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8

J.A.Beachy

1

**Chapter 3 Review Problems
**

from A Study Guide for Beginner’s by J.A.Beachy,

a supplement to Abstract Algebra by Beachy / Blair

§3.1–3.5

1. (a) What are the possibilities for the order of an element of Z×

13 ? Explain your answer.

Solution: The group Z×

13 has order 12, and the order of any element must be a divisor

of 12, so the possible orders are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12.

(b) Show that Z×

13 is a cyclic group.

Solution: The first element to try is [2], and we have 22 = 4, 23 = 8, 24 = 16 ≡ 3,

25 ≡ 2 · 24 ≡ 6, and 26 ≡ 2 · 25 ≡ 12, so the order of [2] is greater than 6. By part

(a) it must be 12, and thus [2] is a generator for Z×

13 . We could also write this as

Z×

=

h[2]

i.

13

13

2. What is the largest order of an element in Z12 × Z18 ? Use your answer to show, in

particular, that the group is not cyclic.

Solution: The order of an element in a direct product is the least common multiple of

the orders of its components by Proposition 3.3.4 (b). Since 12 = 22 · 3 and 18 = 2 · 32 ,

we have lcm[12, 18] = 22 · 32 = 36. The group cannot be cyclic since it has order

12 · 18 = 6 · 36, and no element could serve as a generator.

3. Find all subgroups of Z×

11 , and the diagram showing the inclusions between them.

Solution: First check for cyclic subgroups, in shorthand notation: 22 = 4, 23 = 8,

24 = 5, 25 = 10, 26 = 9, 27 = 7, 28 = 3, 29 = 6, 210 = 1. This shows that

Z×

11

×

2 =

is cyclic, so the subgroups are as follows, in addition

to

Z

and

{[1]}:

[2]

11

{[1], [2]2 , [2]4 , [2]6 , [2]8 } = {[1], [4], [5], [9], [3]} and [2]5 = {[1], [2]5 } = {[1], [10]} The

lattice diagram forms a diamond.

4. Which of the groups listed below are isomorphic to each other?

×

G1 = Z8 , G2 = Z4 × Z2 , G3 = Z2 × Z2 × Z2 , G4 = Z×

24 , G5 = Z30 , G6 = D4 .

**Solution: Each group has 8 elements, so we cannot tell the groups apart by order.
**

But G6 is not abelian, while the rest are abelian, so G6 cannot be isomorphic to any

of the rest.

The group G1 is cyclic, but G2 and G3 are not, so G1 is not isomorphic to either G2

or G3 . In G2 there is an element of order 4, namely (1, 0), but in G3 all elements have

order 2.

So far we can see that there are four different isomorphism “classes”, represented by

G1 , G2 , G3 , and G6 . We need to look more deeply at G4 and G5 . Exercise 3.4.21

×

∼ ×

proves that if gcd(m, n) = 1, then Z×

mn = Zm × Zn . Thus

× ∼

∼ ×

∼

Z×

24 = Z3 × Z8 = Z2 × (Z2 × Z2 ) = G3 .

for each element x of 3 h9i = {3. −9} ∈ h9i. b). so the clo0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 −1 1 a b sure property holds. (−3) h9i = {−3.3. Show that the group G in Problem 5 is isomorphic to the direct product R × R. 7} Z× 20 . 0 0 1 0 0 1 §3. . Show that G is a subgroup of GL3 (R). b ∈ R. we have × × ∼ ∼ × ∼ Z× 30 = Z2 × Z3 × Z5 = Z2 × Z4 = G2 .8 × 7. 1 a b 1 c d 1 a+c b+d Solution: We have 0 1 0 0 1 0 = 0 1 0 . b) + (c. Finally. ±9}. 1 a b Solution: Define φ : G → R × R by φ 0 1 0 = (a. Next.Beachy 2 ∼ The isomorphism Z× 8 = Z2 × Z2 follows from calculation showing that every element × of Z8 has order 2. List the cosets of the cyclic subgroup h9i in Z× 20 . b + d) = (a. 1 a b 5. d) 1 c d 1 a b = φ 0 1 0 + φ 0 1 0 . h9i = {1. b)) = 1 a b 0 1 0 . −7} the factor group is not cyclic. The identity matrix belongs to the set.8 J. ±7. 9} Since x2 (−1) h9i = {−1. This is one-to-one 0 0 1 and onto because it has an inverse function θ : R × R → G defined by θ((a.A.6–3. and 0 1 0 = 0 0 1 1 −a −b 0 1 0 . Let G be the subset of GL3 (R) consisting of all matrices of the form 0 1 0 0 0 1 such that a. Is Z20 / h9i cyclic? Solution: Z× 20 = {±1. 0 0 1 6. so the set is closed under taking inverses. ±3. φ preserves the respective operations since 0 0 1 1 a b 1 c d 1 a+c b+d 1 0 φ 0 1 0 0 1 0 = φ 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 = (a + c.

