1 2 Load Figure 5. 5. the induction motor’s stator impedances.5 shows the bus voltage profile for the induction motor load model and the voltage/frequency dependence load model at Bus 2. A load is added at t = 0.
Rated voltage.5 time.1: Induction Motor Parameters Rated output power. Vag . 5. Fig. 5.98 0.00719 pu Xm = 2. min 3 3. pu 0.5 5 Figure 5. .08179 pu 1 Bus voltage magnitude.08179 pu Xr = 0. Results 123 Table 5. Rated frequency. s and the voltage profile at the airgap line. 5.2940 pu 500kW 400V 50Hz Xs = 0.9 show the slip performance.97 0.2.96 0.5 2 2. 5. Rs = 0. Fig.00360 pu Rr = 0.5 1 1.5.10 shows the voltage frequency deviation at Bus 2.94 0 0.8 and Fig.5: Bus voltage magnitude at Bus 2.5 4 4.99 0. As expected.5. the response between the induction motor model representation and the voltage/frequency load model representation agree on well for the steadystate period but they do so how to have a slightly different dynamic behaviour. motor load model and the voltage/frequency dependance load model.95 Induction Motor Voltage/frequency load model 0.
183 0.182 0. Results 124 0.35 Voltage/frequency load model 0 0. threemachine power system depicted at Fig. min 3 3. .5 2 2.179 0.Anderson and Fouad. min 3 3.185 0.5 5 Figure 5.5 time.188 Voltage/frequency load model Induction Motor 0. 4.5.6 Active power.6: Active power injection at Bus 2.5 1 1.2 Test case 2 The dynamic behaviour of the induction motor is assessed more fully. pu 0. pu 0.5 time.16 [Chow.55 0.5 5 4. 1982.5 4 4.187 0.65 0.5 4 Figure 5.5 2 2.5. 5.4 Induction Motor 0.184 0.18 0.5 0. 0.5 1 1.7: Reactive power injection at Bus 2. The test system used is the ninebus.186 Reactive power.5.181 0.45 0.178 0 0. 1997].
5 time.16 have been replaced for two small industrial induction motors [Kundur.81 0 0.94 0. 1994]. To demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the dynamic power flows tool and the induction motor modelling.91 0. 4. min 3 3.83 0.5 4 4.82 0. The load connected at Bus 8 remains as an static load.93 0. pu 0.5 1 1.96 Bus voltage magnitude.5. There is a 35% load increment of phase c at this bus at time 1 min.91 0. % 0.88 Slip.5 time.92 0. min 3 3.5 5 4 4.5 2 2.5 1 1.84 0. the loads of Buses 5 and 6 of Fig.5 Figure 5.9 0 0. The .9 0.5 2 2.8: Airgap voltage profile.95 0. Results 125 0.5.87 0. 0.9: Slip performance.5 5 Figure 5.89 0.85 0.86 0.
min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 5.9 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.002 Bus frequency.25 1.5 4 4.006 −0.35 1.11: Active power consumption by the induction motors.5 1 1.10: Bus frequency deviation.12 show active and reactive power consumed by the induction motors.014 −0.008 −0.5.5 2 2.004 −0. 1. 5. 5.1 1.13 depicts the slip performance for the induction motor during the transient sim . pu 1.01 −0.95 0.5 5 Figure 5.2 1.4 1.5. pu −0. min 3 3. Fig.11 and Fig. Results 126 0 −0.3 Active power. Figure 5. respectively.018 0 0.012 −0.15 1. simulation is run for 10 minutes.016 −0.05 Induction Motor − Bus 5 Induction Motor − Bus 6 1 0.5 time.
5.5. Results
127
0.6
0.58
Reactive power, pu
0.56
0.54
0.52
Induction Motor − Bus 5
Induction Motor − Bus 6
0.5
0.48
0.46
0
1
2
3
4
5
time, min
6
7
8
9
10
Figure 5.12: Reactive power consumption by the induction motors.
ulation.
6.5
6
Slip, %
5.5
Induction Motor − Bus 5
Induction Motor − Bus 6
5
4.5
4
0
1
2
3
4
5
time, min
6
7
8
9
10
Figure 5.13: Slip performance.
Fig. 5.14 depicts the bus voltage magnitude at loadconnected buses. The voltage magnitude at the induction motorconnected buses is also affected by the load variation perturbation
however, it drops less than at the affected bus, as is shown in Fig. 5.14. Due to load mod
5.5. Results
128
ification, it brings about a generators’ field voltage Ef increment, as depicted at Fig. 5.15.
From Fig. 5.15, it can be said, that the synchronous generators connected at Buses 2 and 3
supply more energy than the one connected at Bus 1, due to the former ones being closer to
the perturbation point.
1.015
Induction Motor − Bus 5
Induction Motor − Bus 6
Static load − Bus 8
1.01
Bus voltage magnitude, pu
1.005
1
0.995
0.99
0.985
0.98
0.975
0.97
0.965
0
1
2
3
4
5
time, min
6
7
8
9
10
Figure 5.14: Bus voltage magnitude at loadconnected buses.
2
1.9
Syn Generator 1
Syn Generator 2
Syn Generator 3
1.8
Field voltage, pu
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
time, min
6
7
Figure 5.15: Generators’ field voltage.
8
9
10
5.5. Results
5.5.3
129
Test case 3
The dynamic behaviour of the induction motor load is assessed further in this section, with
an induction motor with parameter data corresponding to a large industrial motor [Kundur,
1994], replacing the load connected at Bus 5. The perturbation consists in increasing the
torque of this induction motor by 25%. Figs. 5.16 and 5.17 show the active and reactive
powers drawn by the induction motor, where the former jumps from just over 1.3 pu in
steadystate to a new value of 1.66 pu, an increase of approximately 27%. Likewise, the
reactive power consumption goes from 0.39 pu to 0.46 pu, an increase of almost 18%.
1.65
Active power, pu
1.6
1.55
1.5
1.45
1.4
1.35
1.3
0
5
10
15
20
25
time, min
Figure 5.16: Active power consumption of the induction motor.
As shown in Fig. 5.18, the slip has an initial value of 8.1% and following the perturbation
it settles to a value of 10.75%. Fig 5.19 depicts the bus voltage magnitude for all buses. It it
shown, that after a bus voltage drop at all buses the system remains stable. Fig 5.20 shows
the angular velocity for the three generators.
5.5. Results
130
0.46
0.45
Reactive power, pu
0.44
0.43
0.42
0.41
0.4
0.39
0
5
10
15
20
25
time, min
Figure 5.17: Reactive power consumption of the induction motor.
11
10.5
Slip, %
10
9.5
9
8.5
8
0
5
10
15
20
25
time, min
Figure 5.18: Slip performance of the induction motor.
5.5.4
Test case 4
The dynamic power flows algorithm is used to analyse the dynamic response of the New
England test system [Chow, 1982], depicted in Fig. 5.21. It consists of 39 buses, 10 generators,
36 transmission lines and 10 transformers. Four distinct simulation studies are conducted in
992 0.5.03 1.5.04 1.994 0. min Figure 5. namely induction motor and exponential load model with indices 0.997 0. min Figure 5.98 0 5 10 15 20 25 20 25 time.993 0.998 Speed.996 0. pu 0. each relating to a different kind of load representation. In each case.02 1. The aim is to carry out a series of planned outages which have the effect of pushing the system into a state of voltage instability.995 0.01 1 0. pu 1.99 0. 1 and 2.991 0 5 10 15 time.001 1 0. At the simulation .20: Generators’ speed. 1.05 Bus voltage magnitude.19: Bus voltage profile.999 0. respectively. all loads are assumed to be of the same kind. Results 131 1. this section.
the transmission line connecting buses N3 and N18 is disconnected. Later on. Bus N17. as a consequence of this.5.23. producing voltage drops in the majority of buses. N16 and N18 are tripped. becomes isolated from the system. This is followed by the tripping of transmission line connecting buses N3 and N4. transmission lines connecting Bus N17 and buses N27. at time 0. causing Bus N18 and its load to separate from the system. as shown in Fig.1 s.5. and it comes a point during the simulation that the dynamic power flows algorithm fails to converge.21: Oneline New England test system diagram. 5. as shown in Fig. an .15 s.05 s. including its load.23. at time 0. Results 132 level. 8 N26 N37 N25 1 N30 N28 N29 N2 N38 N27 N17 N18 N1 N24 9 N16 N3 6 N35 N15 N22 10 N21 N4 N14 N39 N5 N6 N12 N23 N19 N7 N13 N31 N8 N9 N20 N11 N36 N33 2 7 N34 4 N10 5 N32 3 Figure 5. such outages lead to very low voltages at several nodes of the network. 5. The sequence of planned outage events is as follows: at time 0. resulting in an overall recovery of system voltages.
corresponding to the four kinds of load representation used in the study.05 0. At this particular bus. which has shown to be the weakest bus. The simulation seems to be slightly more robust with the static load representation with exponential index 1 than with the dynamic load representation. Four different results are shown. the voltage at Bus N14. 5.50 s but the downward trend of system voltage is very much in line with that observed in Fig.1 0. A more detailed assessment is made with reference to Fig. In Fig.Loads as induction motors.22: Bus voltage profile . the dynamic load voltage . 5. the voltages drop below 0. Results 133 event which to a greater or lesser extent reduces voltages at all buses. when the system load is represented by induction motors.5. the weakest bus in the network. pu 1.35 0.9 0.u. and the dynamic power flows algorithm can not reach convergence any longer. where nodal voltages are shown for Bus N14.3 0.85 p.15 0. reaches a value of 0.95 0.2 0.u. The results in Fig.93 p.05 1 0. at a time 0.22 for the case of induction motor load.23 it is shown how the overall system voltage perform when the load is exponential with index 1.5. 5.1 Bus voltage magnitude. sec 0. the simulation runs for almost 0. This trend accentuates with time and in several buses. 1994].25 time.22 corresponds to the case when all loads are assumed to be induction motors with parameter data corresponding to a large industrial motor [Kundur.4 Figure 5. 1.26. 5.25 s.42 s.85 0 0. Just after 0.
following the tripping of transmission line N3N4. Results 134 response exhibits the higher profile and this is followed by the static load representations with exponential indices 0. sec 0.4 0. The load representation with exponential index 2 is too pessimistic and posses the biggest challenge to the dynamic power flow algorithm.2 0. The figures clearly shows that at time 0. respectively.15 0.5.85 0.05 0.Loads with exponential indices equal to 1. 1 and 2. The solution is halted at just after 0.25. Moreover. For completeness.1 0.1 Bus voltage magnitude.28 shows the slip behaviour of the induction motor connected to Bus N14 and Fig.75 0 0.24 and 5.35 0. Fig.8 0.95 0.3 time. 5. pu 1.15 s.05 1 0. respectively. The load representation with exponential index 1 posses the least challenge to the algorithm but the nodal voltages are still well below those of the induction motor and the static load representation with exponential index 0.45 Figure 5. the slip for most of the induction motors exhibits a relatively large swing.23: Bus voltage profile .27 shows slip performance for all the induction motors. 1. 5.5. the active and reactive power consumed by the induction motors are depicted at Fig.37 s.25 0.9 0. 5. .
