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WRITING FOR MEDIA

BJ(MC) 101

OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the Course is to drill students with the
necessary knowledge of linguistics, grammar which would develop their writing abilities.

IS WRITING AN ART OR A CRAFT?
Writing is both art and craft. By art, it means that is not always been what we think it as
today. It is a process or product of deliberately arranging elements in a way that appeals to
the senses or emotions. Rat is something that comes from within and it reflects the inner
beauty of the person. It involves creation of “beautiful and significant things”.
By craft, it is to do imaginative expressions of ideas in making functional or decorative
objects, through knowledge and skills. It is a close-ended activity. It is a skilled practice. It is
trade with skills that can be learned, redefined and can be passed on in a better and
artistically way.
MEDIA WRITING:
There are four ways for media writing. While writing for media it is important to understand
the relationship between information and news. Media writing is done for the fallowing
purposes:
Writing to informo

Always provide clear introduction.

o Provide a context for what you are going to write.
o Provide wide range of different aspects of the topic.
o Use of present tense
o Use of personal experience
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Writing to describeo wide range ofappropriate detail
o Use of modifiers such as adjectives and adverbs
o Use of colorful words and objectives
o Use of senses
Writing to persuadeo It is a biased writing/one sided /apparent balance
o The writer’s opinions are presented as facts.
o Make use of rhetorical questions
o Involve the reader using inclusive pronouns
ABCD OF WRITING:
Media writing includes a rigid structure .i.e.
Accuracy- it is basic to any writing so while writing we should cross check the facts,
information, figures and names.
Brevity- it means that each word in our story should be for reason and should be to the point.
Clarity- it starts before we write, so it is complete competent reporting. It involves
understanding the subject completely so that our story leaves an impact in the readers mind.
Discernment- it is the act or process of exhibiting keen inside and judgment. It is trait of
judging wisely and objectively.
HOW TO WRITE EFFECTIVELY?
Principles of effective writing are:

Unity

Coherence

Clarity

Completeness
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Sequencing

Readability

PUNCTUATION MARKS:
Following are the marks used in media writing:
The full stop (.)
The comma (,)
The semicolon (;)
The colon (:)
The question mark or note of interrogation (?)
The exclamation mark (!)
Brackets ({})
The dash (-)
Quotation marks or inverted commas (‘’)
The apostrophe (‘s)
Marks of ellipses or omission (…)
WHAT IS A SENTENCE?
It is a group of words that makes complete sense. It has only one subject and one predicate.
For example: little jack Horner sat in a corner
TYPES OF SENTENCES/VARIETY:

Simple sentences: it should be remembered that strings of short sentences are
tedious, choppy and difficult to understand.

Example: the sun shone on the still lake.

Compound sentences: it is made up of two of more principal or main clauses.

Example: the ducks on the surface and below the crap scoured the lakebed.

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Interrogative: Those sentences which seek answers are known as ‘interrogative sentences’ Example: Where do you live? Imperative: Those which express commands and request. Exclamatory: Those which express strong feelings. Example: be quiet! Or have mercy on us. context of the text. the product (the text that has been translated) or the process (the act of producing the translation) otherwise known as translating. It involves changing the form language.  Compound/complex sentences: they are combination of the both compound and complex sentence types. It can refers to the general subject field. Complex sentences: they consist of one main clause and one or more subordinate clauses. They consist of 2 or more independent clauses and at least 1 dependent clause. Example: he ran to the lake and the rest of the family followed (compound) though no one was actually planning to catch many fish (complex) VARYING SENTENCE TYPES: Declarative: Those which make statements or assertion are known as ‘declarative sentence’ Example: Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall. It is an interpretation of the meaning of a text in one language which is called the source text and the production in another language which is called the target language. Example: because he was unwell. METHODS OF TRANSLATION: 4 . a day at the lake was not an inviting prospect. Example: what a shame? TRANSLATION: The term translation has several meaning. all parts and packages of the language.

 Grammatical syntax: this simply means that the source language and target language do not necessarily have the same grammar and to understand a language grammar is used to understand the meaning of the word.There are several ways of translating Word to word translation  Literal translation  Faithful translation  Semantic translation  Free translation NEED FOR TRANSLATION:  It itself is a creative activity. Elements that cause problems in translation are:  Vocabulary: Languages which are different often lack words. 5 .  To reach large number of people. PROBLEMS OF TRANSLATION: Translation can be characterized as an activity where by the text of the source language is created into the text of target language. maintain and sustain the multicultural of the nation.  Idiomatic equivalence: the English language is particularly full of idioms.  To transform the entire elements of one place to another  To nurture. In the source language text there can be lot of idiomatic phrases and generally it is that each idioms of the source language text should be replaced by the corresponding idioms of the target language text. while attempting to keep the meaning of the two texts equal.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC & POLITICALSCENARIO BJ(MC) 103 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to give deep insight about the richness of Indian culture& Heritage along with the various contemporary issues. Bangladesh and parts of neighboring states such as Nepal and Afghanistan The name India is derived from Indus. A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system. Bharat) as a nation did not exist until the British brought hundreds of princely states and fiefdoms under central rule. is also occasionally used as a synonym for all of India. Pakistan. This is false and historically inaccurate those of you who have read History would be aware that Samrat Ashoks kingdom probably had the largest expanse of land of any kingdom in ancient times and of course included almost all of the Indian sub-continent i. a Persian word for "Land of the Hindus" and referring to North India and Pakistan before 1947. The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as the people of the Indus. it has six recognizd national parties. from Sanskrit Sindhu. the historic local appellation for the Indus River. There is a general mis-conception that India (or to be more accurate. that is Bharat. INDIA THAT IS BHARAT India’ official name is Bharat and this is accorded equal primacy as the word India in the Constitution. In fact the First Clause of the Constitution begins with the words.e. which is derived from the Old Persian word Hindu. so that students can develop analytical concepts and restructuring it with the new tint. Hindustan originally. India is the world's most populous democracy. India. The name Bharat is derived from the name of the legendary king Bharata in Hindu scriptures. including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya 6 . India.

socialist. In 7 . democratic republic. There is an underlying basic factor common to the whole of India. however. THE GREAT INDIAN HERITAGE India is a land of diverse cultures. our founding fathers used the term “INDIA THAT IS BHARAT”. and more than 40 regional parties. The culture of India is one of the oldest cultures in the world. which came into effect on 26 January 1950. languages. and architecture. For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy. Indian culture and heritage has its own charm that attracts the travelers from all around the globe. which serves as the country's supreme legal document. and festivals. with variations in the practices based on their local needs and influences. India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India.music. painting. the greatness of India has been in accepting the best from all the invaders and intermingling the new customs and styles with the existing . in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law”. Further. it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP. dance. states in its preamble that India is sovereign. The Constitution of India. India is blessed with rich culture and heritage.Janata Party (BJP). people. their customs. The variations in physical. religions. climatic conditions and the extent of exposure to other cultures have greatly influenced the traditions and culture of the different regions.this is visible in all aspects . Right from the medieval period there prevail diverse cultural diversities in form of dances. In the preamble to our Constitution. as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalitions at the Centre. secular. The government abides by constitutional checks. Since then. The Congress is considered centre-left or "liberal" in Indian political culture and the BJP centre-right or "conservative". sculptures. Every state of India has its own distinct cultures and has carved out its own cultural niche. Federalism defines the power distribution between the federal government and the states. the Congress held a majority in the parliament.

later on India adopted free market principles and liberalized its economy to international trade under the guidance of Manmohan Singh. However. who then was the Finance Minister of India under the leadership of P. The tenth plan completed its term in March 2007 and the eleventh plan is currently underway. INDIAN ECONOMY The Economy of India is the tenth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Revised versions of the formula have been used since then to determine the allocation of central assistance for state plans. The economy of India is based in part on planning through its five-year plans. which are developed. executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. 1 First Five-Year Plan (1951-1956) 2 Second Five-Year Plan (1956–1961) 3 Third Five-Year Plan (1961–1966) 4 Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969–1974) 5 Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974–1979) 6 Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980–1985) 7 Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985–1990) 8 Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992–1997) 8 . Prior to the fourth plan. leading to massive inefficiencies and widespread corruption. which led to the adoption of the Gadgil formula in 1969.Narasimha Rao the then Prime Minister. large public sectors. the allocation of state resources was based on schematic patterns rather than a transparent and objective mechanism.V. Following these strong economic reforms. the country's economic growth progressed at a rapid pace with very high rates of growth and large increases in the incomes of people. Indian's are closely bond and makes India as a great country perhaps because of its common history. The independence-era Indian economy (before and a little after 1947) was inspired by the economy of the Soviet Union with socialist practices. high import duties and lesser private participation characterizing it.spite of so much of cultural diversities.

containing 450 articles in 24 parts. and duties of government institutions. powers. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles. there is an official Hindi translation. secular. and the duties of citizens. A mixed economy represents an achievable balance between individual initiative and social goals. The concept of mixed economy represents a middle position between these two extremes. and endeavors to promote fraternity among them.369 words in the English language version. procedures. democratic republic. for a total of 117. and sets out fundamental rights. There is a commitment on the part of both the sectors to national objectives and priorities. equality. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign. the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document. directive principles. and came into effect on 26 January 1950. 12 schedules and 96 amendments. Planning and market mechanisms are so adjusted that each is used for realizing the objectives of the 'economy to which it is most suited. The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. political and social issues. and liberty. In it.9 Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997–2002) 10 Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002–2007) 11 Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012) MIXED ECONOMY Mixed economy implies demarcation and harmonization of the public and private sectors. free functioning of the market mechanism is not permitted and the government intervenes or regulates the private sector in such a way that the two sectors become mutually reenforcing. The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. assuring its citizens of justice. socialist. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. Besides the English version. The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949. This concept is flexible and has its own means and methods of approaching economic. establishes the structure. With its adoption. 9 .

India is a federal system in which residual powers of legislation remain with the central government. allocation of the number of seats in the RajyaSabha. The Parliament of India comprises the President and the two Houses. The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve LokSabha. Most of the constitution can be amended after a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority vote. Infact the first amendment to it was passed after only a year of the adoption of the constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. THE INDIAN PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India. LOK SABHA 10 . The constitution provides detailed lists dividing up powers between central and state governments as in Australia. LokSabha (House of the People) and RajyaSabha (Council of States). The ten schedules in force cover the designations of the states and union territories. Many more amendments followed a rate of almost two amendments per year since 1950. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between the central and state governments must also be approved by 50 percent of the state legislatures. Founded in 1919. The constitution has provision for Schedules to be added to the constitution by amendment. the Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India. and it elaborates a set of Directive Principles of State Policy as does the Irish constitution. The Indian constitution is one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. COMPONENTS The Indian Parliament consists of two houses called as LokSabha and the RajyaSabha respectively and the President of India. Concurrence of all the three is required to pass any legislative business. the emoluments for high-level officials. forms of oaths. similar to that in Canada. A review of the constitution needs at least two-thirds of the LokSabha and RajyaSabha to pass it.

science. Sometimes with the terrorist attacks. Public Health and hygiene 11 . Population Explosion 2.  The RajyaSabha can have a maximum of 250 members in all.  Every citizen of India who is over 18 years of age. Illiteracy 4.  The minimum age for a person to become a member of RajyaSabha is 30 years. LokSabha is also known as the "House of the People" or the lower house.  Its members are indirectly elected by members of legislative bodies of the States. art and social service. namely literature.  Each member has a term of 6 years and elections are held for one-third of the seats after every 2 years. caste.  The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House be 552 members. irrespective of gender. religion or race. the vulnerability of the country has increased or sometimes the stock markets have crashed and the increasing oil prices had ever lasting impressions plunging the economy. 1.  It has a term of five years RAJYA SABHA  The RajyaSabha is also known as "Council of States" or the upper house. is eligible to vote for the election of Member of LokSabha.  RajyaSabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. who is otherwise not disqualified. Corruption 3.  238 members are to be elected from States and Union Territories and 12 are to be nominated by President of India and shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following. MAJOR ISSUES AND CONCERNS India has always been in the forefront for the good and most of the times for the bad.

Communal tensions INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION BJ(MC) 105 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to give a first-hand knowledge and idea about the term communication& discussing its various aspects in detail. with our families. the expression. we must establish commonness before we can communicate. Caste Conflicts 7. the medium of communication and whether the receiver will understand the message intended by the sender. blogs and forums. MySpace. with our neighbors.. through documents. While communicating with another person.e. we keep in mind the content. common. LinkedIn. co-workers etc. It can be verbal or non-verbal. Poverty 6. Communication is a two-way process of exchanging thoughts. in the media. COMMUNICATION Communication is something we just take for granted. Facebook.5. Communication comes from the Latin word communes i. opinions and ideas. in our heads. 12 . in person. Communication is vital for any business and should be sent through effective channels in order to reach the target audience. We communicate all the time via verbally. There are various networking sites like Twitter. The most common form of sharing messages these days is via the Internet. via the internet. non-verbally. where people from across the globe participate in discussions and share their thoughts and opinions. I am tempted to say that it is a vital part of our existence but I will dare say that it is the vital part of our existence.

5 SENSES OF COMMUNICATION NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION 13 .

ORAL COMMUNICATION  Interview  Face to Face  Radio  Meeting  Rumor  Discussion  Demonstration  Telephoning BODY LANGUAGE Body Language .technically known as kinesics (pronounced 'kinesics') . 14 . Body Language is therefore very relevant to management and leadership. and to all aspects of work and business where communications can be seen and physically observed among people.is a significant aspect of modern communications and relationships.

or on stage. presentations. Because we have only a limited capacity for attention. one outside our heads and visible to others and one inside our heads known only to us. EYE CONTACT Eye contact is a powerful communications tool. sensing. project sincerity and openness. a felling or intension is voluntarily expressed in a conventionalized form. It can be dangerous to be distracted by rumination or planning while driving. as we meet others. and the thoughts we may be having about the past or the future. sports contests. for example in dating and mating. It enables you to connect with your audience. Mass communication occurs when a small number of people send messages to a large anonymous and usually heterogeneous audience through the use of specialized communication media. Self-consciousness can cause us to choke under pressure when we are called on to perform. in conversations. We constantly live in two worlds. and in families and parenting. Self-talk can prolong insomnia as we worry about not falling asleep. Our attention does not always strike a useful balance here. and perceiving in the world around us. our self-talk distracts us from the outside world and the outside world distracts us from our self-talk. GESTURES Gesture is a symbolic action by which a thought. You also want to make sure you use eye contact correctly to project the right non-verbal message. and keep your listener's attention. SELF INTROSPECTION Our conciseness and attention is often split between what we are doing. 15 .Body language is also very relevant to relationships outside of work. MASS COMMUNICATION Mass Communication: Communication (Message) sent from a person/group through a transmitting device (A Medium) to a large audience (Market).

Convergence means coming together of many forms of media and other formats like printed text. Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of various means by which individuals and entities relay information to large segments of the population all at once through mass media.Mass communication studies the uses and effects of the media by many as opposed to the study of human interaction as in other communication contexts. NEW MEDIA Development and widespread use of computers and information technology have resulted in the emergence of what is called ‘new media’. It includes computers. TELEVISION One of the technological marvels of the 20th century was television invented in 1920 by Baird. From early 1990s satellite television also came to India and later Direct to Home (DTH) television. You will learn more about television in a later module. communication networks and digital media. television started in 1959 on an experimental basis and the first television station was set up in Delhi. information technology. recorded music or radio. television etc. radio. RADIO From mere curiosity and technical experiments radio became a truly powerful and popular medium of mass communication. Today Doordarshan has one of the largest television networks. After it was developed in the west we had radio by the 1920s and the first formal radio station was started in Bombay. television. This has led to another process in mass communication called ‘convergence’. films. You will learn about radio in detail in the module on ‘Radio’. Though it is hard to 16 . photographs. as they are used both for disseminating news and for advertising. and film. In India. It is usually understood to relate to newspaper and magazine publishing. The beginnings were modest and slow but television was popular and became available in color in 1982.

You will learn more about this later. B is the receiver. WILBUR SCHRAMM MODEL 17 . In the diagram above A is the sender. MODELS AND THEORIES There is always a sender and a receiver in communication.separate old media from new media the world wide web or internet has changed the way in which we communicate. At least there is an intended receiver.

LASSWLL MODEL GATE KEEPING MODEL GERBNER’S MODEL 18 .

TONE: it refers to the relative of the light and darkness of a surface quality. feel there roughness. TEXTURE: it is a surface quality of an object we experience texture when we touch object. 19 . DESIGN & GRAPHICS LINE: a line is a form with width and long but no depth. Artist use lines to create edges. outlining of the objects.BASICS OF DESIGNS AND GRAPHICS BJ(MC) 107 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to create a knowledge of aesthetic concept which can be applied in Print Media and enhance the overall meaning of it with various design& graphic elements. There are three types of lines:  Vertical lines  Horizontal  Diagonal SHAPE: a shape is an enclosed object. smoothness and patterns. It is considered to be a two dimensional elements.

20 . There are three types of rhythm: Regular rhythm Progressive rhythm COLOUR SCHEMES: The color scheme or the way we combine colors in a design should reflect the purpose of our design and take the intended audience into consideration. RHYTHM: it is repetition or alterations of elements often with define intervals between them. This is tangible or intangible.colors opposite to each other on the wheel have nothing in common. ANALOGOUS SCHEME: colors that are adjacent to each other on the wheel are more harmonious. it is capable of creating an atmosphere of harmony. shape or design characteristics. Although an analogous scheme is passive and less exciting. VARIOUS SCHEMES: COMPLEMENTARY SCHEMES. restaurants and children’s items. BALANCE: it is of three typesSymmetrical Asymmetrical Radial HARMONY: one element should go with another element in forms of tone. Tangible is real and intangible is imaginary.POINT: it refers to an element that has position but no extension. These color schemes are often used in sports areas.

