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Marketing is viewed by the common man as a tool through which companies

advertise and sell their products. In this age of incessant communication through
television, radio, internet, billboards, newspapers and mobile phones, customers are
bombarded with advertisements. This leads to a perception that companies are
intruding into people's personal space and are pushing products through aggressive
advertisement campaigns. A fact highlighted by Gaski and Etzel’s (2005) 1 research
on consumer sentiment toward marketing in developing countries , which suggests
that although consumer sentiment towards marketing has improved it still remains
negative ( -4.5 on a scale ranging from -200 to 200). However, the general
perception of marketing among consumers can be partly attributed to the fact that
they perceive marketing only as sales and advertisement. But then, what is
marketing?
Kotler P. and Armstrong G. (Principles of marketing, 2011) 2 define marketing as the
process by which companies create value for customers and build strong customer
relationships in order to capture value from customers in return. Marketers, today,
however are more concerned with creating value for the company and its
stakeholders than creating value for the customer. Working under pressure to
remain competitive and prosper, marketing has increasingly become competition
driven than customer driven. In its vigor to meet corporate goals marketing has
veered from its original aim of meeting customer and societal goals. However, as
Seth and Shishodia (2007)3, suggest , marketers should not pander to the demands
of the senior management and must rise above the pressure to create quick gains.
It is of importance for marketing that it reclaims its mantle as the overseer of
customer’s interest and that it focuses on long term sustainable results.
What should be the role of marketing? Should it be used to design creative
advertisement for a new product or to be the front line in decision making with
regards to making the new product? It is important that marketing should be seen
as an engine of growth and not just a support function. While remaining competitive
is vital in today's rapidly changing business environment, the primary role of
marketing should be to be the custodian of customer's interest.
Understanding the pulse of the nation, identifying societal factors and increasing
the value of the product, utilitarian or emotional, are very important for companies
to create long lasting results. This can be witnessed in the way Cadbury India (now
Mondelez India) marketed its flagship brand ‘Cadbury Dairy Milk’.
A brilliant marketing campaign by Cadbury India helped the company break barriers
and change consumer behaviour. Cadbury India, which enjoys 70% of India's
chocolate market, has shown remarkable growth in the past decade. Much of this
can be attributed to its innovative and intelligent marketing strategy. Starting 2005,
Cadbury launched its most successful advertisement campaign “Kuch Meetha Ho
Jaye", translated - let's have something sweet, 'meetha’ is an Indian word which is
traditionally applied to the local sweets. Through this campaign Cadbury aimed to

If marketers fail to understand their target segment and design marketing campaigns without considering societal and economical factors it generally leads to unsavoury results.300 till January this fiscal year. with the belief that it leads to favourable outcome. Ratan Tata launched the Nano. particularly the middle class. The campaign connected emotionally with the audience and sales of chocolates increased dramatically during Indian festivals. After consistently branding ‘Cadbury Dairy Milk’ as ‘meetha’ for five years. which immediately connected with the audience and became a huge hit.000 till January 2015 as against annual capacity of 250. political. According to the same report. in 2010 Cadbury launched its ‘Shubh Aarambh’ ( translated – Auspicious Beginning ) campaign. the primary reason behind Nano not living up to its initial hype is its poor positioning among the buyers. A report by Indian Express 4. buy a car for its aspiration value and not for its utilitarian value. highlights the dismal performance of the "people's car". He hoped that this car would help millions of Indians upgrade from a two wheeler to a four wheeler. What caused the failure of Nano? Other than the technical glitches that created a sense of doubt with regards to its reliability and durability. It’s customary in India to eat something sweet before every auspicious occasion. as a cheap car. Ratan Tata envisioned a people's car. less than a quarter of the sales in 2012-13. The former chairman of Tata Group. If good marketing can open new frontiers for business and change product perception a bad marketing strategy can jeopardize the best products. a compact hatchback manufactured by Tata Motors. Indians. Tata Motors had managed a cumulative sale of only 260. There is best highlighted in the failure Tata Nano.000 units at its Sanand Plant.000 ($1600) and that the burgeoning middle class of India could afford. between January and December 2011 the company reported its highest growth in sales and net profit. social and technological. suggested that Nano would expand India's car market by 65%. Sales of Tata Nano dipped to a six year low. amidst huge fanfare and publicity. Nano’s positioning in the market as the cheapest car and the next upgrade from a two-wheeler didn’t work well with the . the reality today is far from the initial expectations and enthusiasm. India. Even before its launch Nano triggered speculations of the way it would change India's automobile industry.position chocolate as an alternative to the traditional sweet or ‘meetha’. The used car market saw a dip of 25-30% in the price of low cost cars such as Maruti 800 and Alto. a car that would cost only Rs 100. a meager 13. However. In January 2008. a global anlytical comany. According to a report published in the Economic Times (July 2012). There were apprehensions that it would swell the already congested roads in cities and towns of India. With this dream he pursued the Nano project against all odds. one of India's leading newspapers. A 2008 report by CRISIL. Cadbury India witnessed a 30% increase in its sales from the year 2004-2011.