4 Figure 5.4 1. 1. pu 3 2.05 0.15 0.4 Figure 5.5. .4 0. sec 0.35 0.05 0.6 Ractive power consumption.2 1 0.5.8 0.25 time. pu 1.2 0 0.2 0.5 0 0.5 2 1. Results 135 Active power consumption.3 0.6 0.25 time.15 0.3 0.5 1 0.24: Active power consumed by the induction motors.25: Reactive power consumed by the induction motors..2 0. sec 0.35 0.1 0.1 0.
95 0.05 0.3 Figure 5. 0. sec 0.4 . sec 0.25 time.3 time.5.2 0.26: Voltage magnitudes at N14.15 0.8 0.15 0.2 0.05 0.35 0.1 0.85 0. 16 14 Slip.9 0.27: Slip performance.75 0 0.25 0.35 0.1 0.5. % 12 10 8 6 4 0 0.4 0.45 Figure 5. pu 0. Results 136 1 Index 0 Index 1 Index 2 Induction Motor Bus voltage magnitude.
15 0.65 3.63 0 0. % Induction Motor connected at Bus N14 3.69 3. 0.7 3.4 .05 0.1 0.3 Figure 5. Results 137 3.28: Slip performance.25 time.66 3.64 3.72 Slip.35 0.5.2 0.71 3.5.68 3. sec 0.67 3.
In a nutshell.5. to enable the study of a wide range of dynamic voltage phenomena in power systems. this is a dynamic power flows algorithm which enables dynamic assessments of the power system. on the development. and the responses of static load representations are compared with those of induction motors. The overall method blends seamlessly the algebraicdifferential equation set which represent the power system by using repeated linearization and the trapezoidal rule. and general conclusions are drawn. with strong convergence characteristics and flexible network representation. resulting in a unified frameofreference with which to carry out reliable numerical solutions using the NewtonRaphson method.6 138 Summary This chapter relies mainly. Besides presenting a detailed description of how highorder synchronous generator and induction motor models are incorporated into the dynamic power flows algorithm. analyses and implementation of the loads’ behaviour in a dynamic power flow algorithm. . Summary 5. the thrust of this chapter is on system load modelling.6. The dynamic power flows computer program has been extended to encompass static and dynamic load modelling including induction motor loads. The upgraded software is well suited to carrying out comprehensive studies of widearea dynamic voltage collapse. as demonstrated by numerical example.
In the last decade commercial availability of Gate TurnOff thyristor (GTO) devices with high power handling capability. bus voltages must be controlled on a specified range. efficient transmission capacity utilisation and increase of stability margins. During steady state operation. Some controllers work on the basis of injecting a series voltage injection an others on injecting a shunt reactive current at the point of connection with the power system. However.1 Introduction Voltage stability and control are increasingly becoming a limiting factor in the planning and operation of power systems. Following a disturbance.Chapter 6 Modelling of FACTS Controllers 6. mainly in weakly interconnected ones. Applying various control equipment and methods. the voltage control objectives in transmission system can be achieved. such as reduction of voltage gradients. A suitable voltage and reactive power control allows to obtain important benefits in the power system operation. This has resulted in the need to maximise the use of existing transmission facilities. for a number of economical and environmental reasons the construction of new transmission lines is suffering delays. and the rapid progress of other powersemiconductor devices such as . changes in the system voltage take place and restoration to the reference values depends very much on the dynamic response of the excitation systems and the other voltage controllers.
2 Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt connected reactive compensator capable of generating or absorbing reactive power in a dynamic fashion.6. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) 140 IGBT. GTOs and IGBTs enable the design of solidstate shunt reactive compensation equipment based upon switching converter technology. STATCOM. The advent of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) has given rise to a new family of power electronic equipment for controlling and optimising the performance of a power system. made up by thyristorswitched capacitors (TSC) and thyristor controlled reactors (TCR). The AC voltage difference across the leakage reactance is regulated to produced reactive power exchange . The voltagesource converter (VSC) is widely accepted to be the next generation of reactive power controller to the SVC. The STATCOM employs solid state power switching devices. The STATCOM possesses operating characteristics similar to those of the rotating synchronous compensator but with no mechanical inertia. IEEE. with a leakage reactance.. 1996]. 2001. providing rapid controllability of the voltage magnitude. a GTO or IGBT voltage source inverter (VSI). 1991.2. a DC capacitor and a control structure. 6. These applications require of suitable control schemes implementation (voltage magnitude and phase angle control) [Banerjee and Verghese. The STATCOM contains a stepdown transformer. damping torsional oscillations. SSSC and UPFC. The major areas of dynamic applications are: voltage stability enhancement.g. e. have led to the development of controllable reactive power sources utilising electronic switching converter technology [NabaviNiaki. 2000]. and power system stability improvement. Researchers are directing their efforts at the application of FACTS to enhance the economic operational and the dynamic response of the power system. These technologies offer considerable advantages over the existing ones such as static VAR compensators in terms of smaller footprints and operational performance. Kassakian et al. power system voltage control.
The basic voltagesource inverter representation for reactive power generation is shown schematically in Fig. If the voltage magnitudes are equal. System bus VAC Coupling transformer I Transformer leakage inductance Vs DC . The VSI generates a controllable AC voltage source behind the leakage reactance. This voltage is compared with the AC bus voltage system. Otherwise. 6.6. it can supply active power to the power system.1. the AC system sees the STATCOM as a capacitor. Moreover. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) 141 between the STATCOM and the power system. the AC system sees the STATCOM as an equivalent inductor connected to its terminals. the reactive power exchange is zero. 2000].1: STATCOM oneline diagram. if the VSI voltage magnitude is above that of the AC bus voltage magnitude. when the AC bus voltage magnitude is above that of the VSI voltage magnitude.2. The basic principle of STATCOM operation is as follows. This active power exchange can be achieved by adjusting the phase angle of the STATCOM terminal . the objective being to regulate the AC voltage at the bus bar in order to improve the voltage profile of the power system.AC Switching inverter C VDC Figure 6. If the STATCOM has a DC source or energy storage device on its DC side. a secondary damping function may be added to the STATCOM for damping power system oscillations [IEEE.
• Power quality improvement. The voltage source converter is the building block of a STATCOM and other FACTS devices. Typical applications of the STATCOM are: • Effective voltage regulation and control. 1997. . 2002]. The basic objective of a VSC is to produce a sinusoidal AC voltage with minimal harmonic distortion from a DC voltage. Lehn and Iravani. Lehn and Iravani. Three basic techniques are used for reducing harmonics in the converter output voltage. A simple twolevel converter produces a square voltage waveform as it switches the direct voltage source on and off.6. the STATCOM supplies active power to AC system [Padiyar and Kulkarni. When the phase angle of the AC power system leads the VSI phase angle. if the phase angle of the AC power system lags the VSI phase angle. • Damping of subsynchronous power system oscillations. • Flicker control. harmonic reduction using multilevel converter configurations and control. • Reduction of temporary overvoltages. Harmonic neutralisation using magnetic coupling (multipulse converter configurations). the STATCOM absorbs active power from the AC system.2. • Damping of power system oscillations. Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) 142 and the phase angle of the AC power system. 1998. • Improvement of steadystate power transfer capacity • Improvement of transient stability margin.
The differential equation corresponding to this model can be written as follows: KST AT (Vref − Vm ) − Vr VST˙ AT = TST AT (6.3. IST AT .6. 6. Assuming balanced.2: STATCOM model. fundamental frequency voltages. Tr is the control time constant. 6. Vm = em + j f m I STATCOM Xs + VSTATCOM  Figure 6. Vref is the voltage reference.1) where Vr is the STATCOM voltage target.3 143 STATCOM Modelling STATCOM is a FACTS controller that is used in power systems to regulate the line voltage. Kr is the gain for the STATCOM. The complex power equation for the STATCOM is derived by first establishing the STATCOM current. A STATCOM essentially a voltagesource converter aimed at proving reactive power support for voltage control. STATCOM Modelling 6. the controller can be accurately represented in stability studies using the voltage source model shown in Fig.2 together with the block diagram control law in Fig.3. . and Vm is the bus voltage magnitude where the STATCOM is connected to. enhance the power transmission capacity and extend the transient stability margin.
STATCOM Modelling 144 Vr (max) Vref + 1 1 + sTr Kr  Vr Vm Vr (min) Figure 6.7 is well known for giving reasonably accurate results even when relatively large integration time steps are selected [Kundur. Separating the real and imaginary parts of the complex power. IST AT ¶¸∗ · µ 1 = (Vm − VST AT ) −j Xs ∗ SST AT = VST AT IST AT SST AT and VST AT are the complex power and the voltage magnitude for the STATCOM respectively.3: STATCOM block diagram. 1994.3) The differential equation 6.6.1 is transformed into an algebraic equation by means of the trapezoidal rule and appended to the existing set of algebraic equations representing the network for a unified solution.3. we obtain the expression for the STATCOM active and reactive powers: VST AT (fm cos δST AT − em sin δST AT ) Xs 2 VST AT (em cos δST AT + fm sin δST AT ) − VST AT = Xs PST AT = (6. and Xs is the transformer reactance. . This ensures a numerically stable transformation since the implicit trapezoidal method. Vm is the bus voltage magnitude where the STATCOM is connected to. described at Section 2.2) QST AT (6.
1 as follows. . 1997]. nST AT .m Qk + Qe. FST AT = FST AT (t) + FST AT (t−∆t) + CST AT = 0 where · FST AT (t) FST AT (t−∆t) CST AT ¸ ∆t ∆t = VST AT (t) 1 − − KST AT Vm(t) 2 TST AT 2 TST AT ¸ · ∆t ∆t − KST AT Vm(t−∆t) = −VST AT (t−∆t) 1 − 2 TST AT 2 TST AT ∆t KST AT Vref = TST AT Equation 6. ngen and m = 1. nbus.m for k = 1.4) Rearranging terms. .6. ¡ ∆t h KST AT Vref 2 TST AT VST AT (t) − VST AT (t−∆t) = i ¢ ¡ ¢ − Vm(t) − VST AT (t) + Vref − Vm(t−∆t) − VST AT (t−∆t) (6. .3. . 6. l. describing the active and reactive powers contributions for the STATCOM.5) .l + QST AT .. leads to a more compact expression. . l = 1. . . 6. are explicitly incorporated into the active and reactive powers injected in the network buses and the powers contributed by all generators in the network: Pk + Pe. The trapezoidal method is applied to the differential Eq. .l + PST AT . .2 and Eq. . . . STATCOM Modelling 145 Machowski et al. . . . (6.3. .