Example: violet the complement of yellow is split into red violet and blue violet. BROADSHEET AND TABLOID LAYOUT The normal daily newspaper size is a broad sheet which is normally 17”x22” (43x56 cm) in dimension. COMPONENTS OF LAYOUT PLANNING: There are four stages of layouting:  Thumbnail layout 21 .SPILT COMPLEMENTARY SCHEME: it employs a range of analogous hues ‘split’ from a basic key color. for the average broadsheet with 9 vertical lines making up to 8 columns. DUMMY SHEET: A dummy sheet is a simple page sheet normally 35x55 cm in dimension. These schemes are subtle and unusual rather than shocking like complementary schemes. This scheme is similar to complementary schemes in many ways but they offer more variety. TRAID SCHEME: the combination of three colors that are approximately equidistance on the color wheel is referred to as a triad scheme. It may have 1 to 52 one side and 52 to 0 on the other side. The early newspapers of the 17th century were published in a slightly bigger size. Dummy sheet is helpful for two reasons: o It is easy to visualize the pages in the actual physical form. o Even now many newspapers find it convent to combine the digital and traditional method of newspaper printing. In recent times we have witnessed a change in broadsheet size and this was noticeable in 2002.

the designed process of this layout involves the making of a dummy layout of the page to be reproduced showing the exact placement of elements such as text. The photograph can be represented a rectangle or any other shape the headline or typographic matter by parallel lines. colorsetc in a form that is comparable to the printed sheet. This type of layout is mainly used for presentation to the client or to the senior authorities of an institution who evaluate and discuss the proposed idea in the form of a visual. availability of time and information with the designer. The degree of finished is depended on the clients demand. if you first develop your idea and put on paper a quick sketch in small size indicating the basic compositional arrangement. it is called a “comprehensive layout”. this stage is known as “thumbnail sketch” ROUGH LAYOUT: The second stage of layout planning is that of developing a rough layout. Rough layouts are broadly of two types:  Working rough  Finished rough COMPREHENSIVE LAYOUT: If the rough layout is further finished. graphics. The rough layout may be of different degrees of finished ranging from very rough to well finish. Rough layout  Comprehensive layout  Artwork layout THUMBNAIL LAYOUT: Consider the poster making example where dissatisfaction with the final product can be avoided. ART WORK: 22 .

word perfect. typeface. Mac write is the word processing software of apple Macintosh. SOFTWARES: The commonly used software’s in DTP are: Word processing. ‘what you see is what you get’. 23 . Most word processing programmes can check spellings.the raw copy is keyed into the computer using a keyboard and word processing software is used to process the matter.to read columns. Computers are also equipped with an input unit. WHAT IS DESKTOP PUBLISHING? A typical DTP system needs two basic components  Hardware  Software HARDWARE: A DTP system displays an accurate presentation of the layout. Microsoft excel is the most popular spreadsheet application and images created on EXCEL can easily be incorporated with ms word documents.they are used to create complicated tables with easy. charts. Whatever may be the form of a layout. shape and colors must be indicated in the form of outline. Keyboards are one of the most common input devices used for giving commands to the computer as well as for entering text and graphics. WordStar etc are the word processing software of IBM Spread sheet applications. justify columns of type and adjust the space between lines. graphics etc. while Microsoft word. Systems with a DTP system are attached with hand-held device. Photographs will be treated as continuous tones are that need to be converted into a half tone image.This sheet of layout planning involves art work and is known as the “mechanical”. All the elements of page such as areas for illustration. graphs and various other formats. graphics. the printer needs a rough layout or comprehensive layout and art work to accomplish the pre-press class. type size.

On a topic of current and controversial nature within a time limit of 20 to 30 minutes.oriented graphics o Layout software COMMUNICATION LAB BJ(MC) 151 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to built-up the personality-traits which is required in journalism. The group has between 812 members who express their views freely.  Unlike a formal debate where one is supposed to speak only for or against the motion One by one and within a definite time limit allotted by the president on the chairmen. graphs. frankly and in a friendly manner. diagrams etc. illustrations. it is a conservation which is not preplanned and is spontaneous.  Any interesting topic may be given to judge your public speaking talent. FEATURES OF GD:  It is unlike interview. so that students can interact as well as use basic equipments of journalism WHAT IS GROUP DISCUSSION? Group discussion is a discussion by and among a group of people. There are various graphics software’s: o Object oriented drawing programs o Paint.Graphics software. this gives the designer access to hundreds of possible choices that he/she might never have thought of. charts. 24 . The abilities of the members of the group are measured in an unobtrusive manner by the examiner who does not participate in the discussion.it is used for creating and editing freehand drawings.

25 .We also conducted a group discussion with in the class room and the topic for group discussion was “scraping of tenth board examination” WHAT IS AN INTERVIEW? An interview is a conversation between two or more people (the interviewer and the interviewee) where questions are asked by the interviewer to obtain information from the interviewee. It gave us a great idea of how to face interviews. Interviews can be divided into two basic types:  FOR ASSESSMENT  FOR INFORMATION A small mock interview was conducted and the class was divided into groups of 5. This exercise made us familiar with all the norms and manner of conducting a good interview.

DESIGN AND GRAPHICS LAB BJ(MC) 153 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to enhance the aesthetic pleasure for the article which give a relatively deep impact on the minds of readers. COLOUR SCHEMES:        Complementary Analogous Spilt complementary Triad Soft Dark Monochromatic DIAGRAM OF COLOUR WHEEL: 26 .

Software’s that were thought to us were: o PAGEMAKER o QUARK XPRESS o INDESIGN With the emergence of new media.We designed a logo. Quark Xpress & Indesign which are used for design and page-layout elements in Print Media. We designed and created layouts using DTP software’s. Assignments we have done in Computer Lab:  We have to design visiting cards 27 . front page of newspaper and magazine manually by using different elements. pamphlet. booklet. flash cards. usage of computer graphics has become an important part of media. COMPUTER LAB-I BJ(MC) 155 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to give first-hand knowledge of various DTP Softwares like Pagemaker. Many organizations now depend on graphics and various software’s for production of their work.

28 .  We have to design and prepare a front page of a newspaper. We have to design postcards  We have to design posters  We have to design brochures  We have to design a magazine  We have to design prepare a table.

PRE AND POST-INDEPENDENCE JOURNALISM IN INDIA: In pre-independence era.HISTORY OF PRINT & BROADCASTING IN INDIA BJ(MC) 102 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to give a deep insight to origin of the print and broadcast media in Indian Scenario as well as stating its contribution on the social front. Although the paper was rather frivolous in nature as it mostly only published gossip and advertisements. Since then the fourth estate has stood as a witness to India's growth from a nascent nation to one that is currently celebrating 62 years of independence. The first newspaper published in India was the Bengal Gazette started by James Augustus Hickey in 1780. Bal GanghadarT ilak is a 29 . newspapers had one agenda in their minds. Soon after. The Bombay Samachar started in 1822. Bombay Courier later merged with the Times of India newspaper. remains to this day the oldest newspaper in Asia. to further their ideology. the thriving media industry owes its existence to James Augustus Hickey and his Gazette. the first regional language newspaper Samachar Darpan was published in Bengali. papers such as Bombay Herald and the Bombay Courier were started in the country. In 1818.

Charlton (Wolseley 3). Post 1947. As emergency superseded the right to the freedom of speech and expression. Newspapers at first acted as unofficial sponsors of its various initiatives and schemes. the newspaper industry had only one goal – to proliferate the cause of Independence. Hicky protested against this arbitrary harassment without avail. Important journalists like MJ Akbar and Anita Pratap established themselves as fearless leaders in the field. the Oriental Magazine . Her investigative articles first started appearing in The Hindu. was published in Marathi. newspapers in India had a choice to make – either align with the government and support all its initiatives or act as a critique to the newly democratised country and its head. Prior to 1947. MJ Akbar is single handedly responsible for redesigned and edited The Telegraph in Calcutta. Today there are thousands of magazines and newspapers in circulation. HISTORICAL TRADITIONS "Newspaper history in India is inextricably tangled with political history. most newspapers had to shut down. down south and then when then it was later published in The Indian Express. the Madras Courier and the Indian Gazette .prominent stalwart of the pre-independence era and a revolutionary leader who used his newspaper as a vehicle of communicating his ideas and ideals of the freedom struggle. Kesari. in 1780. E. which was established in 1880. The Bengal 30 .Most of the newspapers in India came into existence post-independence." wrote A. James Augustus Hicky was the founder of India's first newspaper. when Indira Gandhi had declared independence was the most trying period for journalism. and was imprisoned. the Calcutta General Advertiser also known as Hicky's Bengal Gazette . The period between 1975 -1977. But it was Chitra Subramanian and her coverage of the Bofors scandal that firmly established the fact that the Indian media should also act as a whistle blower of the society in order to keep the government in check. the Bengal Journal. In November 1780 its circulation was halted by government decree. Hicky's Bengal Gazette earned the rulers' wrath due to its criticism of the government. While the India Gazette enjoyed governmental patronage including free postal circulation and advertisements. Soon other newspapers came into existence in Calcutta and Madras: the Calcutta Gazette . Anita Pratap became the first journalist to interview LTTE leader Prabhakaran in the 1980’s and she also covered the 1983 Sri Lankan internal riots.

The Bombay Herald . Bombay and Delhi were four main centers of urban renaissance which nourished news in India. journalists in the twentieth century performed a dual role as professionals and nationalists. Punjab and Uttar Pradesh produced dailies in regional languages. While Statesman voiced the English rulers' voice. circulation of dailies in the country increased marginally from 58. Madras. Bengal. along with many other rivals in Madras represented the metropolitan voice of India and its people. were journalists as well. In this time. The Hindu became the beacon of patriotism in the South. Tamil. as Pakistan chose this language as its lingua franca. especially after Indira Gandhi's defeat in 1977. Patriotic movements grew in proportion with the colonial ruthlessness. Karalla. and a vehicle of information dissemination became a tool for freedom struggle.Gazette and the India Gazette were followed by the Calcutta Gazette which subsequently became the government's "medium for making its general orders" (Sankhdher 24-32). from Gandhi to Vajpayee. The Hindu was founded in Madras as a counter to the Madras Mail .3 percent on the basis of data published by the Registrar of Newspapers for India in its annual reports. DIVERSITY AND THE LANGUAGE PRESS Naresh Khanna summarizes the trends in circulatory growth and decline varied in regional language papers during 1998-2000: In the three-year period from 1998-2000. the cause of Urdu and its newspapers. Calcutta. Indeed many national leaders.37 to 59. This represents a growth of 1.13 million copies. It was only during and after the seventies. In the struggle for freedom. There were nationalist echoes from other linguistic regional provinces.The Statesmen in Calcutta and the Madras Mail and The Hindu . two distinct groups of newspapers 31 . As communalism and religious intolerance increased before and after partition. Urdu remained primarily the language of Muslims. Hindi and Urdu were largely instrumental in voicing the viewpoints and aspirations of both Hindus and Muslims of the Northern provinces. that regional language newspapers became prevalent. suffered a setback as Hindu reactionaries began to recognize the association of Urdu with Islam and Pakistan. After partition. Gujarat.

During these years.75 percent over the three years it would seem that they are in danger of falling out of this group and perhaps entering the phase of stagnation and circulation decline (Khanna 2002).politics. entertainment. economics.emerge — the first including five languages that have collectively grown in circulation by a healthy 5. and has grown into one of the largest news agencies in Asia.65 percent and representing a combined circulation of 43.68 million copies. Amongst these newspapers. These dailies lost almost 1. It serves more than 1000 subscribers in more than 100 locations in India and abroad. radio and television networks. Although Marathi newspapers increased circulation by 2. a fall of more than 26 percent.9 percent and 12.8 million copies (10. The second group of stagnating and declining circulations includes newspapers in seven languages with a combined circulation of 14. web sites . Daily newspaper circulation plummeted most dramatically in Telugu. interviews and human interest stories.8 percent respectively. Such an agency may also be referred to as a wire service. stock markets and so on.62 percent) of their combined circulation in the last three years. magazines.35 million copies. while Hindi dailies grew by 5 percent and English dailies by 4. and radio and televisionbroadcasters. government offices and private and public sector corporations. UNITED NEWS OF INDIA (UNI) was launched in March.8 million copies in 2000. business. NEWS AGENCY A news agency is an organization of journalists established to supply news reports to news organizations: newspapers. Our service also provides subscribers with a rich choice in features. those in Malayalam and Bengali grew fastest at 12. sports. newswire or news service. which fell from 2.28 million to 1.7 percent over the three-year period. we have acquired an enviable reputation for fast and accurate coverage of all major news events in India and abroad in all areas -. They include newspapers. Press Trust of India 32 . 1961.

It is headquartered in Delhi and is a nonprofitcooperative among more than 450 Indian newspapers and has a staff of about 2. In the same year (1927) some enterprising businessmen in Bombay started the Indian Broadcasting Company with stations at Bombay and Calcutta. Dubai. in 1932 the Government of India took over broadcasting.. The New York Times and Bloomberg L.C. the All India Radio and Doordarshan. A separate department known as Indian Broadcasting Service was opened. The Club worked a broadcasting service for three years. The AIR is controlled by a Director General. It took over the Indian operations of the Associated Press and Reuters soon after India's independence on August 15. AIR NETWORK: 33 . Moscow. PTI has offices in Bangkok. HISTORY OF RADIO BROADCASTING IN INDIA Radio Broadcasting was pioneered in India by the Madras Presidency Club Radio in 1924. the Indian Express. but owing to financial difficulties gave it up in 1927. to broadcast news and information. Islamabad. such as Associated Press.P. Beijing. an INSAT. Press Trust of India is the only news agency in South Asia which operates its own communication satellite.000 writers spread across 150 offices nationwide. Major Indian subscribers of PTI include Times of India. 1947. the Hindustan Times. It provides news coverage and information of the region in both English and Hindi. Kuala Lumpur. New York and Washington D.Is the largest news agency in India. Agence France-Presse. who is assisted by several Deputy Directors and a Chief Engineer. This company failed in 1930. It exchanges information with several other news agencies including 100 news agencies based outside India. The Service was later designated 'All India Radio' (AIR) and was placed under a separate Ministry-the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Colombo.

Indian viewers had to make do with 34 . Simla. Leh and Srinagar. Pondicherry. Panaji. Raipur. grouped into five zones. Tirunelveli. Delhi. Cuddapah. Prior to this. Tawang and Tezu . Vijayawada and Vishakhapatnam. West Zone : Ahmedabad. Hyderabad. Bhopal. Jullundur. GROWTH OF TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN INDIA Television in India has been in existence for nigh on four decades. Silchar. Bhagalpur. Indore. Ranchi. Pasighat. Imphal. Jodhpur. Cuttack. Sambalpur. Trivandrum. Rampur. Nagpur. Kohima. Siliguri. Shillong. Bhuj. Television has come to the forefront only in the past 21 years and more so in the past 13. Rajkot and Sangli. Jabalpur. Gauhati. Calicut. Dharwar. Gorakhpur. Kurseong. Bombay. Dibrugarh. Gwalior. looking on at it as a luxury Indians could do without. Mysore. Mathura. Jeypore. Tiruchirappalli. it spread haltingly and transmission was mainly in black & white. South Zone: Alleppey. Parbani. Lucknow. There were initially two ignition points: the first in the eighties when color TV was introduced by state-owned broadcaster Doordarshan (DD) timed with the 1982 Asian Games which India hosted. The thinkers and policy makers of the country. The second spark came in the early nineties with the broadcast of satellite TV by foreign programmers like CNN followed by Star TV and a little later by domestic channels such as Zee TV and Sun TV into Indian homes. For the first 17 years. Aligarh. Bhadravati. Gulbarga. Jaipur. In this period no private enterprise was allowed to set up TV stations or to transmit TV signals. In 1955 a Cabinet decision was taken disallowing any foreign investments in print media which has since been followed religiously for nearly 45 years.Starting with 6 broadcasting stations in 1947. Aizawl. which had just been liberated from centuries of colonial rule. are the following: North Zone: Ajmer. Bikancr. frowned upon television. Trichur. Calcutta. Coimbatore. Allahabad. Pune. Bangalore. It then proceeded to install transmitters nationwide rapidly for terrestrial broadcasting. Udaipur and Varanasi: East Zone: Agartala. Port Blair. and Kashmir Zone: Jammu. the AIR today has a network of 82 broadcasting stations. Madras. The 82 radio stations. Patna.

issues and trends to a broad audience in a timely fashion. and documentary. non-commercial in nature. o PROXIMITY: . Though there are many variations of journalism. directed towardsonly education and socio-economic development. and mythological dramas: Ramayan (1987-88) and Mahabharat (1988-89) were televised. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labeled with dates alongside itself and (usually) events labeled on points where they would have happened. millions of viewers stayed glued to their sets PRINT JOURNALISM-I BJ(MC) 104 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The objective of the subject is to give first-hand knowledge of how to write responsibly for print as well as developing skills needs for a successful journalist. 35 .DD's chosen fare which was dull. And when the solitary few soaps like Hum Log (1984). The field includes editing. quality. Proximity is a noun which refers to the state.A timeline is a way of displaying a list of events in chronological order. NEWS VALUE o TIMELINESS: . WHAT IS JOURNALISM? Journalism is the practice of investigation and reporting of events.The term proximity is often used as another word for the term closeness. fact or sense of being near or next. Along with covering organizations and institutions such as government and business. the ideal is to inform the intended audience. journalism also covers cultural aspects of society such as arts and entertainment. photojournalism. sometimes described as a project artifact. Entertainment programmes were few and far between.

2. The Question Headline: You must know your market backwards otherwise you can blow your whole advertising campaign. The best types of questions to ask are questions which get your prospect involved. o NEWS VERSUS INFORMATION:-News is an account about what has recently happened as in a news programme on the TV or radio telling you what has happened in the world. The Reason Why Headline: These give your prospect specific reasons why they should read your ad.o HUMAN INTEREST: .A human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. Information describes facts and details about a certain subject. When you go to a large store and you want to know where you can buy something. The News Headline: If your product or service offers something newsworthy. However. or achievements in a way that brings about interest or sympathy in the reader or viewer. original or unusual. concerns. 3. the most prominent or the most commonly used style of writing news is based on the Inverted Pyramid structure. 36 . or following from that. TYPES OF HEADLINE WRITING:1. o NOVELTY: . INVERTED PYRAMID: There are many ways of organizing news stories. It presents people and their problems. 4. or in other words.Novelty is the quality of being new. sales letter or website. there are many basic structures on which the content of news stories is based. you go to the information desk to find out. of being striking. announce it in your headline. The Guarantee Headline: These state a desirable benefit and guarantee results or other benefits.

Comprehension: the ability to analyze information. events. to seek information to find out about people. 4. 6. activities and to understand them. 5. work well with others under pressure. A news article will usually begin with a headline that explains what the story is about in a few words and tries to grab the reader's attention. Judgment: gather information and learn to sort the important from the unimportant effectively. sort the important from the unimportant." However. look at things in a questioning manner. 3.REPORTERS: QUALITIES 1. 2. work under pressure. be well organized. Knowledge: broad general knowledge and experience in order to understand a number of different areas and have the ability to go from one area to another easily. because it is often written as "By: John Smith. be able to weed out information. Effective: the ability to get things done. what will make a complete." is an example of a headline that might run above a story about promises a politician made to students during an election speech. Intelligence: to be able to understand complex issues. "Premier vows to freeze university tuition fees. Beneath the headline usually appears the name of the reporter who has written the story. determining what readers need to know. understand what you're writing about. NEWS REPORTING: News stories most often appear in the front section of a newspaper. to be skeptical at times. many 37 . Curiosity: the need to be curious enough to go beyond the surface. although many newspapers also have "City" or "International" sections that also contain news reports. This is called the byline. accurate article.

or more general speaking. Similar terms are used for specialized bureaus. CHIEF REPORTER: . The main purpose of a news story is to report the news in an objective manner. or the one credited with the article. A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country. This identifies where and sometimes when. often distant. from a remote.The Chief reporter is the one in front of the camera. or another type of company. often in bold typeface and slightly above the body of the article. or radio or television news. location. 38 . If a newspaper has a reporter in Baghdad. FREELANCER: . the voice on the radio doing the interview. an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper. the story was written. the name of the city will be printed. at the beginning of the story. or freelance is somebody who is selfemployed and is not committed to a particular employer long term.A freelancer. often in bold typeface. often to indicate geographic location or scope of coverage.newspapers simply print the reporter's name. The byline is often followed by something called a dateline. NEWS BUREAU: A News bureau is an office for gathering or distributing news. freelance worker. STRINGERS:-A stringer is a type of freelancejournalist or photographer who contributes reports or photos to a news organization on an ongoing basis but is paid individually for each piece of published or broadcast work. for example. CORRESPONDENT:-A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator.