N is normal in H since = 0 z 0 1 0 z −1 a −ayz −1 + xbz −1 + yz −1 xa xb + y x −x−1 yz −1 ∈ N.Beachy 3 8. The fundamental homomorphism theorem implies that H/N ∼ = F ×. . (a) Show by a direct computation that N is a normal subgroup. (c) Show that H/N is isomorphic to the multiplicative group F × . let H be the subset of upper triangular matrices in a b G. and it is a sub −1 −1 −1 a b c d a b c −c−1 d ac b − ac−1 d group since = = . a3 . Let N be the subgroup a2 = {e. 0 c 0 w and so φ is a group homomorphism. it c can a b × follows that φ maps H onto F . The calculation 0 d−1 1 0 −1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 −1 1 −1 = 1 1 −1 0 1 0 1 1 = 1+1 1 −1 1 shows that H is not a normal subgroup of G. Let F be a field. The −1 a b a b = set H is closed under formation of inverses since if ∈ H. Since be any nonzero element of F . 0 1 (a) Show that H is a subgroup of G. and let N be the subset of GL2 (F ) consisting of all matrices of the form . 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 −1 x y a b x y Furthermore. a3 b}.8 J. but that H is not normal in G. a2 b. and the product of two invertible upper triangular matrices is easily shown to be an invertible upper triangular matrix. b2 = e. a. a b Solution: Define φ : H → F × by φ = c. b. = 0 1 0 z −1 0 z Alternate solution: First prove part (c). Assume that the dihedral group D4 is given as {e. (b) Show that N is a normal subgroup of H. so 0 c N = ker(φ). then 0 d 0 d −1 a −a−1 bd−1 ∈ H. and φ = 1 if and only if c = 1. Then we have 0 c φ a b 0 c u v 0 w au av + bw = φ = cw 0 cw a b u v = φ φ . since the kernel of any group homomorphism is a normal subgroup. ab. a2 }.A.a2 . where a4 = e. Then part (b) follows. 9. Solution: The set N is nonempty since it contains the identity matrix. Solution: The 2×2 identity matrix belongs H. and ba = a3 b.3. let G = GL2 (F ).

a5 . {e. Comment: We should have expected to find three proper nontrivial subgroups with two elements each. we must find the cosets that correspond to these elements. a2 b} = H1 . and a2 ∈ N . Solution: The right cosets of N are N = {e. .Beachy 4 Solution: We have ai a2 a−i = a2 and (ai b)a2 (ai b)−1 = ai a−2 bai b = ai a−2 a−i b2 = a−2 = a2 . which implies that N is normal. and let N = {e. N ab = {ab. a6 b}. a3 b}. (a) Show that R× /R+ is cyclic of order 2. and verify that N is a normal subgroup of G. a2 b. a3 . a. N a = {a. a2 . (c) Find all subgroups of D4 /N . abN }. a2 . Note that we therefore have D4 /N ∼ = Z2 × Z2 .3. bN = {b. and N ab = {ab. N b = {b. and D4 . 11. These subgroups can be shown to be N itself. and the inclusion relationships between them. for all i. The subgroup H2 will correspond to the subgroup of D4 /N consisting of the cosets N and aN . Under the correspondence defined in Proposition 3. a2 . N a = {a. b. a2 b}. Solution: The subgroup R+ has two cosets: R+ and (−1)R+ . a3 b} = H3 . a6 }. can be found in Figure 3. a4 b. abN = {ab. Let’s only look at the proper nontrivial subgroups of D4 /N .6.8 J. Since b and ab have order 2. (b) Show that G/N has order 4. ab.7 (b). a2 . a6 b. a5 b. {e. so D4 /N is not cyclic. a3 b}. The fact that the left and right cosets of N coincide shows that N is normal. 10. a2 . a5 b. a4 . The subgroup H1 collapses from four elements in D4 to two elements in D4 /N : the cosets N and bN . Let G = D8 . N b = {b. The left cosets of N are more trouble to compute. a2 b}. N bN b = N e = N . and N abN ab = N e = N . a5 . we see that each coset has order 2 in the factor group. a6 }. a2 . {e. but we get N = {e. a3 }. aN = {a. the subgroups of D4 /N are in one-to-one correspondence with the subgroups of D4 that contain N . but is not cyclic.8. since that is what we would find in the Klein 4-group Z2 × Z2 to which D4 /N is isomorphic. a4 .6 on page 148 of Abstract Algebra. so each coset has order 2.8. (a) List all left cosets and all right cosets of N . Solution: By Proposition 3. a4 b. a7 b}. a7 }. a3 . a7 }. a6 }. Comment: The subgroups of D4 .A. a2 }.7. a3 } = H2 . a7 b. a3 b. Solution: It is clear that there are 4 cosets. (b) Is the factor group D4 /N a cyclic group? Solution: The cosets of N are N = {e. a4 . while the subgroup H3 collapses to {N. We have N aN a = N a2 = N .

where for simplicity we assume that n > 0. and so we can form the cosets m + Z of Z with no difficulty. we add the representative to itself n times.Beachy 5 (b) Let H be a subgroup of R× that contains R+ . n (b) Show that for each n ∈ Z+ . 12. Thus n m that the order of + Z is a divisor of n.A. which shows m ∈ Z.8. Solution: Since Q is abelian.8 J. the subgroup Z is normal. 1 Solution: It follows from the argument in part (a) that + Z has order n. (a) Show that every element of the group Q/Z has finite order.3. the group Q/Z contains an element of order n. To add n m m + Z to itself n times. n . which gives us n n m + Z added to itself n times gives us the identity coset. Solution: This follows from part (a) and Proposition 3.7 (b). Show that either H = R× or H = R+ .

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