. KST AT Time constant. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 6.16.5 and Fig. The ninebus. Hence. and the condition when STATCOM is connected. It is observed that when no STATCOM is connected the bus voltage magnitude drops until a value around 0. Table 6.1: STATCOM parameters Transformer reactance.977 pu. represented by the solid line. is used as test case.06 1.6. Figure 6.1 shows the parameters of the STATCOM.4. it is noted that the lowest voltage magnitude is at Bus 5. Xs Reference Voltage Control Gain. whereas for the condition when the STATCOM is connected the voltage magnitude has a sudden voltage drop at the time of the perturbation reaching a value of around 0. represented by a dashed line. threemachine power system depicted on Fig.1 Test case 1 In this section the STATCOM controller is used to improve the bus voltage profile and the general performance of test networks.4. Figure 6.4. Table 6. 6. but the fast response of the STATCOM controller improves the voltage magnitude to the desired value condition. 4.4 146 Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 6. When no STATCOM is connected.4 shows the voltage profile at Bus 5 for two different conditions.6 depict the reactive power and the STATCOM injected voltage.00 100 0.10 The source of perturbation is a 50% load increase at Bus 8. From a standard static power flow calculation. the STATCOM is placed at this node to improve the voltage at this bus.993. TST AT 0.
985 VBus 0. pu 0.997 0.996 0.6.004 STATCOM voltage injection.002 1.998 0.975 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. pu 1. 1.999 0.4.99 0.995 0. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 147 1 Bus voltage magnitude.6. needed to improve the voltage at Bus 5. as shown in Fig. the STATCOM starts injecting the necessary amount of reactive power to control the voltage at the specified level.003 1. min 6 7 8 Figure 6.4: Bus voltage response to a load change.995 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. 6. A .5: STATCOM voltage injection.001 1 0. Priori to the disturbance. min − NO STATCOM − STATCOM 6 7 8 9 10 9 10 Figure 6.98 5 V Bus 5 0. the reactive power injected by the STATCOM is null but once the system is subjected to the load variation.
and a vastly improved response is shown in Fig. 6. 6.04 0. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 148 0. similar situation arises with the voltage provided by the STATCOM.6.6 min. a STATCOM is connected at this bus.996 pu prior to the disturbance.02 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. at the end of line 57. The dynamic voltage response is shown in Fig. pu 0.12 0. As expected.14 STATCOM reactive power.6 pu at Bus 8 at time 1. . The disturbance is initiated by a symmetric threephase fault occurring near Bus 7. however. Notice that the voltage drops below 0. the STATCOM voltage is close to 0.6: STATCOM reactive power injection. the bus voltage profile for the complete system is improved by the inclusion of the STATCOM device.7. To improve the system response to this kind of faults. where large voltage swings follow the fault clearance.08 0.1 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6.4.8.06 0.2 Test case 2 The dynamic behavior of the STATCOM is assessed further in this section. and reaches a maximum value of around 1.4. The fault is cleared by opening line 57 through the breaker approximately 3 cycles after the fault occurred.003 pu during the transient period. 6.
6. 6.4 0.11 depicts the current injection of the STATCOM.7: Bus voltage profile for condition when NO STATCOM is placed.6 0. Figure 6. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6.10 depicts the magnitude of the STATCOM voltage injection. In a similar manner as for the reactive power injection.8 0.4. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 149 Bus voltage magnitude. prior to the threephase fault.2 Bus voltage magnitude.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. Figure 6. 1. both the reactive power and . pu 1 0. pu 1 0.4 0.8: Bus voltage profile for condition when STATCOM is placed.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.9 shows the reactive power injected by the STATCOM to improve the bus voltage profile of the system and Fig.6 0.8 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6.
1.10: Voltage magnitude injection of the STATCOM. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 150 STATCOM reactive power contribution.06 1.2 1 0. the STATCOM starts injecting the required amount of current and reactive power to control and improve the voltage of the power network.05 1.03 1. pu 1.4 1. current injected by the STATCOM are null.04 1.4. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6.4 0.8 0.07 1.08 STATCOM voltage magnitude.02 1.6 0. pu 1.6.01 1 0. however once the fault occurs.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6.9: Reactive power injection of the STATCOM.99 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. .
Figure 6.12 shows the bus voltage magnitude for the system when the perturbations are applied. 5. 1982].4.2 1 0. whereas .3 Test case 3 The New England test system [Chow. the load connected at Bus 15 is increased by 15% of its nominal value and one minute later.914 pu. Two perturbation are applied to the system as follow.13 depicts the voltage magnitude for Bus 14.21 is used to further assess the STATCOM controller. 6. which consists of 39 buses. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 151 1.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.8 0. At time 1 min. 36 transmission lines and 10 transformers depicted in Fig. the transmission line connecting buses 14 and 15 is tripped. time 2 min. The continuous line represents the bus voltage magnitude when the STATCOM is connected.4. and the dashed line represents the bus voltage magnitude when no STATCOM is connected.6 0.11: STATCOM current absorbtion. pu 1. It is observed that when the FACTS device is connected to the system. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 6. it improves the bus voltage magnitude of the whole system and controls the voltage magnitude of Bus 14 around the value of 0. 10 generators.4 STATCOM current injection.6. The FACTS device is connected at Bus 14.4 0. Figure 6.
9 0 0.08 1.915 Bus voltage magnitude.89 0.91 0.14 shows the bus voltage magnitude for the power network when no STATCOM . min 3 3.4.04 1.875 0 0. pu 0. 0.13: Voltage magnitude comparison at Bus 14.5 1 1.02 1 0.96 0.88 0.9 VBus 14 VBus  − STATCOM 14  − No STATCOM 0. when no device is connected the voltage magnitude after the second perturbation reaches a value of around 0.14 shows the voltage magnitude for the power network when no STATCOM controller is placed. pu 1.5 4 4. Figure 6.94 0.905 0.885 0.12: Bus voltage magnitude when STATCOM device is connected.6. 6.5 4 4. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 152 1.06 Bus voltage magnitude.5 time.875 pu.5 5 Figure 6.5 2 2.92 0.5 time.895 0. Fig.92 0.98 0. min 3 3.5 2 2.5 1 1.5 5 Figure 6.
5 .9 0.5 3 3. pu 1. min 3 3. Figure 6.85 0 0.5 2 2.5 4 4.4.14: Bus voltage magnitude when no STATCOM device is connected.15: Reactive power injected by the STATCOM.5 1 0.5 0 0 0.5 time.05 1 0.16 depicts the magnitude of the STATCOM voltage injection.95 0.5 1 1.5 2 2. min Figure 6.1 Bus voltage magnitude. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with STATCOM Controller 153 device is connected.15 shows the reactive power injected by the STATCOM to improve the bus voltage profile of the system and Fig.6. 6. STATCOM reactive power.5 time. pu 1.5 1 1.5 5 Figure 6. 1.5 4 4.
High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) 154 1. no reactive power injection by the STATCOM is needed. pu 0. manufactures have taken maximum benefits from the accelerated pace of power electronics technology.94 0. In each of these applications. It is believed that in a few years time.5 5 Figure 6. min 3 3.93 0. that while the system remains stable.97 0. based on the use of conventional thyristors.5 1 1. however when the system is perturbed the FACTS device starts to inject the necessary amount of reactive power to improve the bus voltage magnitude of the system.5 time. HVDCVSCbased systems. interest in HVDC technology for bulk power transmission. .98 0. and asynchronous interconnections has remained strong. termed line commutated current (LCC).16: STATCOM voltage.6. which is an upgrade of the traditional technology. 6.5 4 4.96 0.5 2 2. Further to the traditional HVDC technology.5 High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Over many years.91 0 0. It is observed. two other lines of development in HVDC technology have appeared.99 0.5.01 1 STATCOM voltage injection. will take over a large portion of the traditional HVDC market.92 0.95 0. capacitor commutated converters (CCC). and voltage source converters (VSC) with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) and pulse width modulation (PWM) control.
6.5. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
155
However at present, bulk power DC transmission remains the realm of thyristorbased HVDC
technology [Carlsson, 2002].
The advantage of HVDC in long distance transmission is that there is no need to charge
the distributed capacitance of the transmission line with alternating voltages, making it a
more efficient form of transmission. The drawback is that more expensive terminals at the
line ends are required.
The early power converters used mercury arc valves for the AC/DC/AC conversion process. More reliable solid state valves, suitable power transmission applications, appeared in
the midseventies making the design of HVDC more flexible and responsive to the need of
bulk power transmission.
HVDC has a number of characteristics that makes it markedly different from actransmission.
The most important are summarised below:
• Each station can be connected to AC networks that are not synchronised or do not
even have the same frequency.
• Power can be transmitted over very long distances with no need for compensation
equipment along the line.
• For comparable power densities, only two conductors are needed (or even one conductor
if the ground or the sea is used as return) for HVDC compared to the three conductors
required for AC transmission.
6.5.1
Voltage Source Converters  HVDC
A new type of HVDC transmission technology has recently been commercially developed.
By using components that can not only switch on the current but also switch it off, has made
it possible to build voltage source converters (VSC).
Since the direct current in a voltage source converter is able to flow in either direction,
the converter valves it is a requirement that the converter valves should have bidirectional
6.5. High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC)
156
properties. Thus, a VSC valve is made up of an asymmetric turn off device such as a GTO
with a parallel diode connected in antiparallel.
The VSCbased system is selfcommutated, it uses insulatedgate bipolar transistor (IGBT)
valves and soliddielectric extruded HVDC cables. For economic and performance reasons,
voltage source converters are often preferred over current source converters for FACTS applications [Hingorani and Gyugyi, 1999].
HVDCVSC transmission may be beneficial to the overall system performance in a number
of fronts. VSCs can rapidly control both active and reactive power independently from one
another, and the dynamic support of the ac voltage at each converter terminal improves
voltage stability, increasing the power transfer capability of the two ac systems [Bahrman
and Johnson, 2007].
The VSCHVDC technology has the following additional advantages [Reed and Takeda,
2003]:
• Can be used to feed networks with no self generation capacity (black networks);
• Can operate with no communication link between stations;
• No change of voltage polarity when the power direction is reversed. This makes easier
to build multiterminal schemes.
• It uses robust and inexpensive extruded cables for both land and sea applications;
• Small footprint converters that reduce space requirement.
Since ABB
1
introduced its voltage source converter DCtransmission system, named
”HVDC Light” in Hellsj¨on 1997, the rating has increased 100 times, currently standing at 330
MW in the Cross Sound cable connection. A number of projects have now been commissioned
[ABB, 2007, Cole et al., 2006] and are showing good operating experience.
1
Asea Brown Boveri Ltd. (ABB Zurich)
6.6. VSCHVDC Modelling
157
The transmission capacity and converters sizes of the VSC transmission are becoming
large enough to also play a role in system stability improvement. Different applications will
make good use of the high controllability of active and reactive power, considerably improving
system stability [Johansson et al., 2004].
Voltage collapse in another challenging power system application area which may be
beneficial from the VSC technology. Inadequate reactive power support from generators may
lead to voltage collapse, a situation that can be improved very considerably with the use of
VSC technology with its fast response.
One way in which VSCHVDC technology, can improve the system voltage profile when
loads are continuously varied, is by stabilising the ac voltage. The VSCHVDC may be used
to consume reactive power to maintain a specific ac voltage when the ac system is lightly
loaded. When the system load equals the ”natural load”, the ac transmission line neither
generates nor consumes reactive power. As the system load increases further, the VSCHVDC
may be set to generate reactive power to support the ac system. By continuous reactive power
support from VSCHVDCs, voltage stability margins are improved [Zhang et al., 2007].