With respect to governmental information. its preservation may be sought through constitutional or other legal protections. FREEDOM OF THE PRESS AND THE LAW Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through vehicles including various electronic media and published materials. any government may distinguish which materials are public or protected from disclosure to the public based on classification of information as sensitive. While such freedom mostly implies the absence of interference from an overreaching state.MEDIA LAWS & ETHICS BJ (MC) 106 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to introduce students with the articles and annexure enshrined in the constitution related to freedom of press in India along with stating the necessary rules and controlling authorities related to the press of India. classified or secret and being otherwise protected from disclosure due to relevance of the information to protecting the national interest. Many governments are also subject to sunshine laws or freedom of information legislation that are used to define the ambit of national interest. 39 .

Indeed. Freedom of Speech and expression means the right to express one's own convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth. The freedom of speech and expression includes liberty to propagate not one's views only. pictures or any other mode. It also includes the right to propagate or publish the views of other people. press and printing the depth to which these laws are entrenched in a country's legal system can go as far down as its constitution. Liberty of circulation is essential to that freedom as the liberty of publication. This expression connotes also publication and thus the freedom of press is included in this category. this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference. printing. publishing. and the like. It thus includes the expression of one's idea through any communicable medium or visible representation. otherwise this freedom It strengthens the capacity of an individual in participating in decision-making. without circulation the publication would be of little value. signs. RESTRICTION TO FREEDOM OF THE PRESS 40 . Free propagation of ideas is the necessary objective and this may be done on the platform or through the press. All members of society would be able to form their own beliefs and communicate them freely to others. and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers" This philosophy is usually accompanied by legislation ensuring various degrees of freedom of scientific research (known as scientific freedom).The Universal Declaration of Human Rights states: "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression. The concept of freedom of speech is often covered by the same laws as freedom of the press. such as gesture. FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION Article 19(1)(a) of Indian Constitution says that all citizens have the right to freedom of speech and expression. thereby giving equal treatment to spoken and published expression. This propagation of ideas is secured by freedom of circulation. writing.

2004 by which the appellant has been convicted for committing criminal contempt of court and has been awarded the sentence of simple imprisonment for a period of six months along with a fine of Rs.2. Facts and circumstances giving rise to these appeals are that the appellant Wasen rolled as an advocate on 14. rebellion. e.Clause (2) of Article 19 contains the grounds on which restrictions on the freedom of speech and expression can be imposed:1) Security of State: Under Article 19(2) reasonable restrictions can be imposed on freedom of speech and expression in the interest of security of State. 3) Public Order: This ground was added by the Constitution (First Amendment) Act. 1971 1. which would undermine the security of State. and that state. insurrection and not ordinary breaches of public order and public safety. to undergo simple imprisonment for a further period of one month. 7 and 12 of 2002 dated 18.g.g.8.1998 and since then he has been Practicing in the High Court of 41 . waging war against the State. in default. such as. unlawful assembly.8. 2) Friendly relations with foreign states: This ground was added by the constitution (First Amendment) Act. These two appeals have been filed against the judgment and order passed by the High Court of Karnataka at Bangalore in CCC (Crl. Thus speeches or expression on the part of an individual. The object behind the provision is to prohibit unrestrained malicious propaganda against a foreign friendly state. affray.) Nos. which incite to or encourage the commission of violent crimes. which may jeopardize the maintenance of good relations between India. The term "security of state" refers only to serious and aggravated forms of public order e.000/-. No similar provision is present in any other Constitution of the world. 1951. murder are matters. riot. 2. 'Public order' is an expression of wide connotation and signifies that state of tranquility which prevails among the members of political society as a result of internal regulations enforced by the Government which they have established CONTEMPT OF COURT ACT.

REGISTRAR OF NEWSPAPERS FOR INDIA The Office of the Registrar of Newspapers for India. FUNCTIONS: 1) Compilation and maintenance of a register of newspapers containing Particulars about all the newspapers published in the country. 1956. 42 . 2) Issue of certificate of registration to the newspapers published under valid declaration. on the recommendation of the First Press Commission in 1953 and by amending the Press and Registration of Books Act (PRB Act) 1867. Being well known to the officials of the company. On account of some more responsibilities entrusted upon RNI during all these years the office is performing both statutory as well as non-statutory functions. he was engaged as Retainer for the Company and thus. he had been working for the respondent company as Marketing Executive. 3) Scrutiny and analysis of annual statements sent by the publishers of Newspapersevery year under Section 19-D of the Press and Registration of Books Act containing information on circulation. 4) Informing the District Magistrates about availability of titles to Intendingpublishers for filing declaration. ownership etc. the appellant used to report to the company's officials about the progress of its cases pending in various courts in Karnataka. 5) To ensure that newspapers are published in accordance with the provisions of the Press and Registration of Books Acts.The Press and Registration of Books Act contains the duties and functions of the RNI. prior joining Bar.Karnataka at Bangalore. popularly known as RNI came into being on 1st July.

(3) It shall be deemed to have come into force on the 29th day of September. (c) "cable television network" means any system consisting of a set of closed transmission paths and associated signal generation. In this Act. 1995. designed to provide cable service for reception by multiple subscribers. 43 .grammas including retransmission by cables of any broadcast tele. cable service through a cable television network or otherwise controls or is 2 responsible for the management and operation of a cable television network. (b) "cable service" means the transmission by cables of pro. 1994.vision signals. unless the context otherwise requires-: (a) "cable operator" means any person who provides.Acts-: 1) Copyright Act 1957 2) Official Secrets Act 1923 3) Right to Information Act 2005 4) Juvenile Justice Act 5) Domestic Violence Act 6) NDPS Act 7) Working Journalist Act THE CABLE TELEVISION NETWORKS (REGULATION) Act 1995 25th March. control and distribution equipment. 1995. an act to regulate the operation of cable television networks in the country and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. (2) It extends to the whole of India. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Forty-sixth Year of the Republic of India as follows:(1) This Act may be called the Cable Television Networks (Regulation) Act.

(h) "registering authority" means such authority as the Central Government may.(d) "company" means a company as defined in section 3 of the Companies Act. 1956. specify to perform the functions of the registering authority under this Act. (g) "programme" mean any television broadcast and includes.) (e) "person" means-.(i) exhibition of films. without further transmitting it to any other person 44 .(i) an individual who is a citizen of India. whether incorporated or not. (iii) a company in which not less than fifty-one per cent. (ii) an association of individuals or body of individuals. and the expression "programming service" shall be construed accordingly. by notification in the official Gazette. (f) "prescribed" means prescribed by rule made under this Act. (1 of 1956. dramas. whose members are citizens of India. of the paid-up share capital is held by the citizens of India. advertisements and serials through video cassette recorders or video cassette players: (ii) any audio or visual or audio-visual live performance or presentation. (i) "subscriber" means a who receives the signals of cable television network at place indicated by him to the cable operator. features.

either singly or in sequence.STILL PHOTOGRAPHY BJ (MC) 108 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The objective of the course is to develop the amateur skills of photography in students and drilling them on how to do professional photography. CAMERA OBSCURA (DARK ROOM) 45 . with or without sound recording. A camera is a device used to take picture. such as with video cameras. with an opening or aperture at one end for light to enter. Every camera consists of some kind of enclosed chamber.

Day must be bright. Concave lenses which are thinner at the center than at the edges bend light rays away from the center of the lens. Single lens fall into two basic categories: concave and convex. In one side. The hole acts like an aperture in a camera. but the image will appear clearly on the wall opposite the hole. LENS The lens is one of the most important vital parts of the cameras which consists one or more pieces of glass that focuses and frame an image within the cameras. Because the sun’s rays travel in a straight line. they produce an image on wall that is reversed. 46 . On the other hand convex lenses are the thickest at the center and light towards the center of the lens. and the room must be dark. or even a box. HOW IT WORKS: The camera obscura is simply a room. focusing the light.The word “camera” means room in latin and the word “obscura” means dark. with a hole.

PHOTOGRAPHY Photography is the art.lens:A lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry which transmits and refracts light. 47 . either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. Photography helps us relive the past and in a way to keep in touch with the past BASIC PART OF SINGLE LENS 1. We do not realize the importance of the images until the subject of one of the images passes on and then we are left with nothing but the memories. Role and importance of photography Photography is a very important tool that is used to memorialize our lives and yet we do not think of it at the time that we press that shutter button. science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation. converging or diverging the beam.

designed to shut out the light.Filters:A porous material through which a liquid or gas is passed in order to separate the fluid from suspended particulate matter.2. a viewfinder is what the photographer looks through to compose. to obstruct the view. Memory (internal and external):the term "memory" applies to any electronic component capable of temporarily storing data. Shutter: movable cover or screen for a window. Tripod: A tripod used to support a camera. The aperture is a hole in an optical diaphragm which can be varied in size to alter the amount of light entering the lens (a lot like the pupil and iris of a human eye). CAMERA ACCESSORIES 1. a blind 5. View finder:In photography. 7. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN APERTURE AND SHUTTER SPEED The shutter is a sheet that moves to uncover or obscure the film or CCD and normally obstructs the passage of light. an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. 3. 6. Aperture:In optics. or to be of some strength as a defense. and in many cases to focus. Pentaprism: pentaprism is a five-sided reflecting prism used to deviate a beam of light by 90%. THREE POINT LIGHTENING: 48 . the picture. 4. Film chamber:A sequence of images of moving objects photographed by a camera and providing the optical illusion of continuous movement when projected onto a screen. 2. Monopod: single-legged support for a camera or other hand-held device 3.

Keylight:In photography or motion pictures) the main light that illuminatesthe subject being
photographed or filmed.
Fill light:A fill light (often simply fill) may be used to reduce the contrast of a scene and
provide some illumination for the areas of the image that are in shadow.
Back light: A type of spotlight, used in photography, that illuminates a subject from behind.

VARIOUS TYPES OF PHOTOGRAPHY
1. Portrait:

Portrait

photography or portraiture is

the

capture

by

means

of photography of the likeness of a person or a small group of people (a group
portrait), in which the face and expression is predominant.
2. Wildlife: It is simply the photography of all types of wildlife (fish, birds,
mammals).
3. Nature: nature photography focuses on landscapes, wildlife and plant life as they
are found in their natural environment.
4. Advertising: Advertising is a form of communication used to encourage
or persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to continue or take some new
action.
5. Night photography: Night photography refers to photographs taken outdoors
between dusk and dawn.

49

PRINT JOURNALISM LAB-I
BJ(MC)152

OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to enhance the skills of
the journalism students which they can use in their near future..
BASICS OF CONDUCTING INTERVIEWS FOR NEWS
Conducting interviews for news stories is an important skill for any journalist. A “source” –
anyone a journalist interviews - can provide the following elements that are vital to any
news story:

basic factual information

perspective and context on the topic being discussed

direct quotes

ideas on how to approach the story

names and contact information of other people to interview
THINGS NEEDED

a thin reporter’s spiral notebook (can be purchased at most office supply stores)

several pens and a pencil if it’s winter (pens freeze in cold weather)

a tape recorder or digital voice recorder (optional)

a video camera for interviews you plan to webcast

50

PREPARING FOR THE INTERVIEW

Research – Do as much research as you can. If you’re going to interview, say, a
cardiologist about heart attacks read up on the subject and make sure you understand
basic terms such as “cardiac arrest.” A well-prepared reporter inspires confidence in
the person being interviewed.

Developing Questions – Once you’ve thoroughly researched your topic, prepare a list
of questions to ask. That will help you remember all the points you want to cover
once the interview is underway.

KEYS TO SUCCESSFUL INTERVIEW

Establish a Rapport – When starting out, don’t abruptly launch into your questions.
Chitchat a little with your source. Compliment them on their office, or comment on
the weather. This puts your source at ease.

Keep it Natural – An interview can be an uncomfortable experience, so keep things
natural and conversational. Instead of mechanically reading out your list of questions,
weave your queries naturally into the flow of the conversation. Also, maintain eye
contact as much as possible. Nothing is more unnerving to a source then a reporter
who never looks up from their notebook.

Be Open – Don’t be so focused on getting through your list of questions that you miss
something interesting. For instance, if you’re interviewing the cardiologist and she
mentions a new heart-health study that’s coming out, ask her about it. This may take
your interview in an unexpected direction – but if it leads to something interesting, so
what?

Maintains Control – Be open, yes, but don’t waste your time. If your source starts to
ramble on about things that are clearly of no use to you, don’t be afraid to gently – but
firmly – steer the conversation back to the topic at hand.

51

the easier it gets. word-for-word. 52 . Double-check the meanings of any terms or words they used that you’re unsure about. Don’t sweat it. A Note About Note-taking – Beginning reporters often freak out when they realize they can’t possibly write down everything the source is saying. Wrapping Up – At the end of the interview. ask your source if there’s anything they want to discuss that you hadn’t asked about. but the more interviews you do. And always ask if there are other people they recommend that you speak with. and ignore the stuff they won’t. This takes some practice. They’ll use.

Likewise when we talk about photo lab then the first thing comes into our mind is camera.  Making photo feature on a specific topic.  Photo shoot in artificial lights. When we practically perform it we get to more about the subject easily and clearly. It is necessary to know how to handle the camera? What are the parts of the camera? These basic things are necessary to know about the camera.PHOTO LAB BJ(MC)154 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to train the students with basic photography and shooting skills to develop quality photographer. till then there is no use of the theory. The rule of thirds says that you should position the most important elements in your scene along these lines. Doing so will add balance and 53 . Some of the assignments that came under this subject were as follows:  Using digital SLR. While studying any subject if it is not being applied. RULE OF THIRDS Imagine that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2 horizontal lines. These above assignments helped us to understand about that how to use the camera professionally and about its part and with the use of SLR camera taking photographs in artificial lights and to make photo feature on a particular topic. developing idea and practice. or at the points where they intersect.

both natural and man-made.straight. and as a result it can greatly affect the message that the shot conveys. from the back. consider photographing from high above. and so on. Some cameras even offer an option to superimpose a rule of thirds grid over the LCD screen. curvy. as with the rule of thirds. from the side. VIEWPOINT Before photographing your subject. pulling us into the picture. They can make for very eye-catching compositions..and each can be used to enhance our photo's composition. from a long way away. particularly in situations where they are not expected. You should balance the "weight" of your subject by including another object of lesser importance to fill the space. take time to think about where you will shoot it from. down at ground level. Our viewpoint has a massive impact on the composition of our photo. LEADING LINES When we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. or on a journey "through" the scene. you can affect the way we view the image. Another great way to use them is to break the symmetry or pattern in some way. but it can leave a void in the scene which can make it feel empty. from very close up. introducing tension and a focal point to the scene. SYMMETRY AND PATTERNS We are surrounded by symmetry and patterns. BALANCING ELEMENTS Placing your main subject off-centre. Rather than just shooting from eye level. creates a more interesting photo. By thinking about how you place lines in your composition. BACKGROUND 54 . towards the subject. There are many different types of line . zigzag. diagonal.interest to your photo. radial etc . making it even easier to use.

we have to choose our composition carefully to convey the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene. whereas a camera has a tendency to flatten the foreground and background. DEPTH Because photography is a two-dimensional medium. and this can often ruin an otherwise great photo.look around for a plain and unobtrusive background and compose your shot so that it doesn't distract or detract from the subject. Another useful composition technique is overlapping. Thankfully this problem is usually easy to overcome at the time of shooting . where you deliberately partially obscure one object with another.How many times have you taken what you thought would be a great shot. creating an image with more depth. You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground. only to find that the final image lacks impact because the subject blends into a busy background? The human eye is excellent at distinguishing between different elements in a scene. 55 . middle ground and background. The human eye naturallyrecognizes these layers and mentally separates them out.

ADOBE PHOTOSHOP Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated. typing. This tool assists in creating a focus point on an image and excluding unnecessary or excess space. These tools typically fall under the categories of cropping and slicing. a sidebar with a variety of tools with multiple image-editing functions appears to the left of the screen. painting. and retouching. Some tools are discussed below: Cropping and Slicing The crop tool can be used to select a particular area of an image and discard the portions outside of the chosen section. TOOLS: Upon loading Photoshop. 56 .COMPUTER LAB II BJ(MC)154 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to create an eye for graphics differentiating between Photoshop and Corel Draw and delivering quality work. These can be expanded to reveal similar tools. Some tools contain a small triangle in the bottom right of the toolbox icon. measuring and navigation. drawing. selection.

however. which bundles 57 . the move tool can be used to manually relocate the selected piece to anywhere on the canvas. single column. The slice tool can be used to divide an image into different sections. These tools essentially function by locating a source point (or multiple source points) that can be scaled or rotated in order to cover an imperfection or unwanted detail in a specific area of an image. are used in isolating parts of images. The lasso tool is similar to the marquee tool. which is useful for isolating them from a background. Once an area of an image is highlighted. Canada. imperfections of an image can easily be removed. the user can make a custom selection by drawing it freehand. and with the magnetic pen tool. COREL DRAW Corel DRAW is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel Corporation of Ottawa. Healing Tools With improvement retouching tools like the Clone Stamp tool and Healing Brush tool. The slice select tool allows sliced sections of an image to be adjusted and shifted Drawing Photoshop includes a few versions of the pen tool.The "slice" and slice select tools. In addition. It is also the name of Corel's Graphics Suite. the lasso tool can make magnetic and polygonal selections. The pen tool creates precise paths that can be manipulated using anchor points. The freeform pen tool allows the user to draw paths freehand. rectangular and elliptical. like the crop tool. the drawn path attaches closely to outlines of objects in an image. Selection The marquee tool can make selections that are single row. and these separate parts can be used as pieces of a web page design once HTML and CSS are applied.

growth. Corel Photo Paint. or control one another. Here is a list of the basic tools of Corel DRAW's interface. COMMUNICATION It is sharing knowledge. progress and modernization. DEVOLEPMENT & COMMUNICATION BJ (MC) 201 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to develop understanding of development issues and contributing positively towards the development process of country as responsible mass communicators. convert. DEVELOPMENT It means a change. persuade. 5 M’s of Development  Man  Material  Machinery  Money 58 . there can be Changes without development. information and experience and thus understands. However. positive and favorable. Therefore development stands for all that is good. and other graphics-related programs.CorelDraw with a bitmap image editor.

While GNP measures the output generated by a country's enterprises (whether physically located domestically or abroad) GDP measures the total output 59 .g. GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT Gross National Product (GNP) is the market value of all products and services produced in one year by labor and property supplied by the residents of a country. the income approach. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP). GNP vs. It is not to be confused with Gross National Product (GNP) which allocates production based on ownership.g. number of computers produced). Media Economic and Social Indicators of Development GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT Gross domestic product (GDP) refers to the market value of all officially recognized final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GNP allocates production based on ownership. in principle. GNP does not distinguish between qualitative improvements in the state of the technical arts (e. See Standard of living and GDP. and quantitative increases in goods (e. give the same result. GDP Gross National Product (GNP) is often contrasted with Gross Domestic Product (GDP). They are the product (or output) approach. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living. which defines production based on the geographical location of production. GDP can be determined in three ways. Gross domestic product is related to national accounts. increasing computer processing speeds). and considers both to be forms of "economic growth".. GDP per capita is not a measure of personal income. and the expenditure approach. a subject in macroeconomics.. all of which should.

or when a foreign firm is operating in its territory. message through the usage of mass media. There are also HDI for states. villages. by local organizations or companies. "medium human development". cities. and distinguish "very high human development". taken as a synonym of the older term standards of living or Quality of life. and "low human development" countries. APPROACHES:DIFFUSION OF ILLUSION It means to spread new creation. HDI was devised and launched by Pakistani economist MahbubulHaq in 1990. GDP and GNP can produce different measures of total output.produced within a country's borders . "high human development". and standards of living for countries worldwide. literacy. education. especially child welfare. etc. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a comparative measure of life expectancy. HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development". It is a standard means of measuring well-being. and also to measure the impact of economic policies on quality of life. a developing or an under-developed country. MAGIC MULTIPLIER 60 . ideas.whether produced by that country's own firms or not. It is used to distinguish whether the country is a developed. This term was coined by Everett M Rogels. When a country's capital or labor resources are employed outside its borders.

