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# Jordan University of Science and

Technology
Mechanical engineering department
Thermo-Fluid

Student Name: ‫عل ء هاني شللخ‬
Student Number: 20132025020
Exp. Name: Impact Jet (exp#2)
Subject
Introduction
Theory
Apparatus & Procedure
Data & Calculation
Table & Figures
Discussion
Conclusion

Mark

and the flow rate is comparatively small. we measure the force generated by a jet of water striking a flat plate or a hemispherical cup. but a different type of turbine would then be needed. such turbines can generate considerable output at high efficiency. It may be noted that the Pelton wheel is best suited to conditions where the available head of water is great. we need to understand how the deflection of the jet generates a force on the buckets. are not uncommon. and compare the results with the computed momentum flow rate in the jet The objective of this experiment is: 1. and how the force is related to the rate of momentum flow in the jet. For example. The same water power would be available if the head were only 10 m and the flow were 10m^3/s. Although the concept is essentially simple. causing it to rotate and to develop power. Introduction: Water turbines are widely used throughout the world to generate power. To measure jet force on a hemisphere 3. and hydraulic efficiencies greater than 95%. Powers in excess of 100 MW. To predict the output of a Pelton wheel. and to determine its optimum rotational speed. In the type of water turbine referred to as a Pelton wheel. To measure jet force on a flat plate 2. In this experiment. one or more water jets are directed tangentially on to vanes or buckets that are fastened to the rim of the turbine disc. a Pelton wheel running at some 250 rev/min could be used to develop about 900 kW. with a head of 100 m and a flow rate of 1 m^3/s. To compare the results with theory  Theory: . The impact of the water on the vanes generates a torque on the wheel.

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The actual flow of water can be measured using the volumetric tank with a stopwatch . 4. 2.Water is filled into the volumetric tank of the hydraulic bench until approximately 90% full. 5.Fully close the bench flow control valve. 3.The apparatus is located on top of the Hydraulic Bench with the left hand support feed of the Impact of Jets Apparatus located on the two left hand locating pegs of the Hydraulic Bench so that the apparatus straddles the weir channel. V1then switch on the pump.Open V1 gradually and allow the piping to fill with water until all air has been expelled from the system. 6.The feed tube is connected from the Hydraulic Bench to the base of the Impact of Jets Apparatus by using a hose. Apparatus & Procedure: 1.A spirit level is about to attached to base board and level the unit on top of the bench by adjusting the feet. 7.

3. 2. Water-pumping table with a weighting device to find the mass rate of flow. Timing mechanism  Data & Calculation: .we will only use a flat plate & a hemi sphere one 1. A force-balancing device for finding the resultant force on the vane.Cross-sectional area of nozzle (a○) = 78.Water density = 1000 kg/m3 .5 mm2 . A nozzle to from vertical jet which is deflected by a flat plate and hemispherical vane.Diameter of nozzle = 10 mm . 4.

1 F'y Calculations:: M = 6Kg.484 kg .93 3.6 16.1 Fw=0.0 25. 1) For flat plate:β=0o . h2-h1=0.0 15.06035m .75 5.0 17.High of the vane above the tip of nozzle (s) = 35 mm Table (1): The data for flat plate and hemispherical vane.Acceleration of gravity = 9. Flat Plate Hemispherical Vane Time (sec) X (cm) Time (sec) X (cm) 14.5 6 22.15 m .81m/s2 .Mass of jockey weight =0.0 2.15m Fig.93 4.4 8 19.58 2.7 4 29.0 20..0 33.5886Kg X 0.6 10.46 1.Distance from center of vane to pivot of lever = 0.

. h2-h1=0. h3-h1=0.06035m.*Theoretical Fy :- *Experimental F'y :- 2) Hemisphere vane:β=90o.03018m *Theoretical Fy :- .

14*10*10^-3*8. force for the flat plate Error = (theo – exp )/exp Error = (2.1792 67 2.4067 8 5.37 ** Error between the exp & theo. Time (sec) X (cm) M*(kg/s ) V1(m/s ) Fy (N) F'y (N) 14.46% Tables & figures: table (2): shows the results of calculation for flat plate jet.13112= 3.9*10^-4) = 5822.40678 )/(3.*Experimental F'y :- Re number = 4*m’ / (3.) =(4*0.0597 98 2.14*D*visc.1311 2 .059798)/2.75 5 0.13112-2.

4 1.1546 7 22.93 3 0.5862 2 table (3): shows the results of calculation for hemispherical vane.8970 64 3.9725 37 1.15035 2 2.6 10.4 0.9724 4 29.2 .31732 0.23346 3 2.80847 9 0.34482 8 4.8 1 1.81106 2 20.08976 0.2657 22 3.3010 54 3.5 6 25.6 1.2036 66 2.3904 71 2.5 0 0.1065 02 1.58 2 0.93 4 0.8331 26 1.35612 9 1.46 1 0.6 0.73648 7 4.1 2.4793 88 0.5931 5 0.8512 41 0.5 flat 1 0.5519 87 1.3544 4.38461 5 4.4 8 0.5 2 1.3149 76 0.29268 3 3.8 2 2.54488 0.3832 68 0.7 4 33 2.09393 2 17.99724 1 3.18181 8 2.16.2 1.7265 46 2.6 0. Time (sec) X (cm) M*(kg/s) V1(m/s ) Fy (N) F'y (N) 15.7448 8 19.5123 56 1.

1 exp 0.5 2 1.5 theo.5 2 2.(figure 2)(flat plate F theo VS F exp) 5 4 3 sphere 2 1 0 0.5 4 (figure 3)(hemi-sphere F theo VS Fexp) 2.5 1 1.5 3 3.5 0 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 60000 (figure 4)(flat plate F theo & F exp VS Re) .

731093 2.318471 6.35351 AVG Table 5 (percentage error between the theo & exp force in hemisphere) error 8.462573 12.5 4 3 theo. 1 0 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 60000 (figure 5)(hemi-sphere F theo & F exp VS Re) Table 4 (percentage error between the theo & exp force in flat plate) error 3.994375 7.2934 AVG .353178 14.20522 12.28508 11.42878 4.21784 0.23792 22. 2 exp.

this seen from figure (3) too. that the force applied on the hemispherical vane (cup) is greater than the force that applied on the flat plate jet. the distance of jet from the nuzzle. from the calculations you can see too. Discussion: We were doing this experiment on two kinds of jet. that are flat plate (with β=0o) and hemispherical vane (with β=90o).292N. experimentally and theoretically methods. when we apply fluid flow on any jet (plate or sphere).9%. and the fluid that we used . and when you applies theoretical method in the same sample you will gets F'y=2. from this we can see that these two values very close to author. if you applies the experimentally method in first sample you will gets Fy=2. for example.1242N. so the error equals to 7. kind of the jet itself. Also. and this force depends on the value of the flow rate. and in our calculations or from the figures (2) we can see that the force could be found from two methods. this pushes the jet by a force.  Conclusion: First thing that concluded from this experiment.