6.6
VSCHVDC Modelling
The HVDC model consists of two VSC stations, one operating as a rectifier and the other
as an inverter. Normally, the rectifier is use to control active power and the inverter is used
to control voltage magnitude. However, the converter stations should have control flexibility
and they could be set to exert no control. The two converter stations are joined together by
a dc line conductor or either backtoback. Fig. 6.17 shows the application when the HVDC
is connected by a dc cable.
The HVDC model proposed here for dynamic power flows simulations is based on the
active power balance equation given by,
6.6. VSCHVDC Modelling
158
I1 YDC I2
Vs
VvR Rectifier
1
Converter VvR
Station
1
Is
Station
Vs
2
VDC VDC
1
2
Is
1
2
2
Figure 6.17: HVDCVSC transmission link diagram.
∆PHV DC = ∆Ps − ∆Pr − ∆Ploss
(6.6)
Fig. 6.18 shows the HVDC control for the rectifier stage, where the following differential
equation is derived,
Pref
+
Ks

1
1 + sTs
Ps
Figure 6.18: HVDC control block diagram for the rectifier stage.
Ks (Pref − Ps )
P˙s =
Ts
(6.7)
where Ts is the rectifier time constant, Ks is the rectifier gain, and the reference power Pref
and rectifier sending power Ps are given by,
µ
¶
1
Pref = Ps 1 +
Ks
Vs (fk cos δs − ek sin δs )
Ps =
Xs
(6.8)
(6.9)
In a similar case. and Xs is the rectifier shunt admittance. Vs and δs are the rectifier shunt voltage magnitude and phase angle. Vm is the voltage magnitude at node m. respectively. It is important to remark. VSCHVDC Modelling 159 where for Ps .10) Vm Kx Figure 6. ek and fk are the real and imaginary part of the voltage at node k respectively.20 shows the equivalent diagram for the previous conditions. node k node m Vk = ek + j f k Vm = em + j f m Is Ir xs xr + +   Vr = Vr Ðd r Vs = Vs Ðd s Figure 6. 6. where Tr is the inverter time constant.6. To get a better idea. Fig.6. Fig. that for the rectifier stage the state variable is the rectifier sending power Ps and for the inverter side the state variable is the shunt voltage magnitude .20: HVDC based VSC equivalent circuit. Kr (Vref − Vm ) − Vr V˙r = Tr Vref + 1 1 + sTr Kr  Vr (6.19 depicts the HVDC control for the inverter stage. giving the following differential equation.19: HVDC control block diagram for the inverter stage. Kr is the inverter gain. 6. Vref is the reference voltage and Vr is the shunt voltage magnitude at the receiving node.
16. FPr (t) and FPloss (t) are described as follow. FPHV DC (t) = FPs (t) − FPr (t) − FPloss (t) (6.14) and FVr (t) is defined as. threemachine power system depicted at Fig.6. As in previous cases. is used.13) (6. 4.6 is redefined as.1 Test case 4 In this section the HVDCVSC dynamic behavior is evaluated. Finally Eq.7.16) Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller 6. FPHV DC (t) = 6. · ¸ ∆t ∆t FVr (t) = −Vr 1 + − Kr Vm 2Tr 2Tr (6. 6. In this test case.11) where FPS (t) .7 µ ¶ Rdc 1 − 2 2 Ps FPs (t) − FPr (t) Vs (6.7. · ¸ ∆t (Ks + 1) FPs (t) = −Ps 1 + 2Ts FV (t) (fm cos δr − em sin δr ) FPr (t) = r X ¶ r µ Rdc Ps FPs (t) FPloss (t) = 2 Vs 2 (6.12) (6. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller 160 Vr . an HVDCVSC is replaced with the transmission line connecting Bus 5 .15) In a compact way. the ninebus.
Fig.24. and it has a resistance value of 0. The continuous line. The rectifier is set to regulate constant active power flow at its AC terminal.98 0. The transferred power to the receiving bus is . represents the voltage magnitude injected by the HVDC at the sending node.99 0.22. Fig. 6.95 0 0.7. 6. depicted in Fig.05 pu. 6. The simulation is carried out for 5 minutes.5 2 2. pu 1. the voltage magnitude injected by the HVDCVSC terminal.40. increases in order to support the voltage magnitude at Bus 7. and the power at the receiving end of the HVDC is 0. It will be set to transfer 0.4 pu active power from Bus 5 to Bus 7. and the dashed line shows the voltage magnitude injection at the receiving node.015 pu. The dclink cable is assumed to contain losses. 6.23 shows the voltage magnitude at Bus 7.5 1 1.3934 pu. Moreover. as depicted in Fig.01 1 0.5 time.97 0.5 4 4.05 1.21 shows the voltage magnitude at all the buses. 1. The amount of transferred power is set to 0.03 1.02 1.6. min 3 3.96 0. having a value of around 1. and the inverter is assumed to exert no voltage control.22 depicts the voltage magnitude for the sending and receiving terminals of the HVDC. 6.21: Bus voltage response of the power network.04 Bus voltage magnitude. The source of the perturbation is a load increment of 25% at Bus 8 at time 1 min. It is observed that during the transient state. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller 161 and 7.5 5 Figure 6. and Fig.
01 Bus voltage magnitude.5 4 4.98 0. 1.5 1 1.016 Bus voltage magnitude.014 1. reduced due to the copper losses of the dclink.97 0.6. .02 1.5 5 Figure 6.5 2 2.23: Bus voltage magnitude at Bus 7. It can be observed from the power result in Fig.5 2 2.0155 1.0145 1. pu 1.5 time. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller 162 1.5 1 1.95 0.22: Bus voltage magnitude at HVDC terminals.015 1.96 0.4 pu.5 time.5 5 Figure 6.5 4 4.0135 0 0. pu 1 Sending node Receiving node 0.94 0 0. min 3 3. min 3 3.99 0. 6.24 that the power control in the rectifier is very effective in keeping the power at a constant value of 0.7.
402 0.399 Sending node Receiving node 0.24: HVDCVSC transferred power when dc link losses are considered.5 1 1.6. pu 0.395 0.394 0.396 0.7.4 0.398 0.393 0 0.5 5 Figure 6. 163 .5 time. min 3 3.5 2 2.5 4 4.401 HVDC transferred power.397 0. Numerical Evaluation of Power Networks with VSCHVDC Controller 0.
The main VSCFACTS controllers described in this chapter are the STATCOM and HVDCVSC. this FACTS controller successfully improves the voltage at the weakest bus of the system even when the power network is subjected to a load perturbation. The STATCOM has been used to enhance the voltage at a particular point of the network under both normal and abnormal operation.6. The HVDCVSC model implemented is the dynamic power flow program has the flexibility of representing not only pointtopoint links but also backtoback links. even in situation when a disturbance arises. Both VSCFACTS devices enable a better performance of the whole system under unfavourable conditions. Several test cases have been presented. such as a threephase fault.8.8 164 Summary This chapter has addressed further developments on the dynamic power flow algorithm. Summary 6. . FACTS controllers based on voltage source converters have been developed and implemented into the dynamic power flow algorithm. Furthermore. The HVDCVSC has been set to active power transfer at the rectifier end of the HVDC link.
due to their detrimental effects on power system operation. In practice.1 Introduction Worldwide. Generally. positive sequence modelling and conventional power flows or power system dynamics simulations are not applicable. Instead. the possibility of having excessive imbalances between the phase voltages or currents in a threephase system. 2005]. single and threephase unbalanced static shunt loads. typical power system contains untransposed transmission lines and feeders. When such transmission and load imbalances can no longer be assumed to be negligible. Besides. detailed threephase models and solution techniques . transmitted and distributed in a threephase fashion. single and threephase dynamic loads such as induction motors and capacitors banks.Chapter 7 ThreePhase Dynamic Power Flows in abc Coordinates 7. electrical power is generated.. has always been a concern to power engineers. power systems are inherently unbalanced because of singlephase loads but also because of the occurrence of asymmetrical spacings between line conductors [Zhang et al.
1948b. modelled in phase. it is mandatory to have a threephase dynamic power flow algorithm in abc coordinates. synchronous generators and power loads. Likewise its positive sequence counterpart presented in Chapter 4. the modelling needs to be extended. 1929]. for the solution of threephase balanced power systems. Thus. In this thesis. The phase voltages and currents at the terminal of the synchronous generators are. respectively: .2. 7. The different static and dynamic elements that comprise the electric power system are modelled in the abc frame of reference to develop the threephase dynamic power flow algorithm in rectangular coordinates. including the most relevant power plant components such as. have been described in foregoing chapters. Power System Modelling 166 must be applied if accurate assessments are to be carried out during dynamic operation of the power system. however the dynamic power flow modelling carried out has been positive sequence analyses. Concordia.2 7. To carry out comprehensive dynamic analyses of unbalanced transmission systems.1 Power System Modelling Threephase synchronous machine modelling The classical theory of synchronous machines for dq coordinates is well defined [Kimbark.2. the threephase dynamic power flows can be modelled as a set of nonlinear algebraic and differential equations representing the power network. All the relevant power system elements for dynamic power flows analyses. 1951]. in such a way that it is amenable to dynamic power flows studies in abc coordinates. the mathematical theory presented is based on the full dq0 coordinate system [Park. rotating power machinery and controls.7.
The matrix transformation used to transform the abc phase variables into dq0 variables is the following one [Park. the transformation operations used for referring the stator quantities to the rotor side and viceversa are: . Fig.2) Ib = It2 sin(ψ2 − 120) Ic = It3 sin(ψ3 + 120) where Vt is the bus voltage magnitude at bus terminals. Power System Modelling 167 Va = Vt1 sin(θ1 ) (7. including voltages and currents.1 schematically describes a threephase synchronous generator from a circuit theory point of view. 1929]: ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ 2π cos θ + 2π 3 cos θ cos θ − 3 2 ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢ [Tdq0 ] = sin θ sin θ − 2π sin θ + 2π 3 3 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 (7.2. It is the bus voltage magnitude at bus terminals. 7. ψ is defined as the current angle.3) In generic form. θ is defined as the voltage angle.1) Vb = Vt2 sin(θ2 − 120) Vc = Vt3 sin(θ3 + 120) and Ia = It1 sin(ψ1 ) (7.7.