Information must flow. LOCALIZED APPROACH It includes following things:  Active Participation at Grass Root Level  (NGO’s. Social change of great magnitude is required. To achieve it. Women Empowerment. educated. through the useage of big media (for Developed Countries) and little media (for Developing countries).Wilbur Schramm’s 1964 Mass Media and National Development which was produced for the UNESCO became almost a blueprint for development communication. not only to them but also from them so that their needs can be known and they might participate in the acts and decisions are nation-building. persuaded. people must inform. Literacy and Education. Water Harvesting & Management. COMMUNICATION FOR URBAN DEVELOPMENT CONSUMER AWARENESS Consumer protection Act 1986. Civil Societies)  Encourage Self-Reliance among local communities  Rural Development  Traditional Media DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT COMMUNICATION The theory based on development support communication is help to create an awareness about the Health and Family Welfare.  Right to Safety  Right to Information 61 .

The policies and objectives of Joint Forest Management are detailed in the Indian comprehensive National Forest Policy of 1988 and the Joint Forest Management Guidelines of 1990 of the Government of India. this is throughout the world 2. Sanitation itself is in crisis.6 billion People worldwide . it is not only in India.000 children die every day from diarrhea diseases. There are so many attributable factors responsible for this situation. Sanitation in India is becoming more and more problematic.40% of the world’s population . Yet. The millennium development goals clearly stated the importance of water and sanitation the fact is water and sanitation is the most neglected and most off-track of the UN millennium development goals. there has been no political action on the issue.does not have a toilet. Joint Forest Management often abbreviated as JFM is the official and popular term in India for partnerships in forestmanagement involving both the state forest departments and local communities. Right to Choose  Right to be heard  Right to redressal  Right to Consumer Education  Right to Healthy Environment  Right to basic needs URBAN SANITATION Sanitation is defined as safe disposal of human excreta including its safe confinement treatment disposal and associated hygiene practices. 62 . despite the fact that 5. Sanitation is also depend on other elements like environmental sanitation along with the management of drinking water supply.

NWFPs are integral to the lifestyle of forest-dependent communities. It plays a very important role in any news organization. provide gainful employment during lean periods and supplement incomes from agriculture and wage labor. They fulfill basic requirements. First. Editing plays a multi-faceted role:  Selection of story  Taking out grammatical mistakes  Improving with words  Checking facts and figures 63 . EDITING Editing means minor changes to be done. Medicinal plants have an important role in rural health to prevent unscrupulous intermediaries and their agents from exploiting NWFP collectors: to ensure fair wages to collectors to enhance revenue for the state to ensure quality PRINT JOURNALISM-II BJ (MC) 203 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to make students to edit the reports with proof reading symbols. It involves replacement of a word or sentence but does not change the whole sentence completely.IMPORTANCE OF NWFPs IN JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT Non-wood forest products are important to JFM efforts for a number of reasons. design and layout along with describing the functions and responsibilities of editor and sub-editor.

Headlines 5. Editing involves minor changes and minor revision. PRINCIPLES OF EDITING 1. Opening Paragraph 3. Editing by knowledge of language One should have a good sense of grammar and vocabulary. Editing improves the story but does not change the whole story. Re-Writing 4. Putting headlines and many more The selection and correction of news is called editing. copywriting etc. 2. Editing adopts the following approaches  Editing for clarity and conciseness  Editing for correctness  Editing for completeness ROLES AND RESPONSIBITIES OF AN EDITOR:  overseeing the layout. Editing in print journalism is done for news reports. features.  generating ideas for features  Editing and re-writing articles (if required)  Proof reading all pages before going to press. The editorial department is made up of many sections. appearance and content of feature articles. Format The story should contain lead and body. which concerns itself with the front page 64 . The first sorting of all the incoming news is done at the general desk.

city desk. a Chief Sub-editor slots them on a page and gets them edited by Senior Sub-editors and Sub-editors. What looks important to me may not be for you. business desk and spots desk take care of their respective pages. she gets down to designing the page. PRIOROTISING: After a Chief Sub-editor has identified a dozen or two items for the page. correct language and lucid narrative. DESIGNING: Once the Chief Sub-editor has a good idea of what she has to offer the reader. After selecting and prioritizing items. This is often a very subjective process. bear additional responsibility as edition-makers. They also arrange photographs or graphics that can add value to the news item. regional desk. A couple of Chief Sub-editors. Sub-editors seek clarifications from reporters in case of doubts. the next step is putting them in the order of importance. who handle the front page. which is commonly mistaken by laypersons as censoring. which has a far negative connotation. Newspapers themselves differ in the level of importance they attach to events. Editing involves ensuring accuracy of facts. It is an arduous and unrelenting task. A Chief Sub-editor heads each of these sections. PROCESSING: This is what we call editing. persons and places. It is a rough outline of what items should go on 65 .and the national pages. The job of a Chief Sub-editor combines a piece-bypiece planning operation with quality control of the material that is being processed. The foreign desk. Items are trimmed to fit the space.

PACKAGING: Then comes the actual making of a page. Sometimes a Chief Sub-editor herself does it or gets juniors to do it. and packaging them on a page has to keep in mind the social context and relevance of the news.which pages. it should have matter to read. 66 . Similarly. No one will have a second look at a badly made page even though the items on it are highly readable. It is in the daily drawing and redrawing of the map that the actions of journalism are revealed. editors and publishers. a neatly made page should not be just that. Anything that is new. Here a number of visual and aesthetic elements are taken into account without compromising the intrinsic value of the news item. exciting or out of ordinary may technically be news. content and look-wise. But a Chief Sub-editor while selecting and prioritizing news items. scholar Barnard Cohen identifies three roles of the press: observer. depending on importance and reader-interest. There has to be a sustained focus on development journalism. It is a tough balancing act. Press and Foreign Policy. He says the world looks different to different people depending upon the map that is drawn for them by writers. A journalist should have the acumen to sense news. this responsibility is all the more great in a developing country like India. In the book. Conversely. which should not be a casualty in today’s techno-driven craze for instant gratification. interesting. participant and catalyst. It gives a general shape to the next day’s paper. A lot of further editing and rearranging of items have to be done on the page to make it good. And. In a democracy governments come and go based on the public opinion of politicians created by the mass media. A journalist not only disseminates news but also helps mold public opinion. It is easier said than done. major policy decisions are taken. amended or even annulled.

which means. to make common or to share. "one system influences another" (Charles E.RADIO JOURNALISM & PRODUCTION BJ (MC) 205 OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the course is to develop understanding of the students into the different modes of broadcasting. transrnission of stimuli" (Colin Cherry). Osgood). "one mind affecting another" (Claude Shannon). Some of the more functional definitions of communication describe it as "the transfer or conveying of meaning" (Oxford dictionary)". and there is yet no agreement on any single definition. formats and characteristics of radio programmes effectively. RADIO AS MEANS OF COMMUNICATION The word 'Communication' is derived from the Latin word "cornmunis". types. There are numerous definitions of communication. "the mechanism through which 67 .

Communication is more than mere transferring or transmission of ideas or thoughts. communication functions as a relating tool that creates understanding. didn't listen to lectures at. or didn't play games or watch TV or films? And what would life be like in the absence of news. information. Being at the heart of all social action and interaction. It is not a static act. RADIO FORMATS FACTORS TO BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT FOR MAKING A RADIO PROGRAMME (a) Number of people — i. influence and persuade people to make them function smoothly and effectively. but it is a dynamic process of action and interaction towards a desired goal.human relations exist and develop. the primary function of communication is to inform. Communication is vital for human existence. knowledge. and strengthens collective living among people. entertain. the total population of the area. instruct educate. creativity. You communicate to share a message or information. as some of the earlier definitions suggest. Thus. No person." or "sharing of experience on the basis of commonness" (Wilbur Schramm). (e) Schools/Colleges 68 . Essentially. (b) Number of men and women — Sex ratio (c) Literate people/Illiterate people (d) The languages spoken in the area. views. didn't speak to friends and co-workers. facilitates work. figures or information? Obviously. Besides. groups and societies enabling them to live in peace and harmony. communication is a process of sharing or exchange of ideas. communication has a secondary function to perform as well: through debate and discussion it promotes cultural integration. and understanding among people. and for the progress of humanity.schoo1 or college. Think for a moment what would happen to us if we did not talk with anyone at home. facts. we would be miserable and would miss out on many opportunities and challenges offering us security and success in our personal and professional life.e. group or society can exist without interaction with others. attitude or feeling among two or more persons through certain signs and symbols. it fosters consensus.

be it the newspaper. journalists use this technique of asking questions to get information. But there are also documentary films which are based on real people and issues.  RADIO INTERVIEWS: Have you ever interviewed anyone? Probably yes. Through a discussion we can find out a solution to problems. In the media.  RADIO TALK: The radio talk probably is the oldest format on radio. There can be different types of interviews in terms of their duration.  RADIO DOCUMENTARIES/FEATURES: If you see a film in a movie hall. In any discussion there are more than 2 or 3 people and then ideas can be pooled to come to some conclusion.(f) Children going to school (g) Health facilities — availability of doctors. (r) Types of crops. it is generally a feature film. (h) Any major diseases (I) Religions in the area-population wise (j) Power supply (k) Nearest radio stations/Television stations (l) Climate of the place (m) Main occupation of the people (n) Income per head/people below poverty line (o) Roads/transport facilities (p) Irrigation facilities (q) Number of people engaged in agriculture/other occupations.  RADIO DISCUSSIONS: . primary health centre. There has been a tradition in India and Britain to invite experts or prominent persons to speak for 10 or 15 minutes on a specific topic. don’t you say “let us discuss?” Yes we do.When you have a problem in your family or with your friends. clinics. content and purpose. radio or television. A lot of programmes 69 . magazine. hospitals. which is story based and not real.

you may watch it on television. News bulletins and news programmes are broadcast every hour by radio stations. USE SHORT WORDS: Big words sound impressive. The first example above has 39 words. news is the most popular. These include signature tunes. The only difference is that while a stage play has actors. curtains. But if you are travelling or outside. USE SHORT SENTENCES: Short sentences are more impactful than longer ones. Radio also has this format. Duration of news bulletins vary from 5 minute to 30 minutes. stage. the second has just 20. There is no radio without music. music used as effects in radio plays and features. There’s a good reason the most memorable lines from famous speeches are short.you see on television are educational and public service documentaries. So music is the main stay in radio. As Winston Churchill said. In India. “Short words are the best and old words when short are the best of all. the first thing that comes to our mind is music. Music is used in different ways on radio. But for that you have to be at home or at some place where there is a television. 70 . WRITING FOR THE EAR 1. rarely exceeding 20 words.  RADIO DRAMA: A Radio drama or a radio play is like any other play staged in a theatre or a hall.  MUSIC:When we say radio.” 2. then you may listen to radio for a running commentary of the match. a radio play has only 3 components. There are programmes of music and music is also used in different programmes. But multi-syllabic words are rarely as good as their simpler counterparts when writing for the ear. only All India Radio is allowed to broadcast news.  RUNNING COMMENTARIES: If you can’t go to see a football or cricket match in a stadium. India has a great heritage of music and radio in India reflects that.  NEWS: Among all the spoken word formats on radio. properties movement and live action. sets.

The Scriptwriter: having the writer present at the session often helps clear up any misunderstanding with the written word. replace it with one that does. If any of them contain a word that doesn’t roll easily off your tongue. Although most native English speakers know thousands more. USE CONTRACTIONS: Barring the most formal speeches. 3. SPEAK THEM ALOUD: When you’re finished drafting your messages. 4. 2. When speaking to a general audience. you should too. The Voice Over(s): Good casting is essential and knowing the capabilities of each voice helps. read them aloud. The Sound Engineer: a good experienced technician with a good pair of ears can make everything work quickly and smoother. 5. USE EVERYDAY WORDS: One seminal study found that adults can understand 96 percent of all spoken language with a vocabulary of just 2.000 words. 71 . “Don’t” and “I’ll” work best for the ear. The Producer: the person in overall charge of achieving the end result. 4.3. “Do not” and “I will” work best for the eye. RADIO PRODUCTION  ELEMENTS OF RADIO PRODUCTION 1. they tend to use the same limited pool of words in conversation. oral delivery requires the use of contractions.

BASICS OF CAMERA, LIGHTS AND SOUND
BJ (MC) 207
OBJECTIVE OF THE COURSE: The Objective of the subject is to make students
identify different kinds of video camera, camera shots, movements, mounts, angles and
compositions along with basic operations and functions of a video camera by describing
techniques of lighting and methods of recording and mixing of sound in video production.

VIDEO CAMERA
A video camera is a camera used for electronic motion picture acquisition, initially
developed by the television industry but now common in other applications as well. Video
cameras record and play visual images and sounds made on magnetic tape. The Video
camera is the single most important piece of production equipment. Other production
equipment and techniques are greatly influenced by the camera’s technical and performance
characteristics. The video camera is central to all television production.
Video cameras are used primarily in two modes.
The first, characteristic of much early television, is what might be called a live broadcast,
where the camera feeds real time images directly to a screen for immediate observation. A
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few cameras still serve live television production, but most live connections are for security,
military/tactical, and industrial operations where surreptitious or remote viewing is required.
The second is to have the images recorded to a storage device for archiving or further
processing; for many years, videotape was the primary format used for this purpose, but
optical disc media, hard disk, and flash memory are all increasingly used. Recorded video is
used in television and film production, and more often surveillance and monitoring tasks
where unattended recording of a situation is required for later analysis.
PARTS OF VIDEO CAMERA AND FUNCTIONS
1. Built-in Microphone; This records the sound along with the picture when the camera
is in operation.
2. White-Balance Sensor window: This indicates the white balancing of the camera for
its color corrections.
3. Lens:- The lens assembly handles all the light and the image that comes into camera.
We can add lenses to achieve different effects in some models.
4. Viewfinder:- it also allows us to see what we are recording(most display in black and
white, however)
5. LCD viewfinder:- Most new versions of digital camcorders have the liquid crystal
display (LCD) viewfinder, a small screen that allows us to see what we are recording
in color.
6. Zoom:-The two way zoom button enables us to zoom the camera lens in and out, that
is, it allows us to go closer to the subject when we zoom in and further from the
object when we zoom out.
7. Recording Levels:- Most professional modals have a drum that we can use to modify
the levels of audio we are recording.
8. Operation switch: This switch is used for the power supply to the camera.
9. Auto light button: This button is pressed to activate the auto light function.
10. Lense cap: It protects the lense from possible damages.
11. Tape eject button; to insert for take out a video cassette, press the button.
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12. External microphone socket: If you want to use an external microphone, connect it to
this socket ( in this case, the built-in microphone will be deactivated)
13. Start/stop Button- press this button to start and stop shooting a scene.
14. White balance button- Press this button to select manual white balance adjustment.
Press it again to reset to the automatic white balance adjustment mode.
15. Exposure/aperture:- the exposure on the camera helps us to increase or decrease the
aperture levels so that the picture becomes brighter or darker depending on what we
desire. This increases or decreases the amount of light entering the camera.
16. Play button:- Press this button to start the playback
17. Stop Button:-Press this button to stop the playback.
CAMERA MOVEMENT EQUIPMENTS ARE:
1. Dolly
2. Jib
3. Crane
4. Track
5. Trolly
CAMERA LENSES (Types & Functions)
A camera lens is a curved piece of transparent glass that focuses an image in a camera. A
camera lens is not a single lens, but a combination of lenses to bend the light entering the
camera in such a way that it can be captured on film. Depending on the shape and size of the
lens, many different photographic effects can be achieved. In addition, combining multiple
lenses and changing the distance between those lenses, can create even more photographic
effects. There are many different types of camera lenses for different photographic
Purposes.

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and guides their judgment about the character or object in shot. Each shot requires placing the camera in the best position for viewing a scene. To achieve the desire angle within the frame. the more symbolic and heavily-loaded the shot. which is a remarkably flexible production tool. The psychology behind the shot is the reverse of the low angle shot. The camera will make whatever it is looking at seem big. The subject appears much closer than normal. At any given setting within its range the zoom lens behaves like a prime lens of that focal length. It has very little distortion. 2) Telephoto Lens: A telephoto lens or narrow angle lens is designed to have a focal length. The more extreme the angle (i. It also gives a general sense of dramatic intensity and sometimes makes a subject seem threatening. but you can see only a smaller part of scene. However subjects will look much further away and the depth and distance appear exaggerated. 3) Zoom Lens: Most Video camera comes with the familiar zoom lens system. CAMERA ANGLES The relationship between the camera and the object being captured (i. the camera must be placed at the appropriate level. There are several basic types of products: 1) Normal lens: A Normal Lens gives a viewpoint that is very close to what is seen by the human eye. High angle shot 75 .e the further away it is from eye left). or used interchangeably with lenses of different focal lengths. specially camera angle. High-Angle: When the camera is above the subject looking down to it that is the high angle shot.e the ANGLE) gives emotional information to an audience. Low-angle: When the camera is below the subject that is low angle. This positioning of camera. determines both the audience viewpoint and area covered in the shot.These lenses are permanently fixed to video cameras. 4) Wide angle: a wide angle lens has a short focal length that takes in correspondingly more of the scene.

however. Eye-Level-Angle: These shots are best for close ups of people. The Bird's-Eye view: This shows a scene from directly overhead. People can be made to look insignificant. looking down on the action. a high angle shot is appropriate. rather than respond to it emotionally. This shot does. 6. Costume & make-up: It should be up to the mark. Who Listens we must have to focused about it at the time of composition. dancers' legs). SUBJECT AND CAMERA RELATIONSHIP 76 . Familiar objects viewed from this angle might seem totally unrecognizable at first (umbrellas in a crowd. as would be the case with either a high or a low angle shot. challenging situation. meant to depict a general scene. It may provide a neutral narrative position. subjectivity: Who Speaks. antlike. 5. or it may support a high-impact.makes a subject look smaller. Look whole screen 2. a very unnatural and strange angle. The camera position at eye level invites the viewer to read the shot. We also must have to be focused towards Optical Center. To show weakness or vulnerability. What is background: What it is ? Is it Effective? Does it match to your subject? Is it giving any additional information about the subject? 4. part of a wider scheme of things. 3. Try to understand the difference between camera and human eye. ASTHETICS IN VISUAL COMPOSITION: 1. put the audience in a godlike position.

