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International Journal of Sediment Research

Available online 3 August 2015
In Press, Accepted Manuscript — Note to users

Numerical simulation of dam-break flow and bed change considering the vegetation
effects




Zhiguo Hea, b,
Ting Wua,
Haoxuan Wenga,
Peng Hua, b, , ,
Gangfeng Wua
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doi:10.1016/j.ijsrc.2015.04.004
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Abstract
Existing numerical investigations of dam-break flows rarely consider the effects of vegetation. This paper presents a
depth-averaged two-dimensional model for dam-break flows over mobile and vegetated beds. In the model, both the
consequences of reducing space for storing mass and momentum by the existence of vegetation and dragging the
flow are considered: the former is considered by introducing a factor( 1 − c ) to the flow depth, where c is the
vegetation density; the later is considered by including an additional sink term in the momentum equations. The new
governing equations are discretized by the finite volume method; and an existing second-order central-upwind
scheme embedded with the hydrostatic reconstruction method for water depth, is used to estimate the fluxes; the
source terms are estimated by either explicit or semi-explicit methods fulfilling the stability requirement. Laboratory
experiments of dam-break flows or quasi-steady flows with/without vegetation effects/sediment transport are
simulated. The good agreements between the measurements and the numerical simulations demonstrate a
satisfactory performance of the model in reproducing the flow depth, velocity and bed deformation depth. Numerical
case studies of six scenarios of dam-break flows over a mobile and vegetated bed are conducted. It is shown that
when the area of the vegetation zone, the vegetation density, and the pattern of the vegetation distribution are varied,
the resulted bed morphological change differs greatly, suggesting a great influence of vegetation on the dam-break
flow evolution. Specifically, the vegetation may divert the direction of the main flow, hindering the flow and thus result
in increased deposition upstream of the vegetation.

Keywords




Dam-break flow;
Sediment transport;
Vegetation effects;
Numerical modeling
Corresponding author.
Copyright © 2015 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation / the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion
Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Note to users: Accepted manuscripts are Articles in Press that have been peer reviewed and accepted for
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Advances in Water Resources
Volume 82, August 2015, Pages 39–50

Incompressible SPH scour model for movable bed dam break flows




Qihua Rana, ,
Jian Tonga, ,
Songdong Shaob, c, , ,
Xudong Fuc, ,
Yueping Xua,
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doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2015.04.009
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Highlights

An ISPH erosion model is proposed for the sediment bed scouring.

The concept of pick-up velocity is used to initiate the sediment grains.

Sensitivity analysis is made on the particle spacing and pick-up velocity.

Two-phase velocity and pressure fields are studied near the water–sediment interface.

Vertical profiles of velocity, concentration and two stresses in both phases are analysed.

Abstract
In this study an incompressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics (ISPH) approach coupled with the
sediment erosion model is developed to investigate the sediment bed scour and grain movement under the
dam break flows. Two-phase formulations are used in the ISPH numerical algorithms to examine the free
surface and bed evolution profiles, in which the entrained sediments are treated as a different fluid
component as compared with the water. The sediment bed erosion model is based on the concept of pick-up
flow velocity and the sediment is initiated when the local flow velocity exceeds a critical value. The proposed
model is used to reproduce the sediment erosion and follow-on entrainment process under an instantaneous
dam break flow and the results are compared with those from the weakly compressible moving particle semiimplicit (WCMPS) method as well as the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the two-phase
ISPH model performed well with the experimental data. The study shows that the ISPH modelling approach
can accurately predict the dynamic sediment scouring process without the need to use empirical sediment
transport formulas.

Keywords





ISPH;
Dam break;
Movable bed;
Pick-up velocity;
Scour model;
Two-phase
Corresponding author at: Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, United Kingdom.
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



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