The two current components that produce field are only the d and q components.4.1: Schematic synchronous machine representation.7) Where the voltage in phase a is taken to be the reference for calculating the internal . 7. The current component I0 is taken to produce no space field in the airgap and. with transient saliency and flux decay effects.5) Where Eq.2.7. hence.6) (7.4) [Fabc ] = [Tdq0 ]−1 [Fdq0 ] (7. Power System Modelling 168 Axis of phase b ib ifd d axis Rotational direction + rfd Lffd vfd Lb vb  La i1d Axis of phase a + r11d L11d v1d= 0 q axis  va vc ia Lc 90o r L11q 11q + Axis of phase c  v1q= 0 i1q ROTOR ic STATOR Figure 7. hence. [Fdq0 ] = [Tdq0 ] [Fabc ] (7. for the threephase synchronous generator implemented in the threephase dynamic power flow algorithm. the following equations are used: q Ed2 + Eq2 µ ¶ Va sin θa + I(ra sin ψ + (xq − xl ) cos ψ) δ = arctan Va cos θa + I(ra cos ψ − (xq − xl ) sin ψ) E = (7. 1948b]. it does not affect the magnetizing rotational field [Kimbark. 7.5 is referred as to the inverse transformation of Eq.
a 30◦ phase shift must be considered between the linetoline and linetoneutral voltages. and varies over time as a function of nodal voltages eρk and fkρ and the tap step size ∆Tk . ek and fk are the real and imaginary parts of the voltage at the regulated bus. The dynamic threephase load tap changer is discrete. for the stardelta transformer connection. 1994].2.8) where HT is the tap’s servomotor inertia. Power System Modelling 169 voltage angle [Kundur. The differential equation that describes the dynamic behaviour of the threephase load tap changer is transformed into an algebraic equation and appended to the existing set of algebraic equations for a unified solution.8 is discretised as follows. Likewise. deltadelta and stardelta.2. b and c. Eq.2 Dynamic threephase load tap changer model Threephase banks of transformers are made up of three singlephase transformers. the relationship between the base voltages and the nominal turns of the primary and secondary sides of the transformer keeps equal for each phase [Kundur. 7. For starstar and deltadelta connected transformers.7. Thus. Moreover. 1 T˙k = HT µq ¶ ¡ ρ ¢2 ¡ ρ ¢2 ek + fk − V0 (7. 1994]. Nonetheless. 7. The dynamic element of the threephase load tap changer is described by the following differential equation. where the most common winding connections are: starstar. V0 is the target voltage magnitude and ρ is used to denote phases a. √ there is a factor of 3 involved because of the winding connection. . its predefined operating range provide hard limits which can not be violated.
10) where FTk (t) FTk (t−∆t) CTk r³ ´2 ³ ´2 ρ eρk(t) + fk(t) r ´2 ³ ´2 ∆t ³ ρ ρ = −Tk(t−∆t) − ek(t−∆t) + fk(t−∆t) 2Ht ∆tV0 = Ht ∆t = Tk(t) − 2Ht It is important to mention that a single tap parameter Tk is used for the threephases in the threephase primary winding.3 shows the discrete tap representation for each phase. it can be rewritten as follows.2: Dynamic load tap changer model. The dynamic load tap changer model is depicted at Fig. The threephase connection for a solidly grounded starstar winding transformer is de . FTk = FTk (t) + FTk (t−∆t) + CTk = 0 (7. Power System Modelling FTk (t) − FTk (t−∆t) 170 ∆t = Tk(t) + 2Ht r³ ∆t + Tk(t−∆t) + 2Ht eρk(t) r³ ´2 ³ ´2 ρ + fk(t) − V0 eρk(t−∆t) ´2 (7.2. 7.2. Current Tap position V0 Vk +  n 1 HT T&k 1 s Tk +  Tap step size DTk Tk max Tk1 Tk min Figure 7.9) ³ ´2 ρ + fk(t−∆t) − V0 in compact form.7. 7. and Fig.
5 and Fig.4: Starstar transformer connection. 7.3: Schematic representation of the discrete tap changer. Power System Modelling 171 Vhigh 4 3 2 1 Tpos Vlow Vk 0 Figure 7. 7. picted at Fig.2. 7. Fig.4 and its nodal matrix representation is. Ia IA YSC YSC VB YSC YSC VA Va YSC YSC IB Ib Vb IC Ic Vc VC Figure 7.6 depict the stardelta and deltadelta transformer .11) In a similar manner.7. Y 0 0 −T Y 0 0 I k sc VA A sc I 0 Ysc 0 0 −Tk Ysc 0 VB B 0 Ysc 0 0 −Tk Ysc VC IC 0 = 2 Ia −Tk Ysc 0 0 0 0 Tk Ysc Va I 0 0 −Tk Ysc 0 0 Tk2 Ysc Vb b Vc 0 0 −Tk Ysc 0 0 Tk2 Ysc Ic (7.
5: Stardelta transformer connection. Ia IA YSC VA YSC Va YSC YSC YSC VB Ic Vc YSC IB Ib IC Vb VC Figure 7.7. Power System Modelling 172 connection.2. I 2Y −Y −Y −2T Y T Y T Y sc sc sc k sc k sc k sc VA A I −Y 2Ysc Ysc −Tk Ysc −2Tk Ysc Tk Ysc sc VB B −Ysc 2Ysc Tk Ysc Tk Ysc −2Tk Ysc VC IC 1 −Ysc = 3 2 2 2 Ia −2Tk Ysc Tk Ysc Tk Ysc Tk Ysc 2Tk Ysc −Tk Ysc Va I T Y −2Tk Ysc Tk Ysc −Tk2 Ysc 2Tk2 Ysc −Tk2 Ysc Vb b k sc Vc Tk Ysc Tk Ysc −2Tk Ysc −Tk2 Ysc −Tk2 Ysc 2Tk2 Ysc Ic . respectively. The corresponding nodal matrices for this connections are respectively. IA Ia Va VA YSC YSC YSC VB VC IB YSC YSC YSC Ic Vc Ib IC Vb Figure 7.6: Deltadelta transformer connection.
with the exception of large motor loads which should be represented in a more detailed manner.2. In that case.8 depicts the schematic representation of a deltaconnected load. Fig.7. comprise is that the load can be represented in algebraic form with a base power which is a function of voltage either in polynomial or exponential form. If load components have abundant data and knowing the composition of it at any time of interest on various points of the power system. this is not always feasible for stability studies due to the lack of data. then it is possible to combine the individual component characteristics to obtain a valid analytical expression for load modelling at the bus.3 Threephase power loads By and large. Ysc represents the transformer shortcircuit admittance and Tk defines the tap ratio. However. Power System Modelling IA 173 Ysc IB 0 IC 0 = I −T Y /√3 a k sc √ Ib Tk Ysc / 3 Ic 0 0 0 √ −Tk Ysc / 3 Ysc 0 0 0 Ysc √ Tk Ysc / 3 0 √ −Tk Ysc / 3 √ Tk Ysc / 3 √ √ Tk Ysc / 3 √ −Tk Ysc 3 0 Tk Ysc / 3 2Tk2 Ysc /3 −Tk2 Ysc /3 0 −Tk2 Ysc /3 2Tk2 Ysc /3 −Tk2 Ysc /3 −Tk2 Ysc /3 √ −Tk Ysc / 3 0 VA √ Tk Ysc / 3 VB √ −Tk Ysc / 3 VC Tk2 Ysc /3 Va −Tk2 Ysc /3 Vb Vc 2Tk2 Ysc /3 where for the previous threephase nodal matrices. Fig.2. threephase load with the star point solidly grounded. 7. 7. threephase power loads are heterogeneous and composed of all categories of individual load devices. 7. .7 shows the schematic representation of a starconnected.
7.8: Deltaconnected load representation. Polynomial/exponential threephase load model A threephase active and reactive power load may be described by a quadratic model given by .7: Starconnected load representation. Power System Modelling 174 V a V b V c SLc SLb SLa Figure 7.2. V a V b V c SLc SLb SLa Figure 7.
7. for a constant power load. star and delta are. µ and ν are made equal to 2. Va . . P0 and Q0 are the base voltage and powers of the system.12) where V0 . µ and ν are assumed to be 0. Vb and Vc are the threephase nodal voltage magnitudes at the load point. if the system power has the characteristics of an impedance then. the indices µ and ν are made equal to 1. respectively: 2 0 0 SLa /Va 0 SLb /Vb2 0 0 0 SLc /Vc2 2 2 2 2 −SLa /Va −SLb /Vb SLa /Va + SLb /Vb 1 2 2 2 2 −S /V + S /V S /V −S /V Lc Lc Lb Lb c c b b 3 2 2 2 2 SLc /Vc + SLa /Va −SLc /Vc −SLa /Va The threephase model representation incorporates the voltage dependency of the load and although it expresses such dependency by only algebraic relationship.2. 1993]. To represent a power load that to a large extent has a current characteristic. The matrix expression form for both types of threephase load connection. Power System Modelling " 175 " µ #· ¸ #· ¸ ¶ µ a ¶ ¶ µ a ¶ µ a 2 a 2 V V  V V  1 1 ν a SLa = P0a a0 + jQ b + a + b + a + b 1 0 1 2 2 0 V0a  V0a  Va V0a  V0a  Va " µ #· ¸ " µ #· ¸ ¶2 µ b ¶ ¶2 µ b ¶ V b  V  1 µ V b  V  1 ν b b b SL = P0 a0 + a + a + jQ b + b + b 1 2 0 1 2 0 Vb Vb V0b  V0b  V0b  V0b  " µ " µ #· ¸ #· ¸ ¶ µ c ¶ ¶ µ c ¶ V c  2 V c  2 V  V  1 µ 1 ν c c c SL = P0 a0 + a + a + jQ b + b + b 0 1 2 1 2 0 V0c  V0c  Vc V0c  V0c  Vc µ (7. such characteristic makes the load model time dependant [IEEE Load Task Force. Furthermore. this load representation varies linearly with voltage. µ and ν will normally vary in the range of 02.
b and c phases of the load are represented by the . When a threephase current flows through the three symmetrically placed windings. ρ ρ Pag and Qag ρ are the threephase active and reactive powers at the airgap line. Pim is the mechanical output power. The induction motor model combines the impedance and the magnetizing branch impedances with the impedances of the threephase transmission network and only the rotor is taken to be the dynamic element of it.14) (7. with the airgap line providing the interface between the two circuits. the rotor model consists of a first order differential equation where the induction motor slip s is the state variable. The most common type of induction motor has a squirrel cage rotor in which aluminum bars are shorted together at both ends of the rotor with aluminium rings. The mechanical angular velocity of the rotor is lower than the angular velocity of the flux wave in the airgap by the so called slip. a sinusoidally distributed airgap flux generating the rotor current is produced.13) (7.2. eρag and fag are the threephase real and imaginary components of the airgap voltage. Rr and Xr are the rotor’s resistance and reactance. The interaction of the sinusoidally distributed air gap flux and induced rotor currents produces a torque on the rotor. The stator has three winding displaced from one another by 120◦ . Thus. Power System Modelling 176 Threephase induction motor modelling The AC induction motor is a rotating electric machine designed to operate from a threephase source of alternating voltage.7. and the a. and the equations for threephase active and reactive powers at the airgap line are: µ ¶ Pim 1 ρ − Pag s˙ = 2Him 1 − s µ ¶ ¡ ρ 2 ¢ sRr ρ ρ 2 Pag = (e ) + (f ) ag ag R2 + s2 Xr2 µ r 2 ¶ ¡ ρ 2 ¢ s Xr ρ ρ 2 Qag = (eag ) + (fag ) 2 2 2 R r + s Xr (7.15) where Him is the induction motor’s inertia constant.