It is often wise to use a higher f-stop when lighting conditions permit. Depth of field is the range of distances in front of the lens in which objects appear to be in acceptable focus. issued to regulate the diameter of the lens opening. Note that these definitions are not always rigid and some people may interpret them a little differently. After finding your subject. or f/stop as it is commonly called. It is called an iris diaphragm because itresembles the iris in the human eye. It's longer for short (wide angle) lenses than for long (telephoto) lenses. used as a key flood light for large areas. and it increases as you use higher f-stops. For example we must aware who is our subject. the f/stop also controls image sharpness by partially correctingvarious lens aberrations.Always consider the purpose of the shot before you start to set it up. TYPES OF LIGHTENING These are some common types of light you'll often hear about in film. Blonde 1000-2000w. why it is our subject? Are they in right clothes/dress or are they in right mood? These are some points which are very essential at the time of maintaining relation between the both. like we should be very much clear about our subject. APERTURE The aperture. since you'll have less trouble keeping the subject sharply focused with greater depth of field. video and photography. We always must have to be focused in terms of understanding the relationship between the subject & camera. Besidescontrolling the luminance on the film plane. think that what you want to show about it/them. An iris diaphragm is an adjustabledevice that is fitted into the barrel of the lens or shutterhousing. if you expect the distance between the camera and the subject to change often while you're taping. The most commonly used aperture control device isthe iris diaphragm. 77 . Thatcontrols the luminance on the film plane.

consoles coordinate lighting displays on 78 . used as a key flood light for large areas. Other Lights Domestic light bulbs can be used at a pinch. Pepper Light 100-1000w. Used as a reference to calibrate light meters and set exposure. Many video cameras have built-in lights or the ability to mount a light — these are useful in emergencies but provide poor quality lighting.Redhead 650-1000w. Chinese A low-cost light. 18%Gray A gray-coloured card which reflects 18% of the light which falls Card upon it. Halogen Work 150-500w. PROPERTIES OF LIGHT SUMMARY 1) Light travels in straight lines 2) Light travels much faster than sound 299 792 458 m / s 3) We see things because they reflect light into our eyes 4) Shadows are formed when light is blocked by an object LIGHTING EQUIPMENT Some common types of equipment used in video and photography lighting. ideally as a secondary light such as fill or backlight. small light used as a more focused key or fill light. Operated by the lighting technician. Consoles Hardware and software systems which control lighting. HMI A high-quality type of light which uses an arc lamp instead of filament bulb. Fresnel A light which has a lens with raised circular ridges on its outer surface which are used to focus the light beam. used as a key flood light for lighting large areas. This is a lowLamp budget lighting solution. useful in some situations. Ballast A device used to control the electrical current in a light.

The board is lightweight and flexible. etc. Audio Equipment required in a studio  Microphone (condenser or dynamic) not a computer microphone. Reflector A specially-designed reflective surface used to act as a secondary Board light source.stages. Gels Materials which are placed in front of a light source to alter it's characteristics.  Microphone pre-amp (do not use your dj mixer microphone pre-amp these usually give bad results) patch cables. a spectrometer analyses the electromagnetic spectrum and measures the intensity of radiation as a function of wavelength. Many of these use electroacoustic transducers such as microphones and loudspeakers. Technically speaking. Spectrometer A professional-level instrument which measures the spectrum of light. 79 . Light Meter A tool used to measure light and indicate the ideal exposure setting. Also known as an exposure meter. colour temperature or dispersion. sonar systems and sound reproduction and broadcasting equipment. EQUIPMENT FOR DEALING WITH SOUND Equipment for generating or using sound includes musical instruments. and is normally folded up for transport in a small carry-case.  Computer with a sound card (one that isn't from the dinosaur age). e. studios.g. Stands & Systems used to support lights and hold them in the correct Clamps position. hearing aids.

Fact files though my internship last only for 30 days but the exposure and the experience inculcated by the professionally managed media like “THE STATESMAN” was above my expectations. I worked in New Delhi My internship had transformed as a good learning experience to my professional skill set. Being a student of BJ (MC) and as a part of our course curriculum.SUMMER TRAINING REPORT BJ (MC) 209 OBJECTIVE OF THE SUBJECT: The objective of the subject is to train the students with the working criteria and conditions in Print Media. 80 . PRIYA MITTAL had undergone summer internship in “THE STATESMAN” the leading newspaper of Chandigarh. 2012 to 30th June 2012. I sincerely convey my best wishes and a sincere thanks to GGSIPU for giving me support and making me competitive enough to face and win challenges thata fresher faces while foray intoexposure area. I. one of an English Language newspaper from 1 st June. I improved with the writing capabilities’ by writing stories. My training program mainly includes rewriting of the news stories and also editing them for the news.

 We have to edit a feature story and convert it into a news story  We have to write the headlines of the news stories published in the newspapers in our own language by using the journalism ethics. writing headlines and captions for cartoons and photographs.II BJ (MC) 251 OBJECTIVE OF THE SUBJECT: The Objective of the subject is to give the knowledge to students of using editing symbols. Assignments we have done in Print Journalism Lab-2:  We have to prepare a copy by using different kinds of editing symbols. 81 .  We have to write the editorials in our own language by keeping in mind all the journalism ethics.PRINT JOURNALISM LAB.  We have to find out the facts/opinion in at least five stories published in newspapers.  We have to write and change the captions of the cartoons and the photographs published in the news stories in the newspaper.

82 .

Assignments we have done in Radio Journalism and Production Lab:  Preparing of scripts for radio shows  Recording radio shows like: Honor Killing  Preparing and recording news bulletins.  Worked on features for radio.RADIO JOURNALISM AND PRODUCTION LAB BJ (MC) 253 OBJECTIVE OF THE SUBJECT: The Objective of the subject is to give deep knowledge about using different types of microphones. 83 . recording. editing for effective presentation of radio/audio productions.

shoot appropriate visuals for video programmes. Assignments we have done in operation and handling of video equipment:  We have to operate and handle video cameras and its equipment  We have to understand the various camera movements  We have to use different lights and filters while producing a show. use lights inside and outside the studio.OPERATION AND HANDLING OF VIDEO EQUIPMENT FILES BJ (MC) 255 OBJECTIVE OF THE SUBJECT: The Objective of the subject is to develop the students for handling video camera. and use audio equipment appropriately to produce a video programme efficiently.  Use of different types of microphones for indoor and on location video recordings. compose shots.  Recorded an News Package individually ( STREET FOOD OF INDIA) 84 .

85 . steps involved in editing of a video program by enlisting the stages of production of a video program.TELEVISION & JOURNALISM PRODUCTION (24202) The Objective of the subject is to make the students able to describe the salient features of TV as a medium. process of gathering news and report for TV.

86 .

87 .

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arranging equipment. Post production PRE-PRODUCTION This stage includes everything you do before entering the studio or reaching the shooting location. the other two stages become easy and workable. This is very essential to get desired results. POST PRODUCTION 89 . the next stage is how to get from the idea to the television image.THREE STAGES OF PROGRAMME PRODUCTION 1. It involves idea generation. Only then will you be able to make a good programme. In all it involves planning everything in advance. controlling the crowd. It includes managing all the facilities. sets designing or location hunting and booking of editing shifts. understandable by the audience. video / audio tapes. The first thing to know about any and every production is what you want the programme to look like. handling of talent and crew members. To translate an idea on screen effectively you need a good and detailed script. research. If you have worked well in this stage of programme production. PRODUCTION This is the stage when you are on the studio floor or on location and are ready to shoot or are actually shooting. costumes. Pre-production 2. Once the idea is clear. and discussions with all the crew members and talents (actors). scripting. shooting without hurdles and solving any problem related on the spot at that time. You need a clear idea of what you want to make. Production 3. properties. This is the pre.production stage.

It includes cutting the recorded visuals into appropriate length, arranging the visuals in a
proper sequence, use of desiredeffects for the visuals or text / captions, commentary
recording, music/songrecording, and final assembly of the entire program.

INTRODUCTION TO ADVERTISING
(24204)

90

The Objective of the subject is to develop students so that they can explain advertising- role
and functions, the working of an ad agency by identifying various types of advertising along
with differentiate between advertising as communication, marketing and PR tool.
Advertising is multi-dimensional. It is a form of mass communication, a powerful marketing
tool, a component of the economic system, a means of financing the mass media, a social
institution, an art form, an instrument of business management, a field of employment and a
profession.
The simplest definition of advertising is that it is a PUBLIC
ANNOUNCEMENT.
Advertising is a form of persuasive communication with the public. The communication is
usually one sided, in one direction to the public from the advertiser.
Advertising as a form of mass communication has made mass selling possible as its purpose.
It is perhaps the best known mass communication channel. As means of forceful
communication advertising promotes the sale of goods, services, images and ideas through
information and persuasion.
ADVERTISING is not a panacea that can restore a poor product or rejuvenate a declining
market. It only helps in selling through the art and business of persuasive communication.
Advertising includes those activities by which visual or oral messages are addressed to the
public for the purposes of informing them either to buy the merchandise or services or act
favorably toward ideas, institutions or persons featured.
Thus advertising can be defined as the “paid form of non-personal communication used with
persuasive intent by identified sponsors through various media to promote goods, services
and ideas etc.
Advertising is a message designed to promote or sell product, service or an idea. Advertising
is a public announcement with the purpose not so much to inform but to persuade the public
to buy a product, service or an idea.

91

There are FOUR basic Functions and Purpose of advertising
 To INFORM
 To PERSUADE
 To EDUCATE
 To ENTERTAIN

NATUREof advertising
 MARKETING MIX
 PROMOTION MIX
 MASS COMMUNICATION
 MESSAGES
 PAID
 SPONSOR
 PERSUASIVE
 CONTROLLED
 IDENTIFIABLE
 TARGET GROUP
Goals and Objectives of Advertising
o MARKETING ROLE
o COMMUNICATION ROLE
o ECONOMIC ROLE
o SOCIETAL ROLE

To conclude advertising helps in:

To increase he use of a product
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 To increase the frequency of use  To increase the variety of use ETHICAL AND REGULATORY ASPECTS OF ADVERTISING Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged. and the almost inevitable impression in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions leads to happiness and fulfillment can be both misleading and frustrating. The Consumer Complaints Council is ASCI's heart and soul. viz. Its main objective is to promote responsible advertising thus enhancing the public's confidence in Advertising. especially among those neglected. Market Research Companies etc. The Advertising Standards Council of India (ASCI). established in 1985. ASCI is represented in all committees working on advertising content in every Ministry of the Government of India. ASCI thus aim to achieve its own overarching goal: to maintain and enhance the public's confidence in advertising. the absence from advertising of certain racial and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies can help to create problems of image and identity. Ad Agencies. ASCI’s Code for Self-Regulation in Advertising is now part of ad code under Cable TV Act’s Rules. 93 . is committed to the cause of Self-Regulation in Advertising. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture. Media (including Broadcasters and the Press) and others like PR Agencies. For example. ensuring the protection of the interests of consumers. promoting some while ignoring others. Advertisers. The ASCI was formed with the support of all four sectors connected with Advertising. It is the dedicated work put in by this group of highly respected people that has given tremendous impetus to the work of ASCI and the movement of self-regulation in the advertising. Advertising Standards Council of India is a self-regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry.

Polio. Thus.ADVERTISING AS COMMUNICATION TOOL Advertising is a form of mass communication with the public. It is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade the potential customers to purchase or consume more of a particular brand of product/services. An election goes on every minute of the business day across the counters of hundreds of thousands of stores and shops where the customers state their preferences and determine which manufacturer and which product shall be the leader today. animals and trees etc. educate and motivate the public about noncommercial issues such as AIDS. simple. services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media. "Advertising is of the very essence of democracy. It is usually one sided i. it can also be used to inform. and which shall lead tomorrow”. Save water. electricity. crisp and easy to absorb. from the company to the buyer/potential user of the product. Advertising an important tool of communication is use to promote commercial goods and services. It is essential to translate the products/services offer into meaningful customer benefit by advertising and to build awareness and generate response.e. For a message to be effective keep it short. Advertising is the non-personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products. Don't drink and drive. concluding by the famous words of Bruce Barton (1955). 94 .

AIDA 95 .MODELS OF ADVERTISING COMMUNICATION 1.

In the DAGMAR approach. develop attitudes or induce action. It is basically an approach to advertising planning and a precise method for selecting and quantifying goals and for using those goals to measure performance. as shown below. Communication Process in DAGMAR Approach 96 . impart information. intended to create awareness. An advertising objective involves a communication task. the communication task is based on a specific model of the communication process.2. DAGMAR MODEL DAGMAR is Defining Advertising Goals for Measures Advertising Results.

visiting a showroom. The second important concept of the approach is that the advertising goal be specific. but the basic concept revolves around what is mentioned in the paragraphs above. It should be a written. The second step of the communication process is comprehension of the product or offer and involves the target audience learning something about the product or offer. including associated imagery and feelings? In what way does it differ from its Competitors? Whom is it supposed to benefit? The third step is the attitude (or conviction) step and intervenes between comprenension and final action. it may differ slightly. The DAGMAR approach emphasizes the communication task of advertising. measurable task involving a starting point. What are its specific characteristics and appeals. the individual will be unaware of the product or offer in the market. MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY MODEL 97 . The action phase involves some overt move on the part of the buyer such as trying a brand for the first time. The initial communication task of the advertising activity is to increase consumer awareness of the product or offer. a defined audience. and a fixed time period. there is a series of mental steps which the individual goes through. or requesting information. And under different circumstances. 3.The model suggests that before the acceptance of a product by an individual. The whole communication process is a bit more complex. At some point of time.

then little else matters until we recover. strong and powerful. If we are rich. If we are helpful and kind to others they will want us as friends. we have greater power.  Esteem needs are for a higher position within a group.  Belonging needs introduce our tribal nature.  Self-actualization needs are to 'become what we are capable of becoming'. 98 .  Safety needs are about putting a roof over our heads and keeping us from harm. which would our greatest achievement. If we are unwell. If people respect us. we can make ourselves safe. or have good friends. Physiological needs are to do with the maintenance of the human body.

Elements of creativity • Imagination • Inventiveness • Inspiration ELEMENTS OF PRINT ADVERTISING Headline+ copy Headline+ copy Illustrations Illustrations Identification + slogan Identification + slogan 99 .characterized by originality. expressiveness.ADVERTISING CREATIVITY Advertisingthe activity of attracting public attention to product or business (writing and designing advertisement.) Creativity. imaginative. ability to create.

or its corporate mission. when.SLOGAN:  Catch phrase or small group of words that are combined in a special way to represent a product or company. its products. Good Advertising Copy Should… • Be simple and direct • Appeal to the senses • Explain the “who. why. what. • Should stress the benefits and features of the product advertised. • Expands on the information in the headline or the product shown in an illustration. COPY: Copy is the selling message in a written advertisement.  Creates a distinct image for the company. and how” of the product • Provide a call to action ILLUSTRATIONS: 100 . where.

Usually a photograph. graph or chart  Primary function is to attract attention  Should show the product or how the product works  Should tie into the headline and/or copy IDENTIFICATION: Distinctive symbol associated with a business  Name of business  Logo  Slogan HEADLINES: Headlines: get the readers’ attention. clip art. and lead to the rest of the ad Effective headlines select an audience Headlines should be contained to seven words or less Usually set in larger type apart from the rest of the ad 101 . arouse interest by providing a benefit. drawing.

brands and services to present customers:  For planning and creating an effective advertising campaign. PUBLIC RELATIONS (24206) The Objective of the subject is to develop the students so that they should be able to define PR and its function. Ad agency Functions: advertise their products. Advertising agencies offer a full range of advertising services and advice based on market studies and advanced sales techniques.Must have a clear focus or main idea An Ad agency is a service provider that works for clients to create an effective and goaloriented advertising campaign aimed at representing the company positively in the eyes of its target audiences or customers. 102 . differentiate between PR & Corporate Communication by applying tools and techniques for handling public and corporate relations. pushing sales through other promotional techniques like sales promotion etc.  To take over the process of brand building. Ad Agencies are outside companies that provide for the marketing and advertising needs of other business and organization.

An organization is any commercial or non-commercial organization. At the time of adverse publicity or when the organization is under crisis an effective Public Relations can remove the "misunderstanding" and can create mutual understanding between the organization and the public. product or services. persuasion. Since false image cannot be sustained for a long time.R as a profession. movements. third president of U.” NEED FOR PUBLIC RELATIONS Investing on Public relations will help the organization to achieve its objective effectively and smoothly. A company should maintain public relations for the positive image. Public Relations is not creating good image for a bad team. Thomas Jeffeson. Effective Public Relations can create and build up the image of an individual or an organization or a nation. adjustment and contacts to seek support for some activity cause. 103 .R practitioners’ which was established in 1958 to promote the recognition of P.R first time in his speech in 1807.R is an attempt through information. PRSI is the national association of P. Internal public are those which are directly connected to an organization and external public are those which are indirectly related to an organization. motivating the public to the product or service or towards the purpose of the programme. understanding and goodwill of an organization. DEFINITIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS “Public Relations is the deliberate.S used the term P. institution.Public Relation is the relation of an organization with its public. planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual understanding between on organization and its publics. It is not only encouraging the involvement from the public and also resulting in better image. Though the organization product or services are good it need an effective Public Relations campaign for attracting. Two types of public related to organization are Internal and external. In simple terms P.

 It analyses the public perception & attitude. It describes political application of publicity and advertising. The relations activity is becoming more and more important for the procurement of economically essential production factors. to the end of selling an idea cause or candidate or all three. identifies the organisation policy with public interest and then executes the programmes for communication with the public.R as a profession. teachers. They should get to know the psychology of the public mind and acquire skill in solving and also avoiding such conflicts. Entrepreneurs. Every P>R professional must follow these code to maintain dignity if the profession and high standards in the work environment. Propaganda Propaganda is the manipulation of symbols to transmit accepted attitudes and skills. religions. PRSI is the national association of P. It makes it easier to tap the money-market or financing their projects by issuing bonds or shares. 104 . management-shareholders. Scope The scope of public relation is wide and also include political filed. citizens-government and so on due to misconception and misunderstandings. employer-employee consumer-manufacturer. These are generally the major challenges where public relation practitioners can play a crucial role.R practitioners’ which was established in 1958 to promote the recognition of P.  Art or Science of developing reciprocal understanding and goodwill. social workers. political leaders. leaders are all involved in public relations day in and We day find regular conflicts between out. also on a large scale.FUNCTIONS OF PUBLIC RELATIONS  Public Relations is establishing the relationship among the two groups (organisation and public).

The main title of the news always nice headlines easily attracts attention of media persons.contains the release date and originating city of the press release.Savvy consumers know it’s an ad. 105 . Date & Place . and tend to party endorsement be sceptical No guarantees and it can be time-consuming A guaranteed date the ad will run and it’s PR builds credibility easy if you have money to spend Advertising builds visibility CORPORATE COMMUNICATION Corporate communication is a way through which a corporation communicated with people associates with them.PUBLIC REATIONS VS PUBLICITY • The goal of PR and publicity is similar and that is to attract the attention of media towards the products of the company but publicity is just a part of the whole PR exercise that is undertaken to generate goodwill and credibility for the company in the eyes of the public (potential customers). • The principle of perception is reality is at work when effective PR exercise is undertaken and a really good PR strategy can create an aura around a product or person that leads to amazing success. Pr Free placement Less or no control A story that runs only once or twice Advertising Paid placement Complete creative control Your ads will run as often as you’re willing to pay Credibility because it’s viewed as a third. SEVEN POINT FORMULA OF PRESS RELEASE Title or Headline .