indianexpress. . ETZEL* http://jcr. .cnn.masses. 1 (National Aggregate Consumer Sentiment toward Marketing: A Thirty-Year Retrospective and Analysis JOHN F.. 3 Jagdish N. Upper Saddle River.rather than being obsessed with benefiting shareholders marketers should be the torchbearers of customer interest.pdf ) 2 KOTLER. ARMSTRONG.. The facelift Nano. P. was launched in 2015.oxfordjournals.com/2012-0703/news/32523825_1_cadbury-india-anand-kripalu-cadbury-portfolio http://www. Sisodia (2007) Raising Marketing's Aspirations 4 http://indianexpress.economictimes. (2011).blogs. M.Primary role of marketing should be to be the custodian of customer's interest. branded ‘Genx Nano’.confectionerynews. This forced Tata Motors to give Nano a makeover and reposition it as an urban suave car.com/2012/01/17/who-consumes-the-mostchocolate/ http://archive. It rather made the other budget hatchbacks look good. Sheth and Rajendra S. loaded with features and doubly priced.com/reports/2422487/india_chocolate_market_forec ast_and http://articles.com/article/business/business-others/sales-of-tata-nanoworlds-cheapest-car-set-to-hit-six-year-lows/ http://thecnnfreedomproject.As Seth and Shishodia (2007).com/Markets/Rural-India-chocolate-market-set-forgrowth How to remain competitive and prosper? Should marketing be competition driven or customer driven? Why is there a conflict between marketing practice and marketing concepts? . H. GASKI MICHAEL J.indiatimes. NJ : Pearson Prentice Hall. What is yet to be seen is whether ‘Genx Nano’ can erase the cheap car tag its predecessor succumbed to.full. G.org/content/jcr/31/4/859.researchandmarkets. suggest . marketers should not pander to the demands of the senior management and must rise above the pressure to create .com/news/indians-get-sweet-on-chocolates/972675/ http://www. & CUNNINGHAM. Principles of marketing.

markets. is among one of the lowest in the world. http://articles. challenge the status quo innovate and use market insights integrate across domains execute .com/2014-09-19/news/54109107_1_hulpepsodent-lifebuoy http://unicef. 22/april 2014 to 28 april 2014 and 25th july 2014 to 4th august 2014 and 20th october 2014 to 29th october 2014 and 12 march 2015 to 1 april 2015 and 28th may 2014 till date vinodkumarmunoli@lthousingfinance. the chocolate market is growing at a confident 15% per year and is set to reach $3. at 100gms. or business models? To provide a common language and a means to measure results. Part of this can be attributed to the growing gift culture in India and also to the increase in per capita income.mobilize people and get things done * Marketing should be seen as an engine for growth and not just as a support function what should be the role of marketing ? should it be used to design creative advertisement for a new product or to be the front line in decision making with regards to making the new product.com .indiatimes.quick gains.in/Story/1125/Water--Environment-and-Sanitation Per capita chocolate consumption in India .economictimes.120gms per annum. However. Indians although fond of traditional milk based sweets have historically not been chocolate eaters. In its vigor to meet corporate goals marketing has veered from its original aim of meeting customer and societal goals. How success would look like and how to measure results? How to calibrate marketing efforts across units. It is of importance for marketing that it reclaims its mantle as the overseer of customers interest and that it focuses on long term sustainable results.2 billion by 2018.

M. ARMSTRONG.KOTLER. H. . (2011). G. P. Upper Saddle River.. Principles of marketing. & CUNNINGHAM.. NJ : Pearson Prentice Hall.