18) The threephase active and reactive power injections at conventional buses are straightforwardly extended to include the threephase active and reactive powers contributed by all induction motors described by Eqs.16 can be split into three algebraic equations separating the terms with respect to t. Fs = Fs(t) + Fs(t−∆t) + Cs = 0 (7. ∆t and the constant parameters. .14 and 7. at load buses with induction motors. Hence. 7. 7. it can be rearranged as in the following way. Eq.17) and in a more compact form. The differential equation representing the slip s. s(t) − s(t−∆t) · µ µ ¶ ¶¸ 1 Pm Pm ∆t 1 = − Pag(t) + − Pag(t−∆t) 2 2Him 1 − s(t) 2Him 1 − s(t−∆t) (7. 7. Hence.15 respectively. Power System Modelling 177 superscript ρ.2.16) 2 2Him 1 − s(t) 2Him 1 − s(t−∆t) Eq. is discretised making use of the trapezoidal method as follows: s(t) − s(t−∆t) µ µ · ¶ ¶¸ ∆t 1 Pm 1 Pm = − Pag(t) + − Pag(t−∆t) (7.13.7.
It is taken as . b and c respectively. 25 and 20% of its initial value for phase a. At minute 1 the load connected at Bus 6 is reduced by 30.1 Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks Test case 1 The ninebus.3.16. 7. An unbalanced load perturbation is carried out. 50 and 55% of its original value for phases a.nim.9 depicts the condition where unbalanced load conditions are carried out. Fig. . The simulation is run for ten minutes. 7.3. the load connected at Bus 8 is increased by 45.1.. where imbus(n) is an array of induction motorconnected buses. b and c respectively... The threephase power loads are represented by their static load model and the unbalanced values are given at Table 7. 4.19) Qaag(imbus(n)) Qb(m) + Qbag(imbus(n)) Qc(m) + Qcag(imbus(n)) for m=1. .7. is adopted and extended to carry out threephase dynamic power flows studies. 7. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 178 a a P(m) + Pag(imbus(n)) b b P(m) + Pag(imbus(n)) c c P(m) + Pag(imbus(n)) Qa(m) + (7.nbus and n=1. For the balanced load condition. . Fig.3 7. . threemachine power system depicted by the oneline schematic diagram of Fig.. the perturbation carried out is the same as for phase b of the unbalanced case. Later on at minute 3.10 shows the threephase bus voltage magnitude for balanced load reduction of 25% at time 1 min and balanced load increment of 50% at minute 3.
pu Voltage magnitude.75 + j0.04 1.12 and Fig. The continuous lines represent the balanced load condition.14 depict the speed and the rotor angle deviation from the syn .98 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.02 1 0.80 + j0.70 + j0.7.04 1.9: Threephase bus voltage magnitude under unbalanced loading conditions.450 S c = 1.04 1.465 Voltage magnitude.02 1 0.395 + j0. min 6 7 8 9 10 1. Figure 7.435 S b = 1. pu Phase c Phase b Phase a the starting condition to compare the results for balanced and unbalanced conditions. It is appreciated from this figure that the unbalanced conditions does not accentuates considerably the voltage profile. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time. pu Voltage magnitude.305 + j0. there is a voltage difference between the balanced and unbalanced case. Fig. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time. and the dashed lines represent the unbalanced load condition. however.02 1 0.11 shows the voltage performance at Bus 5.262 S c = 0.280 power loads Load Bus 8 a S = 1.98 0 1.1: Final values for power loads.245 S b = 0.3. 7. 7. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 179 Table 7. Three phase Load Bus 6 a S = 0. 1.98 0 Figure 7.350 + j0.
7. chronous generators for the unbalanced case.98 0 1.16 depicts the angle differences between generators namely.02 1 0. From the speed and angle deviation figures. 7.04 1. the angular differences still go further down and oscillate for around 2 minutes then becoming stable for the remaining simulation time.04 1. δ21 = δ2 − δ1 and δ31 = δ3 − δ1 . Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 180 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time.3.Voltage magnitude. Figure 7.04 1. pu Voltage magnitude.98 0 Figure 7.15 show the same variables response under balanced conditions.02 1 0. . and it settles down to a value very close to the steadystate condition. it is appreciated that the unbalanced load perturbation do not have an impact on the synchronous generator performance. pu Phase c Phase b Phase a 7. the speed deviation reaches a value around 1. and Fig.001 at time 3 min.98 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.10: Threephase bus voltage magnitude under balanced loading conditions.13 and Fig. pu Voltage magnitude. and later on at time 3 min. For both cases.02 1 0. After the first load perturbation at time 1 min the angular differences start to decay. min 6 7 8 9 10 1. when the second load perturbation takes place. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time. respectively.
0008 1.994 0.0002 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.0012 ω 1 ω2 ω3 Speed deviation ω1.995 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. min 6 7 8 9 10 1.3.001 1. min 1 0. pu 1.11: Threephase voltage magnitude at Bus 5 under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. pu Phase b Phase a 1 0. 7.0006 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time.2 Test case 2 To show the flexibility of the threephase dynamic power flows algorithm.3.998 0.0004 1.992 0. 1.996 0.005 1 0.995 0. As in the previous test .99 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. a series fault involving one phase of a transmission line opening is carried out.7.12: Synchronous generators speed deviation under unbalanced loading conditions.99 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 time.99 0 Figure 7. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 181 Phase c Voltage magnitude at Bus 5.
4 2 δ3 0. 1.0004 1.001 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. pu 1. degrees 1.3.14: Rotor angle deviation under unbalanced loading conditions.7.17 depicts the bus voltage . case. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. 7. the threemachine ninebus power system is used to carry out the study. as a consequence of this action the bus voltage magnitude of phase a of the system is reduced considerably compared to the voltages in phases b and c.6 δ1 δ 0. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 182 1.2 0.4 1 i Rotor angle deviation δ .0012 ω1 ω 2 ω3 Speed deviation ω1.0006 1.0008 1. Fig.13: Synchronous generators speed deviation under balanced loading conditions. The phase a of the transmission line which connects buses 5 and 7 is disconnected at time 1 min.8 0.0002 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.
degrees 1. It should be noted that although phases b and c of the transmission line remain connected their behaviour is markedly influenced by the tripping of phase a as depicted in Fig.6 δ1 δ 0.7.17 it is appreciated that at the time the phase a of the transmission line .2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.2 0.18 0.2 0. 7.15: Rotor angle deviation under balanced loading conditions. 7. 0.8 0. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 183 1. From Fig.12 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.24 0. degrees 0.22 0.14 0.28 δ21 δ31 Rotor angle deviation δi.16 0.3.17. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. magnitude of the system under this condition.4 1 i Rotor angle deviation δ .26 0.16: Rotor angle differences under unbalanced loading conditions.4 2 δ3 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.
17. whereas for phases b and c the voltage magnitude get a value around 1.05 1 0. connecting buses 5 and 7 is tripped. 7. From Figs.04 1.98 0 Figure 7.3. notwithstanding that their response is oscillatory just after the perturbation but it settles to a new steadystate value. Figures 7.20. min 6 7 8 9 10 1.02 1 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time. the voltage magnitude has a considerable decrement in comparison with the voltage magnitude for phases b and c.02 1 0. For both test cases.19 show the angle differences between generators for the unbalance and balanced simulation case respectively. 7.18. It reaches a value close to 0. 7.7. pu Phase b Phase a 1.19 for rotor angle deviation and Figs. In general. 7. 7. is for the voltage magnitude at Bus 6.95 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. the angular differences of the machines are not larger enough to produce instability. since this a more severe . The case when the whole transmission line is tripped. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 184 Bus voltage magnitude.17: Bus voltage magnitude under unbalanced condition. the bus voltage magnitude has a more unfavourable response.04 1.18 and 7.96 pu.21 for generators speed deviation respectively. which is a balanced case. min 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 time. the voltage magnitude for phase a suffers a decrement while for phases b and c the voltage magnitudes have a slight increment.98 0 Phase c 1. The most severe case for the bus voltage magnitude of phase a of Fig. it is observed that the unbalanced perturbation applied to the power network does affect the synchronous generators response when compared with the balanced assessment.02 pu.
min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.1 −0.1 0. 7. perturbation than just the tripping of one phase of the transmission line.22 shows the bus voltage magnitude for the tripping of the whole transmission line.3. 7. .00017 pu.001 pu at time 3 min and then it drops sharply to a value of around 1. Fig.3 0.19: Angle differences under balanced condition. rad 0.05 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.21 that the maximum speed deviation is 1. 0.5 Angle differences.18: Angle differences under unbalanced condition.15 0.6 δ2 − δ1 δ3 − δ1 0.2 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.1 0 −0.3 0.20 and 7.4 0. It is observed in Figs. rad 0.2 0.7.2 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 185 δ 2 − δ 1 δ3 − δ1 Angle differences.25 0.
and later on at . Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 186 1.21: Rotor speed deviation under balanced condition.001 ω1 ω2 ω3 Speed deviation ω1.004 ω1 ω2 1.002 1.3.3. 1.3 Test case 3 The dynamic behaviour of the threephase load tap changer transformer is assessed in this section.995 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.999 0.001 1 0.9985 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. pu 1.999 0. pu 1.0005 1 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.20: Rotor speed deviation under unbalanced condition.997 0.003 ω3 Speed deviation ω1. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.7.9995 0.998 0.996 0. A load increment of 20% for phase b of Bus 5 is applied at time 1 min. 7.
Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 187 Bus voltage magnitude.24 and 7. The evaluation time is 10 min.04 1.04 1.7.94 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.02 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. 1. b and c for the voltagecontrolled buses. pu 1.23. the load connected at phase a of the same bus is increased further by 25%.23: Phase a of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.025 1.035 1.02 1 0.96 0. Figures 7. pu 1.05 Bus voltage magnitude.3. 7.03 1. respectively.25 show the voltage magnitude for phases a. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. time 2 min.22: Bus voltage magnitude for phase a under balanced condition. .045 VBus 4 VBus 7  VBus 9   1.98 0.
04 V  Bus 4 Bus voltage magnitude.24: Phase b of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses.25: Phase c of the bus voltage magnitude for voltagecontrolled buses.025 1.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.035 VBus 7 VBus 9   1.03 1. furthermore after the second load perturbation takes action.025 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 188 1.27 depicts the field voltage magnitude for synchronous .015 1.7. pu 1.01 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.23 and 7.03 1. the dynamic load tap changer still controlling the voltage magnitude within a reasonable level.015 1. Fig.02 1. It is observed in Figs.035 VBus 7 VBus 9   1.3. pu 1. 1.04 V  Bus 4 Bus voltage magnitude.02 1.25 that the voltage magnitude at these points is very well controlled when the first perturbation takes place. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. 7. 7.
It is noticed from this figure that the tap ratio Tk is no longer 1 : 1 but that it varies according to system requirements for voltage control purposes. pu DLTC 2 1.02 1.01 DLTC 3 1 0.07 Syn Gen Synchronous generator field voltage.97 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.26: Dynamic load tap changer performance.02 DLTC1 Tap performance. 7.98 0. pu 1 Syn Gen2 1.03 1.26 depicts the dynamic load tap changer performance. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.05 1. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 189 1.99 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.03 1.3.01 1 0. generators and Fig.27: Field voltage magnitude for synchronous generators .7.04 1.99 0. .06 Syn Gen3 1. 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.