Highlight the the importance of the news in this paragraph. or individual. Do not write email here. mailing address. or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person. organization.  They have to identify important members of the media and ensure that they have a clear understanding of what its organization stands for the efforts it is making to add value to its customers.  To send information about his organization and to gather/ collect information that could be of importance. PRESS CONFERENCE It is a formal meeting of media persons with a person in authority. communities etc. background. phone number. It is organized for the disclosure of some information or facts.generally a short "about" section.name. Body . providing independent background on the issuing company. or other details relevant to the news. Pr practitioners practices media relations for 2 purposes. Ending: ### indicates the end of press release.further explanation. statistics. employees. email address. Boilerplate . Usually contains three or four lines. MEDIA RELATION Media Relation means communicating with the media by actively speaking to journalist and sending out relevant articles or information to the respective publication responding to media enquiries and providing appropriate information on behalf of an organization.Introduction . basically which refers to XXX meaning 30 used to denote end in telegraphic codes used in early years. Give also some quotes from spokespersons. It should be held on the importance of the news 106 . Contact Information .

It is usually attended by the president or higher authority members in order to give answer to the reporter’s questions and doubts. Media tour Media tours can be defined as tours or visits of major geographical areas for the purpose of obtaining publicity in media.R campaign 107 . A campaign objective may be the election of a candidate. or the raising of a quota of funds Purposes  To achieve various goals/achieve objective  Information of new product and services  To maintain Goodwill  To change the image of organization from negative to positive. at a number of targets. the promotion of political cause or issue. These consist of concerted. the reaching of a sales goal.R activity.which clearly indicates public attention. Impact research in P. PUBLIC RELATION CAMPAIGN It is a series of steps/events/activities.R is not a separate subject. employing coordinated publicity through a variety of media. aimed. It is the very essence of successful P.  Research information feedback Major difference between Ad campaign and P. single-purpose publicity programme. 2 types of media tours are  Incoming tours  Outgoing tours RESEARCH IN PR Public relations’ research is known to be extremely critical at every step of public relation work. usually on a more or less elaborate scale. but focused on specific objectives.

NEW MEDIA (24208) The Objective of the course is to make students describe new media technology for journalist purpose and online discussion forums keeping in mind cyber laws and create blogs.R Campaign Image building Elements of P. the role of public relations today is more critical than ever before. is the leading factor in its ability to achieve success.R campaign  Goals/objectives  Target group  Framework  Medium of communication  Activities Conclusion A company's reputation. with corporate integrity central on the minds of average Americans.Advertising Campaign To sell the product/services (Profit) P. the battered image of the corporate world is no small matter. Restoring trust and helping companies to earn a reputation for credibility will require sound public relations leadership. With this in mind. Indeed. or the essence of how it is viewed by all of its publics. 108 .

anywhere. distribution and consumption of media content. Another aspect of new media is the real-time generation of new. on any digital device. Another important promise of new media is the "democratization" of the creation. Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. publishing. as well as interactive user feedback. unregulated content. creative participation and community formation around the media content. often having characteristics COMPUTER NETWORKS: 109 .New media is a broad term in media studies that emerged in the latter part of the 20th century that refers to on-demand access to content any time.

computer multimedia. Some examples may be the Internet. information technology etc. Wikipedia. creative participation of contributors. Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device. compressible. a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks. then the two devices are said to be in a network. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data. Well-known communications protocols are Ethernet. networkable. A computer network. in which most users are also participants. as well as host-to-host data transfer. and organizational scope. and the Internet Protocol Suite.of being manipulated. i. scale. and application-specific data transmission formats. feature films.e. or paperbased publications – unless they contain technologies that enable digital interactivity. Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network. and provide the basis for network programming. dense. magazines. since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines. for data communication between multiple networks. images and video with web-links. Facilitate communications 110 . which defines a set of protocols for internetworking. video games etc. interactive feedback of users and formation of a participant community of editors and donors for the benefit of non-community readers. New media does not include television programs. websites. Facebook is an example of the social media model. computer science. Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering. topology. often simply referred to as a network. telecommunications. and interactive. is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. is an example combining Internet accessible digital text. an online encyclopedia. books. communications protocol used.

It may also interfere with last mile access technologies such as ADSL and VDSL. Share network and computing resources In a networked environment. Permit sharing of files. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks. instant messaging. May interfere with other technologies Power line communication strongly disturbs certain forms of radio communication.. and other types of information In a network environment. people can communicate efficiently and easily via email. and video conferencing. An ISP has the equipment and the telecommunication line access required to have a point-of-presence on the Internet for the geographic area served. such as printing a document on a shared network printer. chat rooms. or to prevent these devices from normally accessing the network (denial of service).g. The capability of providing access to data and information on shared storage devices is an important feature of many networks. May be insecure. The larger ISPs have 111 . data. telephone. amateur radio. e. It may also be very costly to set up an effective computer network in a large organization or company.A computer network may be used by computer hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network. ISP An ISP (Internet service provider) is a company that provides individuals and other companies’ access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site building and virtual hosting. each computer on a network may access and use resources provided by devices on the network. video telephone calls. May be difficult to set up A complex computer network may be difficult to set up.Using a network. authorized users may access data and information stored on other computers on the network.

typically written in plain text interspersed with formatting instructions of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML. An ISP is also sometimes referred to as an IAP (Internet access provider). Webpages are accessed and transported with the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). and a supplementary about. images. video. A webpage may incorporate elements from other websites with suitable markup anchors. etc. audio. separate company from a telephone company. contact and link page. web site. A website is hosted on at least one web server. A webpage is a document. often a web browser. also written as Web site. Organized by function. ISP is sometimes used as an abbreviation for independent service provider to distinguish a service provider that is an independent. The user's application. music. The pages of a website can usually be accessed from a simple Uniform Resource Locator (URL) called the web address. HTTPS) to provide security and privacy for the user of the webpage content. All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. or simply site. renders the page content according to its HTML markup instructions onto a display terminal. a website may be 112 .their own high-speed leased lines so that they are less dependent on the telecommunication providers and can provide better service to their customers. accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network through an Internet address known as a Uniform Resource Locator. WEBSITE A website. is a set of related web pages containing content (media) including text. The URLs of the pages organize them into a hierarchy. XHTML). which may optionally employ encryption (HTTP Secure. although hyper linking between them conveys the reader's perceived site structure and guides the reader's navigation of the site which generally includes a home page with most of the links to the site's web content.

Type of Website Description Enabled portal that renders not only its custom CMS but also syndicated Affiliate Agency content from other content providers for an agreed fee. A site created specifically to attack visitors computers on their first visit to a Attack site website by downloading a file (usually a trojan horse). a personal website  a commercial website  a government website  A nonprofit organization website. and Google Groups. 113 . Two examples are: Internet Archive. Affiliate Agencies Used to preserve valuable electronic content threatened with extinction.000. which in early 2005 was archiving over 845. These websites rely on unsuspecting users with poor anti-virus protection in their computers. There are usually three relationship tiers.000 messages posted to Usenetnews/discussion groups. which since 1996 has preserved billions of Archive site old (and new) web pages.

high-volume fast moving consumer goods (FMCG). Some bloggers are professional bloggers and they are paid to blog about a certain subject.g. and they are usually found on news sites.Sites generally used to post online diaries which may include discussion forums (e. These Brand building sites usually do not sell anything. A site with the purpose of creating an experience of a brand online. Brand site building sites are most common for low-value. Many bloggers use blogs like an editorial Blog (web log) section of a newspaper to express their ideas on anything ranging from politics to religion to video games to parenting. but focus on building the brand.. along with anything in between. 114 . Xanga). blogger.

writing scripts for TV. handling various aspects of TV production. Although you may consider you haven’t got time to write a Brief.TELEVISION JOURNALISM & PRODUCTION LAB (24252) The Objective of the subject is to prepare a video brief. TO PREPARE A VIDEO BRIEF A Brief is merely an outline of what you want in terms of a video in which you address the main points that need to be considered. 115 . direction. It makes communicating your requirements to us so much easier. use sound and light and applying production and post-production technique effectively to produce a video program. just working through the process can save you time and money later.

The aim of the Story is to highlight and to show some of the stark realities which still lay covered.Exercises and assignments done:  Idea generation – fiction and non-fiction  Budget  Floor plan  Lighting plan  Shooting script Example of Shooting Script of our story My Last Wish: The studio production will be a Documentary of 15 minutes duration on My Last Wish. 116 .

my home near this street Gautam insist her that she can drop in front of her house but she denied and after that Gautam goes straight but he takes a U turn and come back and start following aunty and after following aunty for sometime he saw that aunty entering in an OLD AGE HOME 117 . she memorized where she lived. who want some love. And after small drive on a signal aunty said ok please stop the car. where children want rid From their parents. Shift request her husband to drop her.SYNOPSIS SAMPLE SYNOPSIS Of “The Last Wish” The last wish. some affection from there children in her old age but she just get only LONELINESS So. sometimes they send them to old age home and sometime they just leave them in a alone house. so they can live their lives easily without any tensions So. this story tell the truth of our society. some caring. Its story about a old lady. so she can reach her home easily and comfortab Gautam (shift husband) accept her wife request. she request for a glass of water from a lady (shift) and then after that she requested shift to let came her in because she forget her address She spend a whole day with shift family and next morning she told them Now. her loneliness found a new way to get some love and care She went to a house and ring the bell.

occasionally of a small group. and often are themed on a single subject.NEW MEDIA LAB (24208) The Objective of the subject is to develop students for designing and developing a website by using search engines effectively. Blogs are usually the work of a single individual. 118 . Exercises and Assignments being done: Creating and maintaining Blogs A blog (a portmanteau of the term web log) is a personal journal published on the World Wide Web consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first. Blog can also be used as a verb. meaning to maintain or add content to a blog.

Learning HTML and Creating a Webpage What is HTML? HTML is a language for describing web pages. it is a markup language  A markup language is a set of markup tags  HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages Website: 119 .  HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language  HTML is not a programming language.

INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION PUBLIC RELATION: . ADVERTISING PRACTICES (24301) The Objective of the subject is to make students describe advertising objectives. in rare cases. the IP address) and the root path ('/') in an Internet Protocol-based network. A web site is hosted on at least one web server. the process from copy to production. Public relations provide an 120 . often consisting of only the domain name (or.Public relations (PR) are the practice of managing the flow of information between an organization and its publics. accessible via a network such as the Internet or a private local area network. design an advertising campaign along with identifying the various types of advertising budget and various styles of copywriting. videos or other digital assets that are addressed relative to a common Uniform Resource Locator (URL). images.A website (also spelled Web site is a collection of related web pages.

and products or of political decisions. Paid. so that he or she is persuaded to take the action desired by the advertiser. winning industry awards. SALESMANSHIP:- Practice of investigating and satisfying customer needs through a process that is efficient. and works of art or entertainment. DIRECT MARKETING: . direct marketing. (The other six parts of the promotional mix are advertising. working with the press. goods and services. limited time to increase consumer demand. fair. politicians and performing artists). and places. 121 . organizations. and aimed at long-term productive relationship.Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. its leadership. radio. print. and employee communication. corporate image and exhibitions. telephone. The subjects of publicity include people (for example.) Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a predetermined. people. partners. solicited or unsolicited emails. an advertisement is called a commercial. When aired on radio or television. public communication about causes. SALES PROMOTION: .Sales promotion is one of the seven aspects of the promotional mix. non-personal. sincere. television. An integral part of marketing. ideas. goods and services. investors.organization or individualexposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. mutually beneficial. advertisements are public notices designed to inform and motivate. stimulate market demand or improve product availability. employees and other stakeholders to maintain a certain point of view about the company. publicity/public relations.Direct marketing is a sometimes controversial sales method by which advertisers approach potential customers directly with products or services. The most common forms of direct marketing are telephone sales. PUBLICITY: . through means such as direct mail. Their objective is to change the thinking pattern (or buying behavior) of the recipient. Common activities include speaking at conferences. organizations of all kinds. personal selling. and internet. Their aim is often to persuade the public.

Rural Marketing is defined as any marketing activity in which one dominant participant is from a rural area. brochures and coupons. tactical decisions are made. TARGET MARKETING PROCESS :-target marketing is a method to more efficiently reach your customers. RURAL MARKETING: .e. 122 . let’s talk more about how to get there.catalogs. the strategy is formulated for a value proposition. leaflets. Successful direct marketing also involves compiling and maintaining a large database of personal information about potential customers and clients. size of the area. the firm must find a way to discover unfulfilled customer needs and bring to market products that satisfy those needs. The process of doing so can be modeled in a sequence of steps: the situation is analyzed to identify opportunities. Now. i. and climate zone of your customers. It is as straightforward as that. ADVERTISING AS MARKETING TOOL PRODUCT MARKETING PROCESS :. time and money. These databases are often sold or shared with other direct marketing companies. Target marketing is a better use of your most valuable resources. Four ways to identify target markets Use these four category areas as you collect information to identify and define your target market:  Geographics: The location. to generate additional revenue. This implies that rural marketing consists of marketing of inputs (products or services) to the rural as well as marketing of outputs from the rural markets to other geographical areas.Under the marketing concept. density. the plan is implemented and the results are monitored.

income. occupation.  Involve staff and board members in the process to improve accuracy of information and commitment to the plan. KEYS TO A SUCCESSFUL BUDGETING PROCESS  Clearly identify programmatic objectives that are aligned with the mission and strategic plan. MARKETING PLAN: . and education of your customers. a marketing plan without a sound strategic foundation is of little use. repetition of need.  Psychographics: The general personality.  Behaviors: The needs they seek to fulfill. While a marketing plan contains a list of actions. and loyalty characteristics of your customers.budget is a plan that identifies the financial resources required to achieve programmatic objectives. family composition and size. gender. Once constructed. life-style. benefits sought. attitude.A marketing plan may be part of an overall business plan. Advertising campaigns appear in different media across a specific time frame. Solid marketing strategy is the foundation of a well-written marketing plan. the level of knowledge. this plan assists staff and board in managing the organization both programmatically and financially throughout the year. BUDGETING PROCESS: . Demographics: The age. 123 . behavior. use or response to a product of your customers. rate of use.  Determine the financial resources needed and available to achieve program goals.An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication (IMC). ADEVRTISING CAMPAIGN: . information sources.

by identifying the name. Branding is an important part of Internet commerce. slogan.A brand is the idea or image of a specific product or service that consumers connect with. and add to the revenue generated by the original brand. and bringing the concept to reality. as branding allows companies to build their reputations as well as expand beyond the original product and service. or design of the company who owns the idea or image. PRODUCTION PROCESS OF PRINT COPY Thumbnails are reduced-size versions of pictures. and communicating ideas which are abstract. The steps each organization takes will be somewhat different. innovating the concept. or brand. This will be very important in managing the budget throughout the year. The process includes the process of constructing through the idea. logo. BRAND MANAGEMENT :-Brand management is the application of marketing techniques to a specific product. developing the process. CREATIVE STRATEGY TO DEVELOPMENT IDEA GENERATION:-The process of creating. or visual. but also to build good reputations and a set of standards to which the company should strive to maintain or surpass. used to help in recognizing and organizing them. Document! Don’t rely on memory. developing. product line. Branding is when that idea or image is marketed so that it is recognizable by more and more people. concrete. You will add and delete material several times before you're satisfied that your work is complete and you're ready to write your final draft.  Customize your process. BRANDING :. Write down assumptions and formulas. serving the same role for images as a normal text index does for words. 124 . and identified with a certain service or product when there are many other companies offering the same service or product. Advertising professionals work on branding not only to build brand recognition. In a rough draft you get all your ideas on paper and flesh them out.

motion graphic or interactive media sequence. word of mouth and direct mail.STORY BOARD:. CIRCULATION :-A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Readership figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person. TRP :. their markets and their consumers.[1]These agencies work with their clients to understand the business issues. more generally. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. printing and advertising. animation.Storyboards are graphic organizers in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture. which can help to devise a channelneutral communication strategy which really connects with those consumers. usually in the context of preparing for printing.· In publishing. using channels ranging from public relations (PR). often called paid circulation. COMPUTER GRAPHIC :-Computer graphics are graphics created using computers and. It then identifies the consumer insights. The TRP measure helps 125 . events and sponsorship to advertising. interactive advertising.The Television rating point is an audience measurement criterion of rating points that indicates the popularity of a television channel or programme. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold. the representation and manipulation of image data by a computer with help from specialized software and hardware. to build a genuinely integrated campaign. including: MEDIA PLANNING MEDIA AGENCY :-A media agency (or media shop) is a company which help companies to communicate with current and potential consumers and/or the general public. any visual as opposed to textual material. since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. ART WORK :.

For example. the TRP figure is the sum of each individual GRP. EVENT MANAGEMENT: PRINCIPLES & METHODOLOGY (24303) The Objective of the subject is to make students to enumerate the event management and its functions. reaching the entire gross audience also. EVENT MANAGEMENT 126 PROCEDURES . TV channel or programme) of the target audience reached by an advertisement. different steps involved in planning an event.advertisers decide which TV channels and programmes to place their advertising in.The TRP is a measure of the purchased points representing an estimate of the component of the target audience within the gross audience. it is measured as the sum of ratings achieved by a specific media vehicle (e. steps involved in evaluation and assessment of an event and the revenue generating process for an event. Similar to the gross rating point. multiplied by the estimated target audience in the gross audience. if an advertisement appears more than once.g.

raise money or celebrate. These procedures might include:  Cash management  Food serving and hygiene  Waste collection  Marshaling of competitors  Restriction of access to certain areas  Arrival and greeting of visiting dignitaries  Loudspeaker announcements during the event  Giveaways of merchandising or free food and drink  Raffles and fundraising EVENT MANAGEMENT Event management. development and management of any kind of event. to planning a symposium. Event manage procedures should also assist event personnel to effectively do their job. Event is a communication and marketing tool as well. It is a broad term that can refer to anything from organizing the launch of a new product. crowd disturbances and climatic conditions such as lightning. The industry now includes events of all sizes from the Olympics down to a breakfast meeting for business people. fire. bomb threat. Events can make communication easier and interesting and it has the power to generate the money also. in short.Event managers must ensure that event management procedures cover a full range of emergencies including major injury or illness of players or spectators. charitable organizations. to promoting a big music concert. flooding. NEED OF EVENTS 127 . Although the most important procedures will be about safety. there should be other procedures that lessen risks to the event profitability and the organisation's reputation. build business relationships. is the creation. etc. Many industries. and interest groups will hold events of some size in order to market themselves. torrential rain.

acquiring permits. Launch of new product  Highlighting added features of product  Creating and maintaining brand image  Helped in avoidance of clutter  Enabling interactive mode of communication  Helps in relationship building and P. sales. anniversaries.R activities  Generating instant publicity  Creating opportunities for better deals with different media TYPES OF EVENTS  There are almost countless number of events describing the diversity of event planning. birthdays. ceremony. party. commercial. and folklore. competition. recreation. product launch. ceremonial. weddings. heritage. expo  Corporate Events EVENT PLANNNING Event planning is the process of planning a festival. Event planning includes budgeting.g. charitable. establishing dates and alternate dates.g.g. leisure sport. or convention.  Organizational events e. religious. 128 .  Personal events e. music. art.g. Events can be classified into four broad categories based on their purpose and objective:  Leisure events e. selecting and reserving the event site. political. and coordinating transportation and parking.  Cultural events e.

struggle to find volunteers. or governmental agencies (see also crowd funding). FUNDRAISING Fund raising is the process of soliciting and gathering contributions as money or other resources. keep people on the committee. doing the right things. charitable foundations. by requesting donations from individuals. Although fundraising typically refers to efforts to gather money for non-profit organizations. Organisations are successful when they have the right people. it is sometimes used 129 . and deal with the conflict that often arises within the ranks of organization personnel. this goal is anything but simple. large and small. However. businesses. Organizations.PLANNING PROCESS Organizational structure of an event management company HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT The management of human resources in an organization is a most important issue.