1994]. There is a 20% increment of the load of one phase connected to this bus. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. Figures 7.33 1. The voltage magnitude at the induction motorconnected buses is also affected by the load increments and they show a similar behaviour as the consumed powers. the threephase active and reactive powers consumptions of the induction motors are affected by the imbalances.335 1. pu 1. To demonstrate the applicability and versatility of the dynamic power flows tool and the induction motor modelling.33. 7. The continuous lines represent the voltage magnitude for the induction motor . at time 1 min. 4. 7. As expected.4 190 Test case 4 At this section the threephase induction motor behaviour is analysed. The same power network used in the last test case is applied to carry out this assessment.29 and Figs. the loads of buses 5 and 6 of Fig. respectively.345 Phase a Phase b Phase c Three−phase active power.16 have been replaced for two large industrial induction motors [Kundur.3. The simulation is run for 10 minutes.31 the show threephase active and reactive power consumed by the induction motors at buses 5 and 6. The powers for phases a and b are similar but not for phase c. The load connected at Bus 8 remains as an static load.315 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 7.7. as show in Fig.30 and 7.3. 1.34 1.325 1.32 1.28 and 7.28: Threephase active power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 5.
576 0. 7. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 191 1.33(a).32 depicts the slip performance for the induction motor during the transient sim . Fig. connected at Bus 6 and the dashed lines represent the voltage magnitude for induction motor connected at Bus 6.33(c) depict the voltage magnitude for phase a .058 Phase a Phase b Phase c 1.054 1.29: Threephase active power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 6. 7. Figs.052 1.584 0. b and c respectively.3.588 Phase a Phase b Phase c Three−phase reactive power.044 1.578 0.582 0.58 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. 0. 7.056 Three−phase active power.048 1.586 0.30: Threephase reactive power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 5. pu 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7. pu 1.04 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.574 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.05 1.042 1.7.33(b) and 7.046 1.
2 6 Slip performance.508 0. ulation.8 5.506 0.7.6 5. pu 0.32: Slip performance for threephase induction motor.3. min 6 7 8 9 Figure 7. % 5.502 0.5 0.31: Threephase reactive power consumption by the induction motor connected at Bus 6. Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 192 0. 6.6 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. min 6 7 8 9 10 Figure 7.504 0.2 5 4. 10 .51 Phase a Phase b Phase c Three−phase reactive power.4 Induction motor 1 − Bus 5 Induction motor 2 − Bus 6 5.498 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.8 4.
3. min 6 7 8 9 10 1. min 6 7 8 9 10 0.01 1. . Dynamic Simulations of ThreePhase Power Networks 193 Phase a 1.985 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.985 0 1 2 3 4 5 time.01 1.995 0.99 Phase c Voltage magnitude.7.995 0.005 1 0.985 0 1 2 3 4 5 time. pu Phase b 0.01 1.005 1 0.33: Voltage magnitude for induction motorconnected buses.005 1 0.995 0.99 Figure 7.99 0. min 6 7 8 9 10 1.
To a large extent the method merges simultaneously the algebraicdifferential equation set which represent the power system in abc coordinates by using repeated linearization and the trapezoidal rule. The threephase dynamic model of generating plants is addressed. it encompass the threephase synchronous generator modelled. the dynamic threephase load tap changer and the unbalanced perturbations to the system to enable the study of a wide range of dynamic phenomena in abc coordinates of power systems. turbine. The dynamic power flows computer program has been extended to carry out threephase analyses. resulting in a unified frameofreference with which to carry out reliable numerical solutions using the NewtonRaphson method for threephase dynamic simulations of power systems.4. mathematical models of the synchronous machine with automatic voltage regulator. static and dynamic threephase load modelling including induction motor load. dynamic stability assessment. A set of ordinary differential equations describing the components are obtained for each generating plant component. For the purpose of this research. .7. speedgovernor and boiler.4 194 Summary This chapter focuses on the threephase approach in rectangular coordinates for the dynamic assessment of power systems. in the abc frame of reference have been developed. Likewise. Summary 7.
VSCFACTS controllers. (ii) dynamic power flows using a simultaneous solution technique.Chapter 8 Conclusions The dynamic assessment of electrical power systems using the NewtonRaphson method represents the main concern in this research work. such as synchronous generators. (iii) and threephase dynamic power flows for carrying out dynamic stability assessments of unbalanced power systems. flux decay. The solution technique makes use of a simultaneous solution approach which allows for models of rotor saliency. power loads. which is one of the key points of concern of this thesis. including LCCHVDC converters with various control modes. including electromechanical controlled power plant components and VSCFACTS devices representation. and to assess their interaction with the electrical power network. The goal is to develop suitable dynamic models of power plant components. which are: (i) Steadystate power flows analysis in phase domain coordinates. nonlinear loads and a wide range of control actions to be incorporated within a unified framework. This method is particulary suitable for carrying out longrange dynamic assessments. partitioned methods. This research work may be seen to consist of three main parts. namely. which are primarily aimed at covering shortrange simulation studies. . This contrast with more traditional solution techniques.
and that simulation tools using the same philosophy as that applied in this research work may be used as the core of an online dynamic security assessment application system. and to enhance power system stability under unfavourable conditions. detailed simulations have been carried out in order to assess the dynamic impact of various power plant components on the electrical power network. Indeed. the development of realtime simulators for dispatching and security monitoring issues are finding increasing favour. it has been observed that inclusion of the load tapchanger transformer has the capability of enhancing system voltage stability. It is worth adding that with the everincreasing power of computers. Using the generated software. It has also been assessed via modelling and simulation.1 Future work Alongside the developed mathematical models for VSCFACTS devices and its inclusion into the simultaneous method for carrying out dynamic stability assessments for electrical . Future work 196 From the dynamic simulation studies carried out. Quantifiable outcome of this research. particularly when it undergoes unfavourable conditions.1. They have a faster response speeds than those provided by electromechanical devices. Dynamic modelling of the system is amenable to its better understanding. The inclusion of VSCFACTS controllers have shown to contribute effectively to providing dynamic voltage support during steadystate operation. are software environments for carrying out comprehensive dynamic power flows studies in both positive sequence and in abc coordinates. that the voltage dependency of loads is a matter of great importance in longterm dynamic phenomena and that the load models should reflect such dependency correctly when carrying out longterm dynamic studies.8. the studies carried out show that the most realistic way of load modelling representation during voltage stability assessments is when induction motor loads are modelled explicitly as induction motors and not by static polynomial loads with voltage exponent 1. 8.
8. Future work 197 power networks.1. . including wind farms. more work needs to be done for including models of additional power electronics controllers such as the UPFC and the TCSC. Modelling of embedded generation technologies should be considered for its incorporation into the dynamic power flow algorithm.
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1: Six pulse converter station. VdR 1 = π Z α π3 α 1 [−v (θ)] dθ + π ca Z α+ 2π 3 α+ π3 Z h i 1 α+π h ab i v bc (θ) dθ + −v (θ) dθ π α+ 2π 3 (A. The threephase supply voltages to the converter transformer v a . Ls Xa + ea Xb eb VdR Xc ec _ Figure A. as shown in Fig. A.2.e. A. firing instants occur at successive intervals of 60◦ following the first voltage crossing.1 is used to derive the mathematical model for the threephase HVDC station. The commutation is assumed to be delayed by an angle α with equidistant firing angle control [Arrillaga. From Fig.2. 1998]. i. v b and v c are taken to be unbalanced but sinusoidal. A.1) . the rectified voltage VdR is obtained by integration.Appendix A HVDC Power Equations A standard sixpulse converter bridge depicted in Fig.
3) (A.6) .5) giving ρ Ak VdR √ ρ 2Vk cos (α + Aρ ) π (A.4) (A.207 Figure A. a b c VdR = VdR + VdR + VdR (A.2) where a VdR b VdR c VdR √ · ¶¸ µ ³ A 2V ab π´ 2π = cos α + − cos α + π 3 3 √ bc · µ ¶¸ ³ ´ A 2V 2π bc bc = cos α + θ − π − cos α + θ − π 3 √ ca h ³ ´ i A 2V π = cos α + θca − − cos (α + θca ) π 3 (A.2: Unbalanced converter voltage waveform. The voltage VdR is made up of three terms.
7) where B a = ϕab = 0 B b = ϕbc − 4π 3 B c = ϕca − 2π 3 Taking into account the voltage drop ∆V .208 where Aa = θab = 0 Ab = θbc − 4π 3 Ac = θca − 2π 3 A similar expression is developed for the inverter. ∆V = Xc I d π (A.10) The powers of the inverter and the rectifier are given by the following expressions. ρ VdI √ Am 2Vmρ = cos (γ + B ρ ) π (A.8) (A.9) where ∆V is defined as. . the DC voltages of the rectifier and the inverter are: ρ VdR ρ VdI √ Ak 2Vkρ cos (α + Aρ ) − ∆V = π √ Am 2Vmρ = cos (γ + B ρ ) − ∆V π (A.
Vkρ Ikρ k1 Ak Vkρ Id √ Skρ = √ = 3 3 ρ ρ Vm Im k1 Am Vmρ Id ρ √ Sm = √ = 3 3 where √ k1 = 6 π k (A.209 PdR = VdR Id = X ρ VdR Id (A. it can be taken to be k = 0. Ikρ ρ Im √ 6 = Ak k Id = Ak kId π √ 6 = Am k Id = Am kId π (A.995 [Arrillaga and Arnold.b.13) where k is a constant associated with commutation overlap.15) . The apparent powers are given by.c The relations between the currents on the primary side of the threephase transformers and the direct current Id .11) ρ VdI Id (A. For power flow analysis. are given by.b.c PdI = VdI Id = X ρ=a. 1990].14) (A.12) ρ=a.
3) (B. The nonzero partial derivatives corresponding to the function Fω(t) are: ∂Fω(t) = 1 + KD ∂ω (B.1 Jacobian Elements .2) (B.1) ∂Fω(t) = 2Kx0q Ir Im sin 2δ − 2Kx0d Ir Im sin 2δ + KEq0 Im cos δ ∂δ −Kx0d Ir2 cos 2δ + KEd0 Im sin δ − KEq0 Ir sin δ 2 2 +KEd0 Ir cos δ + KXq0 Ir2 cos 2δ − Kx0q Im cos δ + Kx0d Im cos 2δ ∂Fω(t) = K (Ir sin δ − Im cos δ) ∂Ed0 ∂Fω(t) = K (Ir cos δ + Im sin δ) ∂Eq0 (B.Partial Derivatives The Jacobian matrix elements corresponding to the discretised differential equations for the transient synchronous generators model are described as follow.4) .Appendix B Jacobian Matrix Elements B.
the generator power output is therefore of the form. B. Discretised State Variables 211 The nonzero partial derivatives corresponding to the function Fδ(t) are: ∂Fδ(t) dt =− ∂ω 2 ∂Fδ(t) =1 ∂δ (B.6) The nonzero partial derivatives corresponding to the function FE 0 d(t) ∂FEd0 (t) ∂δ ∂FEd0 (t) ∂Ed0 = ¢ 1 ¡ 0 xq − xq − Ir sin δ + Im cos δ 0 2dtTq =1+ (B.2.8) The nonzero partial derivatives corresponding to the function FE 0 q(t) ∂FEq0 (t) ∂δ ∂FEq0 (t) ∂Eq0 are: =− are: ¢ 1 ¡ 0 + Ir cos δ + Im sin δ x − x d d 2dtTd0 =1+ 1 2dtTd0 (B. Pe = ra E2 E [ra (e cos δ + f sin δ) + xd (f cos δ + e sin δ)] − 2 2 ra + xd ra2 + x2d (B.10) The Jacobian matrix elements corresponding to the discretised differential equations for power plant components are described as follow.2 Discretised State Variables The armature resistance and damping coefficient of generator are considered so.7) 1 2dtTq0 (B.11) .5) (B.9) (B.B.
14) " ¯ ¯2 ¢ ra ¯E(t) ¯ πf0 ¡ + PHP (t) FHP + PIP (t) FIP + PLP (t) FLP − 2 H ra + x2d ¯ ¯£ ¡ ¢ ¡ ¢¤ ¯E(t) ¯ −ra e(t) cos δ(t) + f(t) sin δ(t) + xd −f(t) cos δ(t) + e(t) sin δ(t) ra2 + x2d Cte = − ∆tπf0 (Dωo ) H #) − D(ω(t) ) (B.13) then.16) .12) Ft (ω) + Ft−∆t (ω) + Cte = 0 (B.6 and Eq. ∆t Ft−∆t (ω) = −ωt−∆t − 2 ( " ¯ ¯2 ¢ ra ¯E(t−∆t) ¯ πf0 ¡ PHP (t−∆t) FHP + PIP (t−∆t) FIP + PLP (t−∆t) FLP − H ra2 + x2d ¯ ¯£ ¡ ¢ ¯E(t−∆t) ¯ −ra e(t−∆t) cos δ(t−∆t) + f(t−∆t) sin δ(t−∆t) + + ra2 + x2d #) ¡ ¢¤ xd −f(t−∆t) cos δ(t−∆t) + e(t−∆t) sin δ(t−∆t) − D(ω(t−∆t) ) ra2 + x2d ∆t Ft (ω) = ωt − 2 ( (B.B. Discretised State Variables 212 The application of the trapezoidal rule to Eq.2. The electromechanical differential equation for the speed is ω˙ = πfo H [Pm − Pe − D (ω − ωo )] so.15) (B.4.9 are described as follows. ωt = ωt−∆t + ¢ ∆t ¡ ω˙ (t) + ω˙ (t−∆t) 2 (B.4. the application of the trapezoidal rule to this Equation is.
δ(t) − δ(t−∆t) − ´ ∆t ³ ˙ δ(t) + δ˙(t−∆t) = 0 2 (B.9.19) (B. for this Equation we have that. Discretised State Variables 213 A similar process is applied to Eq.17) where.24) (B. Ft−∆t (δ) = −δ(t−∆t) − Ft (δ) = δ(t) − ∆t ω 2 (t−∆t) ∆t ω 2 (t) C2 = 2πf0 ∆t (B.20) For Pg .B. we have.18) (B.22) ¾ ¢ ¢ 1 ¡ 1 ¡ P − P1(t) − Pg(t) + P − P1(t) − Pg(t) T3 set(t) T3 set(t) (B.25) .21) ∆t Ft−∆t (Pg ) = −Pg(t−∆t) − 2 ∆t Ft (Pg ) = Pg(t) − 2 ½ ½ ¾ ¢ 1 ¡ −P1(t−∆t) − Pg(t−∆t) T3 ¾ ¢ 1 ¡ −P1(t) − Pg(t) T3 (B. 4. F (Pg ) = Ft (Pg ) + Ft−∆t (Pg ) + Cte ´ ∆t ³ ˙ Pg(t) + P˙g(t−∆t) = 0 2 (B.2.23) Pg(t) − Pg(t−∆t) − ∆t Pg(t) − Pg(t−∆t) − 2 ½ (B.
28) (B.29) q 2 2 ∆t −KA (e(t−∆t) + f(t−∆t) ) − E(t−∆t) Ft−∆t (E) = −E(t−∆t) − 0 2 Td0 µ (B.31) ¶ The same process is applied to the remaining state variables of the system.26) The discretisation for these elements is like.2. F (E) = Ft (E) + Ft−∆t (E) + Cte E(t) − E(t−∆t) − E(t) − E(t−∆t) − − ∆t 2 ∆t 2 KA Vref − KA (B.32) . Discretised State Variables 214 Cte = − ∆tPset T3 (B. (B.30) (B.27) ´ ∆t ³ ˙ E1(t) + E˙ 1(t−∆t) = 0 2 KA Vref − KA q 2 )−E (e2(t) + f(t) (t) 0 Td0 q 2 (e2(t−∆t) + f(t−∆t) ) − E(t−∆t) =0 0 Td0 ∆t Ft (E) = E(t) − 2 −KA q 2 )−E (e2(t) + f(t) (t) 0 Td0 Cte = −∆t Vref KA 0 Td0 (B.B.
05 Table C.03 0.00+ j0.02+ j0.02 0.08+ j0.00+ j0.01+ j0.06 0.18 0.00+ j0.03 0.24 0.18 0.2: Generation: Fivebus test system Bus code North* South * Slack bus MW – 40 MVAR – 0 MVAR limits – ±300 Voltage magnitude 1.05 0.06+ j0.08+ j0.1: Transmission line parameters: Fivebus test system Bus code North South North Lake South Lake South Main South Elm Lake Main Main Elm Impedance 0.00+ j0.04+ j0.00+ j0.04 0.06+ j0.24 Line charging 0.00 .06 0. All data is given in per unit on a 100 MW and 400 kV base values of active power and voltage respectively. Table C.06 1.12 0.04 0.00+ j0.00+ j0.Appendix C Power Networks Test Data Following the data for the power system test networks used are depicted.
0180 0.006 1.0138 0.025 0.006 1.3: Power loads: Fivebus test system Bus code South South South South MW 40 45 40 60 MVAR 0 15 5 10 Table C.4: Power transformers: New England system Bus 2 6 10 12 12 19 19 20 22 23 25 29 code 30 31 32 11 13 20 33 34 35 36 37 38 Rs 0.07 1.0006 0.0016 0.07 1.025 1.0156 Tv 1.07 1.0435 0.216 Table C.00 0.025 Uv 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 .009 1.0007 0.0009 0.06 1.00 0.025 1.020 0.0142 0.0181 0.0008 Xs 0.0005 0.0 0.0016 0.0272 0.0435 0.00 0.0007 0.025 1.0232 0.0143 0.00 1.
00+ j0.1725 0.00+ j0.5: Transmission line parameters: New England system Bus 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 8 9 10 10 13 14 15 16 16 16 16 17 17 21 22 23 25 26 26 26 28 code 2 39 3 25 4 18 5 14 6 8 7 11 8 9 39 11 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 24 18 27 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 29 Impedance 0.0133 0.0043+ j0.0780 0.0082 0.2214 0.00+ j0.0043 0.3660 0.00+ j0.0006+ j0.1130 0.0026 0.3216 0.00+ j0.0729 0.0128 0.0057+ j0.0250 0.0112 0.00+ j0.0213 0.0008+ j0.0086 0.00+ j0.00+ j0.0018+ j0.0009+ j0.1845 0.1342 0.0006+ j0.5130 0.0089 0.00+ j0.0032+ j0.0290 0.0680 0.0140 0.0096 0.0094 0.00+ j0.0007+ j0.0014+ j0.0350 0.0363 0.00+ j0.0070+ j0.2490 .00+ j0.00+ j0.0008+ j0.041 0.00+ j0.010+ j0.0002+ j0.0008+ j0.75 0.0004+ j0.013 0.00+ j0.0195 0.0022+ j0.1319 0.00+ j0.25 0.0043 0.0147 0.00+ j0.0013+ j0.00+ j0.1382 0.0082 0.2565 0.0046 0.00+ j0.0010+ j0.00+ j1.013+ j0.1476 0.00+ j0.7802 0.0009+ j0.0004+ j0.1342 0.0023+ j0.200 0.00+ j0.3804 0.0007+ j0.00+ j0.00+ j0.00+ j0.0003+ j0.00+ j1.0323 0.2548 0.00+ j0.0008+ j0.3040 0.3610 0.0729 0.0013+ j0.0173 0.0007+ j0.00+ j0.00+ j0.0059 0.217 Table C.69 0.0474 0.00+ j0.025 0.0151 Line charging 0.00+ j0.0101 0.140 0.035+ j0.0014+ j0.2138 0.2396 0.00+ j0.0004+ j0.0008+ j0.00+ j0.0016+ j0.00+ j0.0625 0.1710 0.1389 0.0011+ j0.0129 0.0217 0.0135 0.0092 0.434 0.
0 0.218 Table C.5 320 329.0 MVAR limits – ±250 ±300 ±300 ±250 ±250 ±300 ±200 ±300 ±400 Voltage magnitude 1.0 0.6 26.0 0.0 0.0 0.9831 0.6 250 .2 650 632 508 650 560 540 830 MVAR – 0.5 308.9972 1.5 27.0635 1.12 1104 MVAR 2.0123 1.6 224 139 281 206 283.4 158 680 274 247.6 −92.0278 1.2 47.0 0.0265 Table C.5 9.3 30 103 115 84.7: Power loads: New England system Bus code 3 4 7 8 12 15 16 18 20 21 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 39 MW 322 500 233 522 8.9 4.2 17 75.0493 1.40 184 84 176 88 153 32.0 0.0300 1.6: Generation: New England system Bus code 39* 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 MW – 250 573.0475 0.9520 0.0 0.
040 1.9: Generation: Threegenerators.017+ j0.040 1.0720 0.0253 1.209 Table C.00+ j0.00 0.158 0.0253 1.00+ j0.0085+ j0.00+ j0.0161 0.010+ j0.358 0. ninebus system Bus code 5 6 8 MW 125 90 100 MVAR 50 30 35 Table C.219 Table C.00 0. ninebus system Bus 1 2 3 code 4 7 9 Rs 0.00+ j0. ninebus system Bus 4 4 5 6 7 8 code 5 6 7 9 8 9 Impedance 0.1008 Line charging 0.0253 Uv 1 1 1 .149 0.032+ j0.176 0.0625 0.0850 0.0170 0.0576 0.0253 Table C.10: Power loads: Threegenerators.306 0.039+ j0.11: Power transformers: Threegenerators.00+ j0.0 0.0119+ j0.8: Transmission line parameters: Threegenerators.00+ j0. ninebus system Bus code 1* 2 3 MW – 163 85 MVAR – 0.0 MVAR limits – ±250 ±250 Voltage magnitude 1.0920 0.0586 Tv 1.00 Xs 0.