Types of Sponsorship There are five types of sponsorship 1) Event sponsorship 2) Title sponsorship 3) Activity sponsorship 4) Media sponsorship 5) Facility sponsorship ACCOUNTING Accounting is an activity in which money transactions are recorded. sponsorship is when a business provides funds. SPONSORSHIP Sponsorship is a partnership between a corporation and a rights-holder or property e. Sports event.g. athlete/ celebrity/ musician.to refer to the identification and solicitation of investors or other sources of capital for forprofit enterprises.. signs at an oval or free advertising in the letter. but new forms of fundraising such as online fundraising have emerged in recent years. product placement and brand integration . and this is experiencing very strong growth in the form of face-toface fundraising. though these are often based on older methods such as grassroots fundraising. resources or services to a club. Traditionally. These purposes include but not limited to: 130 . In other words. entertainment event . naming rights for buildings . This could be in the form of a logo on a football. fundraising consisted mostly of asking for donations on the street or at people's doors. promotion etc. in return for some form of rights and / or association with the clues that may be used to help the business commercially . summarized and analyzed so as to produce information for a variety of purposes.

 Making decisions of a financial nature  Tracking and keeping control of the movement of money  Working out how best to accumulate more wealth  Providing information to the Taxation Office CONDUCTING AN EVENT RISK AUDIT Conducting a risk audit is an essential component of developing an event management plan. A risk audit involves:  checking the proposed venue for possible hazards.  observing other similar events to see how participants are likely to interact with the event environment  reviewing event management systems. policies and procedures and ensuring they are up to date  interviewing event personnel to check whether they have received appropriate training MARKET RESEARCH IN EVENT PLANNING Market Research 131 . A risk audit involves identifying and assessing all risks so that a plan can be put in place to deal with any occurrence of any undesirable event which causes harm to people or detriment to the organization.

Find out when (i. customs. traditions and religion is very important so that we don’t hurt there customs and religion unknowingly through our event. religion. lifestyle etc. there age group. 132 .Before organizing an event. profession. sex. income. In this way you can cut down your advertising and marketing cost tremendously. For e.e. then it is not a good idea to organize such event there. Knowing your target audience's customs. Find out what are the desires and expectations of target audience from your intended event. personality.g. date and time) and where (i. likings. disliking. traditions. you want to organize a fashion show in Oman. The event will fail for sure.e. audience) for your intended event or not. qualification. if you organize a Hindu wedding and serve beef there. status.e. then u will be in mortal danger as cow is considered as a sacred animal in Hindu religion. Market Analysis means finding information about your target audience. Market Analysis If there is a market for your intended event. venue) they want the intended event to take place .e.g. knowledge level. find out whether there is a market (i. Find out who are your target audience i. Find out where majority of your target audience live so that you can direct your marketing efforts towards them. For e. then do market analysis. If people there have little or no interest in fashion shows. There is no point in advertising across US if your target audience belongs only to New Jersey. Similarly serving pork in a Muslim function can bring havoc.

Make up artist. What they do in there events? Why people come to there events? For this you will have to attend each and every event organized by your competitors and then create an event report. SWOT Analysis In SWOT Analysis: 'S' stands for Strengths 'W' stands for Weaknesses 'O' stands for Opportunities 'T' stands for Threats Event Evaluation 133 . Competitors' Analysis It means finding information about your competitors. qualifications.program and food menu  . knowledge level. turnover. decorator. their age. All this information will help you in developing a better event plan. PR (media and corporate contacts) and market share. Anchors. videographers.promotional materials used  . The event report will contain things like  .blueprint of the whole venue  . florist etc.For this you will have to do survey.i.contact details of sponsors. partners. experience in organizing events. Performers.e. Find out how they promote and execute there events. market value.seating and light arrangements  .service providers like DJs. clients (for whom the event is organized)  . sex. Find out who are your competitors . Find out as much information as possible about events organized by your competitors. photographers.

These tactics are required to get feedback. then no matter how much people enjoyed the event or how much popularity your event got. Event evaluation should be done immediately after the event is over or the next day.STEPS INVOLVED IN WRITING EVALUATION OF THE EVENT Event evaluation is necessary to make you and your team more efficient and effective. Step 2: Get feedback from your clients and target audience. Step 1: Determine the extent to which event and advertising objectives have been achieved. 134 . A guest can redeem the gift voucher only when he/she fills the feedback form and give it back to an attendant. To make sure that your clients give you feedback. One good way of getting feedback is through feedback form. it is a complete failure on a commercial level. To get feedback from target audience/ guests. Conduct a meeting with your team members to evaluate your event. to remove exhibits from the facility. If you are not able to achieve your event and advertising objectives through your event. the next time you organize an event. The exit pass form is required to get exit pass for security clearance. as people are generally reluctant to give any feedback in writing. make feedback form part of your gift voucher. make the feedback form part of your Exit pass form. It is all about finding your mistakes and learning from them.

MEDIA RESEARCH (24305) 135 .

. data requirement. TYPES  Analytic vs Descriptive  Quantitative vs qualitative  EmpericalvsConceptualisation  Applied vs Fundamental. conduct media research by making use of any of the research methods followed by writing report after analysis and interpretation of data. sample design. the researcher has to prepare research design. It is a major step in the research Research Approaches 136 process/procedure. formulating research problem.e. DEFINITION It is a systematic and scientific to gain certain knowledge. etc) and before the commencement of work of research project. Meaning of Research Design After deciding the basic aspects of research project (i.The Objective of the subject is to make students able to explain the process of media research. objectives of research.

analysing and attempting to uncover the deeper meaning and significance of human behaviour and experience. including contradictory beliefs. behaviours and emotions. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research is the approach usually associated with the social constructivist paradigm which emphasises the socially constructed nature of reality. It is about recording. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION There are many methods of collecting primary data and the main methods include:  questionnaires  interviews 137 . It usually involves collecting and converting data into numerical form so that statistical calculations can be made and conclusions drawn. Researchers are interested in gaining a rich and complex understanding of people’s experience and not in obtaining information which can be generalized to other larger groups.QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Quantitative research is generally associated with the positivist/postpositivist paradigm.

 focus group interviews  observation  case-studies SURVEYS Survey is a reaserach method that is used top get information about certain groups of people who are representative of some larger group of people.  It should avoid bias. Kinds of surveys  Descriptive Surveys  Analytical Surveys \ Characterstics of good questions for surveys  Question should be clear and not ambiguous.  It should not embarras respondents REPORT WRITING Interpretation and Report Writing Meaning of Interpretation 138 .  It should be short and the to the point.  It should ask only one piece of information per question.

Layout of the research report  Preliminary Pages  Main Text  End matter.  The report must present the logical analysis of the subject matter. Types of Report  Technical Report  Popular Report Precautions for writing Research reports  While determing the length of the report one should keep in view the fact that it should be long enough to cover the suject but short enough to maintain interest.It is an effort to establish continuity in research through linking the results of a given study and the establishment of some explanatory concepts.  The report hsould be free from grammatical mistakes.  It should be such as to sustain reader’s interest.  Report must be attractive in appearance. neat and cle ENVIRONMENT COMMUNICATION 139 .

air and land. inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings. Today everybody talks of environment. The study therefore requires number of disciplines to establish this relationship. it was the study of CFCs and their impact on ozone that finally led to an understanding of the ozone ‘hole’ and the Montreal Protocol (a commitment by governments to phase out the use of CFCs). hardly realizing that it is our “real-life-situation” and our sustenance and security are at stake. “What is the use of a beautiful house if you don’t have a decent planet to put it on?” Even if we begin today. while atmospheric science and chemistry may seem distantly related subjects. the restoration is expected in the next 40-50 years.(24307) The Objective of the subject is to make students sensitized to the environmental issues so as to enable them to include these issues in their media productions. but only a few have clear ideas about what needs to be done and still fewer have the actual experience or expertise in the field. other living organisms and property.” In order to study 140 . But more complex and unsuspected links are being thrown up as scientists go deeper into the subject. which has been one of the success stories of a global response to a global problem. The recent rapid decline of species of vultures in South Asia could be result of a veterinary drug give to cattle which is eventually passed on to vultures when they feed one of the carcasses of these animals. Unfortunately. The complex link between human activities and the loss of biodiversity is rapidly coming to light. environmental awareness campaigns have very often been exploited for political propaganda rather than being an integral part of our educational programmes in theory and practice. INTROUCTION: Environment is sum total of water. Similarly. Loss of habitats and poaching of wildlife is more obvious now a day. “Environment” is very wrongly taken as a “fashion” by all walks of life.

educate people.  Environmental Science and Chemistry  Environmental Science and Biology:  Environment and Economics  Cultural Environment  Population and Environment SCOPE In short scope of environmental studies is broad based and it encompasses a large number of areas and aspects. humans must learn that Earth does not have infinite resources. we have to make all the persons environmentally educated To safeguard the healthful environment that is essential to life. plant rice. humans must devise new strategies that mesh environmental progress with economic growth. broadly listed below: •Natural Resources. if you plan for 10 years. Earth’s limited resources must be conserved and. plant trees and if you plan for 100 years. reused.” If we wish to manage our planet earth. where possible.their conservation and management •Ecology and biodiversity •Environmental pollution and control •Social issues in relation to development and environment •Human population and environment IMPORTANCE There is a proverb “If you plan for one year. The future growth of developing nations depends upon the 141 .environment 8one needs knowledge inputs from various disciplines The past three decades have witnessed a growing awareness of the effects of human activity upon our earth’s resources and during this period environmental study has emerged as a multi-disciplinary field of study to examine the interaction of the people and their environments. Furthermore.

Several means are being employed to educate the masses. NATURAL RESOURCES A natural resource is defined as a form of energy and/or matter which is essential for the functioning of organisms.development of sustainable conservation methods that protect the environment while also meeting the basic needs of citizens. are being made to be telecasted on the video media. (crops and 142 . Various advertisements. It is an exploratory description of issues. feature films etc. almost all nations of world have geared up in creating awareness in their people. In fact. The media is playing a leading role in this process. Environmental studies are very important but most neglected body of knowledge. Each issue can be probed more deeply. 1. Nobody can escape the wrath if fallen. Awareness regarding the state of environment is must for every human being living on this planet. Already world is surrounded by several environmental problems. Classification of natural resources: According to Odum (1971). natural resources can be divided into two categories such as (1) renewable and (2) Nonrenewable resources. may it be the people of developing countries or these from the developed ones. An environmental study is the subject in which we examine important issues relating to environment as they affect our lives. Newspapers and other magazines are publishing out of lot of articles on this subject. populations and ecosystems. the effect of which is directly felt by its inhabitants. Renewable resources: The resources that can be replenished through rapid natural cycles are known as renewable resource. documentaries. These resources are able to increase their abundance through reproduction and utilization of simple substances. NEED FOR AWARENESS: Everybody should know what is happening around them. Examples of renewable resources are plants.

 Exhaustible resources: These resources are limited in nature and they are nonmaintainable e. ECOSYSTEM Ecosystem is defined as any unique that includes all organisms in a given area interacting with the physical environment so that there is a flow of energy which give rise to clearly defined tropic structure biotic diversity and material cycling within the system. lead. nitrates etc. (1971) Ecology deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interaction with their surroundings.  Abiotic resources: These are non-living resources (e. agriculture. fish and wild life) that are able to reproduce or replace them and to increase.  Inexhaustible resources: The resources which are not changed or exhausted by man’s activities and are abundantly available for ever are said to be inexhaustible. minerals etc. it is gone forever. Hence. Once a non-renewable resource is consumed. coal. gold. silver.g.g. Natural resources can be classified as a) inexhaustible and b) exhaustible resources. Examples are solar energy. coal etc.) that are not able to replace themselves or do so at such a slow rate that they are not useful to consider them in terms of the human life times.and animals who are being replaced from time to time because they have the power of reproducing and maintain life cycles. These resources include fossil fuels (petrol. wind power. which cannot be increased. land. they come under nonrenewable category. phosphates. forest. petrol. copper. These are available in limited amounts. petrol and some minerals etc. Then we have to find a substitute for it or do without it Some authors prefer to classify resources into biotic and abiotic resources:  Biotic resources: These are living resources (e. power from tides etc. Non-Renewable Resources: The resources that cannot be replenished through natural processes are known as nonrenewable resources.). 143 . zinc etc. atomic energy. 2.g. minerals and salts (carbonates. metals (iron.).forests).).

Hetro means other and trophs means nutrition. These are the organisms that cannot utilize sunlight directly because they don’t have chlorophyll so they depend on plants and their product for nutrition. carbohydrates.includes tropical rain forests. The second name of autotrophs is producers.Auto means self and trophs means nutrition.  Inorganic substances: . precipitation and light etc. carbon.  Biotic Substances Biotic components can be divided into 2 parts Autotrophs (Producers): . Self-food producing organisms are called as autotrophs and they depend upon solar energy and raw material which they get from soils. temperate deciduous forests.Components of ecosystem Abiotic Substances It includes air water soil basic elements and compounds. then after old age they die. humidity. fats and humid substances. Heterotrophs (Consumers): .water. mature. tropical scrub forests. Plants and animals take birth. In absence of decomposers the earth will be packed only with dead bodies.  Organic substances: . These decomposers decompose the dead bodies. tropical deciduous forests.such as temperature. temperate rain forests. grow in size. Major ecosystem include  Forest ecosystem. Abiotic substances can be further divided into 3 categories: Physical factors: . and reproduce. 144 . nitrogen etc. evergreen coniferous forests. Decomposers: These are most important group of organisms in the ecosystem.proteins.

 Desert Ecosystems. Gradually we are realizing that wildlife is not just ‘a game to be hunted’. Biodiversity Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability among all groups of living organisms and the ecosystem complexes in which they occur. CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY The enormous value of biodiversity due to their genetic. Biodiversity is at three levels Genetic Diversity. Species Diversity and Ecosystem Diversity. temperate deserts. Biosphere Reserves. National Parks. medical. zoos. botanical gardens. ecological and optional importance emphasizes the need to conserve biodiversity.a partially enclosed coastal area at the mouth of a river where fresh water and salty seawater meet.g. temperate grasslands. There are two approaches to biodiversity conservation:  In situ conservation (within habitat) : This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself e. Sanctuaries. terrestrial. seed banks. and polar grasslands. culture collection etc. rather it is a gift of nature to be nurtured and enjoyed. oceans. DISASTER MANAGEMENT: 145 . Grassland ecosystems. steams.include tropical grasslands. Reserve Forests etc. commercial.include tropical deserts.  b) Ex situ conservation (outside habitats): This is done by establishment of gene banks. lake ecosystem. aesthetic.  Aquatic ecosystem. In the Conservation of Biological diversity (1992) biodiversity has been defined as the variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia. estuary.include pond ecosystem. marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. cold deserts etc.

wind breaks. disturbances in resistant rock overlying rock of low resistance etc. storm shelter. construction of dams. They are however disastrous in their impact when they affect human settlements. Wooden houses are preferred in earthquake prone areas as in Japan. Human societies have witnessed a large number of such natural hazards in different parts of the world and have tried to learn to control these processes to some extent. Damage of property and life can be prevented by constructing earth-quake resistant buildings in the earthquake prone zones. Such measures include planting of more trees on the coastal belt. Some long term defence measures can help to protect us from devastation. Following care should be taken as set of measures for Disaster Management: 1. To check the flood. Following are the practical hints for an individual to prevent pollution: •Reduce your dependency on fossil fuel especially coal or oil 146 . 3. providing slope support like gabions (Wired stone blocks) and concrete support at the base of a slope. build check-dams on small streams. volcanoes. parks. efforts need to be made to restore wetlands. It is difficult to stop the recurrence of cyclones. 4. vibrations. These landslides should be masked by many other exerting factors like earthquakes. 2. These landslides could be minimized by stabilizing the slope by draining the surface and surface water. replace ground cover on water-courses. floods and landslides are normal natural events which have resulted in the formation of the earth that we have today.Geological processes like earthquakes. recreational areas etc. move buildings off the flood plains etc. Flood plains should be used for wildlife habitat. embarkments. proper drainage and wide roads for quick evacuation etc.

•Decrease the use of automobiles. •Use less hazardous chemicals wherever possible. solvents. •Do not put pesticides. paints. •Improve energy efficiency. •The solid waste generated during one manufacturing process can be used as a raw material for some other processes. it will reduce metal pollution. •Use pesticides only when absolutely necessary that too in right amounts. This will reduce the amount of waste energy •Promote reuse and recycling whatever possible and reduce the production of wastes. •Use rechargeable batteries. •Use mass transport system. •Adopt and popularize renewable energy sources. •Plant more trees as trees can absorb many toxic gases and can purify the air. •Use only the minimum and required quantity of water for various activities •When building a home save (don’t cut) trees. For short visits use bicycle or go on foot.•Save electricity by not washing it when not required because electricity saved electricity generated without polluting the environment. oils or other harmful chemicals into the drain or ground water. 147 . •Check population growth so that demand of materials is under controls.

I. I sincerely convey my best wishes and a sincere thanks to GGSIPU for giving me support and making me competitive enough to face and win challenges that a fresher faces while foray into exposure area. from 1st june 2012 to 15thJuly 2012 My internship had transformed as a good learning experience to my professional skill set. events.FUNCTIONAL EXPOSURE REPORT (24309) The Objective of the subject is to train the students with the working criteria and conditions in Electronic Media/ Advertising/ Public Relations. 148 .e. PRIYA MITTAL had undergone summer internship in “SAHAR SAMAY” a NEWS CHANNEL during a period of 5 weeks i. media mapping. Fact files though my internship last only for 60 days but the exposure and the experience being inculcated by the professionally managed media like “Ink Drop Media & PR” was above my expectations. media invites. My training program mainly includes media calling. Being a student of BJ (MC) and as a part of our course curriculum.

Visuals. CorelDraw etc. design and develop Ad campaigns In the advertising lab we did following assignment Analyze print ads In this assignment we analyze 5 print ads on the basis of Appeal. designing and develop Ad campaigns The main of this practical was that on completion of the programme students should be able to plan. Brand. Classified ad In this assignment we made a Classified advertisement with the use of soft wares like Photoshop.ADVERTISING LAB (24351) The Objective of the subject is to enhance the students learning for planning. CorelDraw etc. and Color Critically analyze print ads In this assignment we did critical analyses between the following  Two FMCG product advertisements  Two Consumer product advertisements  Service sector product advertisements Making of Display ad In this assignment we made a Display advertisement with the use of soft wares like Photoshop. Display classified ad 149 . Tagline.

We made are campaign on 4g services. CorelDraw etc. 150 . Making of Television commercial and Radio spot In this assignment we prepared a script for television advertisement and prepared a radio jingle.In this assignment we made a Display Classified advertisement with the use of soft wares like Photoshop. Ad campaign In this assignment we all made an ad campaign of our choice in the group of 4 people with our skill.

organize an event or exhibition. EVENT MANAGEMENT Event management is the application of project management to the creation and development of festivals. planning the logistics and coordinating the technical aspects before actually executing the modalities of the proposed event. Event companies  Percept  Cineyug entertainment  E-factor  Fountainhead  Cigma events At the end of the semester we all have organizeda Seminar on Topic Journalism is an Applicable or Theoretical approach. events and conferences. Post-event analysis and ensuring a return on investment have become significant drivers for the event industry. identifying the target audience. plan.EVENT MANAGEMENT LAB (24353) The Objective of the subject is to develop the students for preparing an event brief. develop relevant print and display material. Event management involves studying the intricacies of the brand. 151 . devising the event concept. minute-tominute programme and crisis management plan. I worked as the head of Anchoring committee and also gave a presentation on the subject.

152 .

Media Research is a Research focusing on the media consumption and product research. it’s a good rule of thumb to confirm that their service promise is backed by appropriate media. It’s important to ask if this potential business partner has certain capabilities in house and specific procedures in place—not simply access to an outsourced third-party who could in turn make their client’s business suffer. I CHOSE MY TOPIC AS-“REALITY SHOWS ARE REAL OR REEL?” The objective of my research was to know whether reality shows are real or reel? What people think about these shows? Are they scripted or real? 153 . many agencies claim that they “do media. research and management software and services. When considering an advertising and/or marketing agency.MEDIA RESEARCH LAB (24355) The Objective of the subject is to make students write and conduct media research by applying research techniques in media studies. A prime example is media. In this subject it is mandatory for all students to conduct a research.” when in actuality they don’t.

behavioural patterns. leadership styles. structure and functions of media organizations and importance of revenue generation via various media. has therefore. Management is a very popular term and has been used extensively for all types of activities and mainly for taking charges of different activities in any enterprise. Management functions  Planning  Organizing  Staffing  Directing  Co-Ordinating  Reporting  Budgeting HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING 154 . Management aims at guiding their efforts towards achieving a common objective. functions of management.MEDIA ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT (24302) The Objective of the subject is to make students able to describe the principles. been defined as a process of getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effectively and efficiently. Management. People in organization are performing diverse tasks but they are all working towards the same goal.

In other words.Human resource planning is a process of striking balance between human resource required and acquired in an organization. influence human behavior. it means the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve certain organizational goals. Media organizations: structure and functions 155 . A good leader always builds up his successor and helps in smooth succession process. drives. Leader plays a key role in introducing required changes in to organization. HRP is a process by which an organization determines how it should acquire its desired manpower to achieve the organizational goals. striving or needs of human being. clarifies and inspires people to accept changes whole-heartedly. He provides needed confidence. The importance of leadership can be discussed from the following benefits of the organization. In the context of organization.  Leadership influences the behavior of people and makes them to positively contribute their energies for the benefit of the organization. MOTIVATION Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move. The urge. Motivation is an internal feeling. which are internal. support and encouragement and thereby creates congenial work environment.  A leader maintains personal relations and helps followers in fulfilling their needs. IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is a key factor in making any organization successful. Motivation can be either positive or negative. aspiration.  Leader provides training to their subordinates. He persuades.

increases managerial efficiency. A Tool of Achieving Objectives: Organisation is a vital tool in the hands of the management for achieving set objectives of the business enterprise. MEDIA CONGLOMERATE 156 . motivates employees to perform their responsibility. It Ensures Optimum Use of Human Resources: Good organisation establishes persons with different interests. increases promptness.Media Organization is the foundation upon which the whole structure of Media management is built. Thus. Media Organization is related with developing a frame work where the total work is divided into manageable components in order to facilitate the achievement of objectives or goals. IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATION It Facilitated Administration and management: Media Organisation is an important and the only tool to achieve enterprise goals set b administration and explained by management. avoids delay and duplication of work. a Media organisation is a structure or machinery manned by group of individuals who are working together towards a common goal.egs how many reporters are needed to cover a particular beat. In a static sense. Mediaorganisation is the structure or mechanism (machinery) that enables living things to work together. knowledge and viewpoints. A soundorganisation increases efficiency. It Stimulates Creativity: A sound and well-conceived organisation structure is the source of creative thinking and initiation of new ideas. skills. expansion and diversifications of the enterprise. It Help in the Growth of Media Enterprise: Good organisation is helpful to the growth.

A media conglomerate. According to the 2011 Fortune 500 list. publishing. media group or media institution is a company that owns large numbers of companies in various mass media such as television. Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets across the globe. with News Corporation. Discovery Communications. Time Warner. The Walt Disney Company is America's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue. and the Internet. and Sony Corporation of America. CBS Corporation and Viacom completing the top 5. movies. radio. Sun-Times Media Group. Examples Some of the most well-known media conglomerates include: BBC. Other major players are NBC Universal. Time Warner 157 .

Bangladesh and     Nepal India and NAM India and SAARC India and UN India and ICTs India and some major concern like       Rapid Urbanization Major poverty alleviation programs Food Self-Sufficiency Indian Industry: An Overview Disinvestment and BPOs Indian Sports Scenario Security concern     India as a Nuclear Power India’s Defence Criminalization of Politics Naxalism 158 . India’s major concern. India’s security concerns and some major global issues. Srilanka. identify. This study is conducted to gain some knowledge and contribute to the society in a positive manner by researching and broadening their horizons of knowledge. discuss and explain various issues and concerns by differentiating and applying their knowledge in reforming the society In this subject we will have the broad study of India’s relation with foreign.CONTEMPORARY ISSUES (24304) The Objective of the subject is to enhance the students learning so that they can contribute to the society in a positive manner by researching and broadening their horizons of knowledge. The subject is having brief knowledge of  India’s Foreign Policy  India’s relations with its neighbours especially Pakistan.

Global issues     Terrorism and anti-terror measures Human Rights Issues Gender Issues Consumerism According to Modelski Foreign policies has been defined as the system of activities evolved by the communities for changing the behaviour of others state and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment. P S u e p a p c o e fr tu l t o s e t th le e m u n e i n t e d o f N INDIA’S RELATION WITH I a t n ti o e n r s n a t PAKISTAN i o n a l d i s p u t e 159 .

urban population in India was 62 million. cordial and friendly relation with Pakistan as well as with all the other countries in the world.Hindus and Muslims were 2 separate nations according to Jinnah and therefore the 2 states must be constituted as 2 different communities. Large numbers of young people in India are migrating because  Rural India is saturated  It cannot provide employment opportunities for growing population MAJOR POVERTY ELEVATION PROGRAMS  The national rural employment guartee scheme (NREGS)  Swaranjyanti gram swarojgaryojna (SGSY)  Swaranjyanti sehari rojgar yojna (SJSRJ)  Urban self employment program (USEP)  Urban women self help program (UWSP)  Skill training for employment promotion amongst urban poor (STEP UP) 160 . This partition has been described as the most unfortunate fact of the international politics. The condition became worst when Pakistan fought a war in 1965 and once again in 1971. it is Pakistan’s hatred for India that upset India’s desire to live in peace with its neighbour. which was 17 % of total population but by 2011 the urban population was 377 million which 31% of the total population is. India has consistently sought peace. INDIA AND MAJOR CONCERN RAPID URBANISATION In 1951. The circumstances and there consequences made inevitable a certain amount of disharmony between the 2 new states formed but it is not just disharmony.

despite this the GDP grew at the rate of 1. Urban wage employment program (UWEP)  Indira awaasyojna (IAY) INDIAN INDUSTRIES During 1980’s there was restricted growth of private sector. Therefore India during this phase lacked behind in terms of economic growth. 161 . Other factors like poverty and natural calamities lowered India’s economic growth which reduced the productivity.4% per annum. M IN IN G IN D U S T RY SO FTWA RE IN D U S T R Y PETROLE UM IN D U S T R Y M a jo r In d ia n In d u s trie s T E X T IL E IN D U S T R Y FOOD P R O C E S S IO N IN G IN D U S T R Y STE EL IN D U S T RY C H E M IC AL IN D U S T R Y CEM EN T IN D U S T RY Whereas most of the world flourished by overseas trade.

Whereas 7 other reactors are under construction and are expected to generate additional 5300 megawatt electricity. 162 . As of 2010 India has 20 nuclear reactors which are operating in 6 nuclear power plants. There are two types of nuclear reactions:  Nuclear fission  Nuclear fusion NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS IN INDIA Currently 20 nuclear power reactor produce 2780 megawatt energy and the major power stations are: Tarapur (maharastra) Narora Kalapakkum(tamil nadu) Kaiga(karnataka) Kakarapar(gujarat) Rawatbhatta(rajasthan) There are 5 projects under construction out of which two are in Tamil nadu. two in Rajasthan and 1 is in Gujarat. There was rise of 17% in exports during 1994 and 28% in 1996. By 2032 there is an ambitious plan to reach nuclear power capacity of about 63000 megawatt.Condition during 1980 to 1990’s: in 1994-95 the industrial output growth registered to be 8. generating 4780 megawatt electricity.4% and the export rose by 27% which resulted in 10% drop in inflation rate in mid1990”s. Condition during 1990’s to 2000: during this period India has opened several public sector enterprises. INDIA AS A NUCLEAR POWER Nuclear power is the 4th largest source of electricity in India and the other3 being thermal power. hydroelectricity and renewable sources of electricity.

Large area is still under naxal threat therefore our central and state government has to work much more to get rid of this problem. They looked landlord. private bankers and merchant distributed the well to poor farmers and labours. As this movement initiated from Naxalvadi therefore it was named as Naxal movement or Naxalism and the members of this movement are called Naxalites. This group took a name similar to a political party that is communist party of India (CPI) because they were highly motivated and inspired by Chinese communist party therefore they declared chairman Mao of china as there chairman of the party. Then Naxalites started terrorist activites in different parts of west Bengal priority. Initially it was started as a social movement but soon it became violent. in west Bengal. Originally this movement started as a revolt of farmers and poor people against powerful and rich land owner or we can say that this movement for poor and landless farmers and labours. Hare Krishna Konger. Charu Majumdar was the first need of this party and main leaders were KanuSanyal. They also robbed guns and weapons so as to become powerful persons in west Bengal. However not enough is done it needs vigorous effort to control this movement. HUMAN RIGHTS 163 . Soon they became unpopular and after some time in 80’s they again became popular and started terrorist activities again.NAXALISM This movement started in 1967 from a village “Naxalvadi”. were afraid of them. Therefore central government of india had to come out to save the state of west Bengal hence they send crpf to protect the state from violent activities. business man and traders industrialist.

disappeared. CONSUMERISM Consumerism is economically manifested in the chronic purchasing of new goods and services with little attention to their true need durability product origin or environmental consequences of manufacture and disposal. An independent United Nations expert in 2011 expressed concern that she found human rights workers and their families who "have been killed. In its report on human rights in India during 2010. threatened. and a civil liberties rating of 3. arbitrarily arrested and detained. ill-treated. Human Rights Watch stated India had "significant human rights problems". According to the United States Library of Congress. as well as separation of executive and judiciary and freedom of movement within the country and abroad. extrajudicial killings. 164 . The Constitution of India provides for Fundamental rights.The situation of human rights in India is a complex one. although human rights problems do exist in India. the 2010 report of Freedom in the World by Freedom House gave India a political rights rating of 2. and torture" as major problems. falsely charged and under surveillance because of their legitimate work in upholding human rights and fundamental freedoms. democratic republic. unlike other countries in South Asia. its status as a developing country and a sovereign. earning it the highest possible rating of free. tortured. which include freedom of religion. secular. the country is generally not regarded as a human rights concern. Based on these considerations. Clauses also provide for Freedom of Speech. as a result of the country's large size and tremendous diversity. They identified lack of accountability for security forces and impunity for abusive policing including "police brutality. and its history as a former colonial territory.

known as the south. The Great North-South Divide: The north. New World Information and Communication Order.south divide is a socio-economic and political division that exists between the wealthy developed countries. As nation become economically developed they may become part of the North regardless the geographical location while any other nation which do not qualify for the developed status are in effect seemed to be part of the south. anti-economic and anti-environmental agent.Materialism is one of the end results of consumerism. GLOBAL MEDIA SCENARIO (24306) The Objective of the subject is to make the students able to describe the North . The idea of categorizing countries by their economic and developmental status began during the cold war with the classification of East and West. Being categorized as part of the ‘north’ implies development as opposed to belonging to the ‘south’ which implies a lack. The main objective is the acceleration of discarding the old things or objects either because of lack of durability desire and change in fashion. known collectively as the north and the poorer developing countries. Consumerism proves to be an anti-social. Consumerism interferes with the normal working of society by replacing normal common sense desire for adequate supply of life necessity community life a stable and healthy family. The north 165 .South flow of information. Consumerism sets each person against themselves in endless quest for attainment of material things. contemporary global media scenario and the influence of global media on India.

AFP. education. Domination of transnational news agencies: Domination or hegemony is exercised by 5 transnational news agencies-AP. thus making the countries in the south dependent on them. UPI. Reuters and ITAR-TASS. They provide news about their culture. Big four transnational news agencies are: AFP (Agent France Press) AP (Associated Press) UPI (United Press International) Reuters Barriers in the flow of information  Communication restrains Lack of technology so services were quite expensive Tariffs Lack of infrastructure  News Pool 166 . TRANSATIONAL NEWS AGENCY These are the agencies which aimed at serving their people settle in other countries and also to propogate the policies of the respective countries.becomes synonymous with economic development and industrialization while the south represents the previously colonized countries which are in need of help. Nearly 80% of information was disseminated by these agencies. The statistics provide details of disparities that exists and the domination of north in the field of information. trade covering all the important trade of their region in their regional language.

within the perspective of the establishment of a new international economic order and the measures to be taken to foster the institution of a “new world information order” MacBride commission was chaired by Irish politician. One of its chief tasks was to “analyzecommunication problems. MacBride commission met 8 times at UNESCO. was appointed to study all manner of problems of communication in the world. economic and geographical zones. Yugoslavia. In addition it organized four round table discussions in Sweden. in their different aspects.  Lack of training  Political constraints MacBride Commission: The demand of non-aligned countries for a new international information order in UNESCO brought tension to a head at the organization’s General Conference in 1976. 167 . known as the ‘MacBride Commission’. diplomat and Nobel laureate Sean MacBride.NAM countries had the news pool and PTI was the one who uses collecting news from news pool. The 16 member commission comprised experts representing world diverse ideological. Due to lack of infrastructure there was information get delayed and did not reach on. where the formulation of a declaration on mass media topped the agenda. The International Commission for the study of communication problems. headquarter in Paris for facilitating discussions among its members. political. India and Mexico.

Recommendations: The development of third world countries so that they become truly independent and selfreliant and develop their cultural identities.  Tailoring national communication policies to suit the conditions in the country  Building Infrastructure 168 .

 Equitable distribution of common global communication resources
Better International news gathering and better conditions for journalist
 The commission recommendations ethical rules for the practice of journalism
 Improved journalism education
 Multiple news sources
Democratization of communication
 Abolition of censorship
 Editorial independence
 Limits on media concentration and monopolization
 Attention to the communication of women, children and minorities
 Facilitation of horizontal communication
Furtherance of international cooperation
 Effectuate previous proposal through international cooperation
 Support of regional fora and collaboration projects
An interaction center for research and planning of information and communication.

EMERGENCE OF GLOBAL VILLAGE OF MEDIA
The term first coined by Marshall McLuhan in 1960. A key element in McLuhan historical
overview of communication is that electric information is moving at the speed of light
creates new patterns of communication and social interaction.
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He describes this as “An instant implosion” that reverses the specialism of the literary age
and contracted the globe to a village in which “everybody lives in the utmost proximity
created by electric involvement in one another’s lives” (McLuhan.1964)
Electricity bringing information instantaneously from the four corners of the planet invests
distant events with a personal dimension. Though, they are occurring in one’s own
community. Communities across the globe become entwine in another’s affairs. Electrically
based media transform the role of individual society. A social grid of highly independent
individuals gives way to tribal pattern of intense involvement with one another and a return
to element of the oral traditions. The command over space reduces the entire globe to the
dimensions of a village a “Globe Village”.

DEMOCRATIZATION OF COMMUNICATION
Democratization can be defined as the process whereby: (a) the individual becomes an
active partner and not a mere object of communication; (b) the variety of messages
exchanged increases; and (c) the extent and quality of social representation or participation
in communication is augmented.
Communication, necessarily, reflects the nature of the society in which it operates-a society
that may well be in egalitarian and undemocratic. Thus, inequalities in wealth distribution
inevitably create disparities between those who are well-served and those who are deprived
in communication.
An important political factor, which can co-exist with formally, democratic institution is a
rigid, centralized and bureaucratic system of administration tends to shape a communication
system with the same defects. The modernization of communication technologies makes
popular control or vital, but also more difficult. The development of large scale information
system data banks leads to amassing huge amount of data of essential importance in
scientific, economic and political spheres.

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Diversity and choice in the context of communication are an obvious requirement in any
democratic system, Even though this is not the only requirement and even though it does not
automatically ensures democratization. Every individual should be able to form his
judgment on the basis of a full range of information and the presentation of variety of
opinions.
TRANSATIONAL MEDIA AND INDIA
THE last two decades have witnessed a dramatic transformation of India's ‘mediascape' – a
term first used by Arjun Appadurai, an academic of Indian origin based in the United States,
to describe how visual imagery impacts the
world and to describe and situate the role of the mass media in global cultural flows. From
the early 1990s, when the working of the Indian economy was liberalised, the media has
expanded as never before with the advent of new communication technologies and the
burgeoning of the urban middle classes, whose consumerist aspirations made them targets
for advertisers.

India has the largest number of newspapers/publications in comparison with any country in
the world. The growth in the number of television channels has been exponential. In 1991,
there was one public broadcaster, Doordarshan. At present, over 600 TV channels have been
permitted by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting to uplink or downlink from the
country.

But quantity has not translated into quality. Defying conventional norms of capitalism, the
intensification of competition in the media has been accompanied by a discernible lowering
of ethical standards. The race to grab eyeballs has seen a simultaneous ‘dumbing down' of
content as TV channels have become prisoners of a highly inadequate and flawed system of
ascertaining audience sizes through TRPs (television rating points). With rules getting
changed to attract foreign capital, it was hardly surprising that one of the first transnational
media corporations to enter India in 1991 after was the Rupert Murdoch-controlled STAR
(Satellite Television Asia Region) group.
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STAR Utsav and joint venture channels such as Asianet. among others. and a successful adaptation of an international game show (“KaunBanegaCrorepati”. He was one of the first to introduce a music TV channel in India (Channel [V]). STAR Vijay. STAR One. It claims it has the largest number of viewers (around 170 million every week) for its 32 channels in eight languages. STAR Gold. Sky News. Channel V.The STAR India group is one of the biggest (in terms of turnover) media conglomerates in the country. ESPN and STAR Sports. 172 .The success of Murdoch's Indian ventures has relied on his smart blending of commercial and Western methods with a localised approach. The success of Murdoch’s STAR TV in India is one of the combative and until recently lightly regulated broadcasting markets has largely been achieved through their skilled fully prioritized the local over the global. STAR Movies. Fox Crime. STAR News. STAR World. an Indian version of the British “Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?”). STAR Jalsha. including STAR Plus. a 24×7 news network (STAR News). STAR Pravah. FX.

Brief of the documentary My main interest was to Limelight the problems faced by the people of Tibet. In this project we had to submit 2 projects that is one documentary and one research project on the theme approved by the Director of our college. as they are staying in India without citizenship and wants to go back in free Tibet that’s why I made the documentary with the help of our teachers and my team members on a topic that is “SONG FOR TIBET” Research The topic of my research is “Internet as an online shopping zone” I choose this topic because online shopping sites are increasing rapidly in India and want to survey that whether people of India adapt this or they still feel like going to market for shopping.FINAL PROJECT (24352) The Objective of the subject is to make students write and conduct media research by applying research techniques in media studies along with the documentary shoot by assigning different subject/theme to them. 173 .

174 .