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Geography 5 Review for Midterm STUDY HARD!!!!!!!! Thanks!

Class Lectures
Did the Greeks know the earth was round? How three ways
Biome
Where is it?
Why is it there?
Plant adaptations?
Do we have it in California? Conservation Status?
Tundra or Alpine
Boreal Forest
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Temperate Grassland
Mediterranean Scrub: WHERE ARE THEY 5 places
Tropical Rain Forest
Tropical Dry Forest
Tropical Savanna
Desert: Hot and Cold
Orographic Precipitation, Rain shadow
ITCZ (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone)
Epiphytes
Lianas
How are plants adapted to the Mediterranean climate
How are Mediterranean plants adapted to fire
Origin of People and YOU Know the order of your ancestors.
DNA
Adenine-thymine and cytosine-guanine AT and CG short
TA-CG-CG-AT-GC
Eve age (mitochondrial DNA), Adam age (Y Chromosome)
Megafauna
Paul Martins Overkill or Munch Hypothesis:
What are 5 Megafauna that used to be in LA
Megafauna in OZ: Learn 5 big extinct species
New Zealand 1,000 years ago
Moa and Mauri
Island Gigantism and Dwarfism: Examples
1650 billion
1820 1 billion
1930 2 billion (Grandparents)
1975 4 billion
2000 6 billion
2011 7 billion
Thomas Malthus Theory
How have family planning programs changed to Now (local, women, access based)
What happen to Cuba Agriculture after the Soviet Union dissolved?
Current Status of Population by Region: Awesome Places, Bad Places
Measles & Tuberculosis: Cattle
Flu: Pigs and ducks
HIV/AID: Monkey
PHV/Venereal warts: Statistical Fact: 30 to 50% in US, Urban area 80%
Herpes (20%) and Syphilis (less then 1%): HIV/AIDS 1 in 300 people US

Agriculture
Where from, How grown, Ecological Impact
Spices (Cloves)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum)
Sugar (Saccharum officinarum)
Cacao (Theobroma cacao) The food of the Gods Aztec name.
Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Coffee (Coffea arabica)
Organic
Shade Coffee
Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis)
Bananas (Musa spp.)
Orange (Citrus sp.)
Apples
Kiwi (China)
Watermelon (Africa)
Cerals
Maize (Zea mays)
Wheat (Triticum)
Rice (Oryza sativa)
Pineapple (Ananas cosmsus)
Orange (Citrus sp.) where from?
Opium Poppy (Papaver somniferum)
Coco (Erthroxylum coca)
Coca is first in calories, protein, carbohydrates, fiber
Rich in calcium, phosphorous, iron, vitamin A and E
How do you make a zombie?
Number 1 cash Crop in California
Exports from California: Big Five Crops in Cali:
Genetically Modified Food: Franken Food: Good things about it?
What is Ethnobotany?
What did the California Indians use it for?
BE ABLE TO Match the use to the name!

Oaks (Quercus sp.)


USE: Acorns were the primary food source for a number of California Indians. Acorns were
collected, leached with water in stream and basket to remove tannins (Wine) then heated with
rocks for mush.
Elderberry (Sambucus sp.)
USE: One of the richest sources of vitamin C! Stems used for arrow shaft and flutes. Raw berry
can cause nausea, but dried or cooked are OK.
Laurel Sumac (Rhus sp.)
USE: Indians would use the leave as mosquito repellent. Lemonade Berry (Rhus intergrifolia)
has berries that are soaked and hairs removed to make pink lemonade.
Yucca, Our Lords Candle (Yucca sp.)
USE: The leaves are very strong and used for water proof baskets. The leaves were used as a
needle and thread to make clothes and homes. The root is used for soap.
Cactus (Opuntia sp.)
USE: The red fruits are edible but watch for very small spines. The green leaf can be cooked and
eaten and is still commonly done in LA.
Willow (Salix sp.)

USE: The leave of willow is what they make asprin from and the Indians would chew them for
toothaches.
California Buckeye.
USE: The seeds were ground to a fine dust and put in the stream to catch fish.
California Coastal Sage (Artemesia californica)
USE: Burned for ceremonial reasons.
Temperate Forest Policy in the US
1891 Forest Reserve Act
1960 Multiple Use and Sustained Use Act: Five things
1964 Wilderness Act
What is Clear cutting (4 things)
Problems with clear cutting (4 things)
United States Department of Agriculture: National Forest Service
Department of the Interior: National Park Service, BLM, US Fish and Wildlife
Land ownership
Private, Non-profit
Native America
State and Local
Federal

%
55
3
7
35

1.3 Billion dollar lost a year in the 80s


How do these groups protect forest: Nature Conservancy, Sierra Club, Earth First/ ELF
Redwood : Tallest Tree. Today 96%cut: 4% left. 2% private, 2% federal or state
Sequoias: Largest Tree
Ancient Bristle Cone Pine: Oldest Tree (4,800 years)
How have forests changed in the West over the last 100 years
Roadless Areas # highways in U.S.# logging roads in U.S.
Fire Policy, Problems, Choices
Why are urban trees good and bad
Million Trees LA What is it?
Three things that define old growth forest.
What is going on with Forests in Canada, Oregon, California, and Sumatra? Based on Landsat
Tropical Vegetation Types
Why Tropical Forest lost over the last 50 years?
Subsistence Agriculture
Commercial Agriculture
Forest Fires in the Tropics
Fuel Wood
Living fences
Timber
Mahogany in South America
Forest Fragmentation: Selective Extinction, Species area relationship, Non-native invasions
Biodiversity Hotspots: What, Where, Why Interesting?
Watch: Worlds Most Endangered Forest on You Tube and answer the below
What is the world most endangered forest?
Why is New Caledonia interesting in a botanical sense?
What is the crested iguana of Fiji and why is it important?
What is interesting about Native Fijian and Indo-Fijians?
How do you reconstruct vegetation from Hawaii?
What can be done to reforest the worlds most endangered forest?
% of trees on Endangered Species list from worlds most endangered forest?

Grassland History:Evolved Ecocene 37 mil. (new school) radiation of mammals


herbivores
What are native California grasses and grasslands like? What are non-native grasses and
grasslands like?
Buffalo
Old Megafauna that survived: 1800 68 million (Herd 25 miles, ) 1870-1875 2.5 million
buffalo killed annually, 1883 the last large herd containing about 10,000 buffalo was
slaughtered.1890, less than 1000 buffalo remained in the U.S. Today 200,000 exist in
public and private herds in the U.S. and Canada.
Vernal Pools
Historic Central Valley, Riverside, San Diego
Central Valley hard pan. Depressions hold water
Winter rains and pond
Dries, Rings of different color plants, Rainbow
200 sp. vernal places, Endemic
Impact
Oak Woodlands
Oaks in Grasslands
20 sp. Half endemic
MAP Section
Latitude. Equator and Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, Long. Points lines up.
Make Sure to Include Nice Outline of Continents
South (East) America
Baja and Florida
Cuba
N America and South America lined up properly: SE America
Hudson Bay
Greenland
Europe and Africa Lined UP
Madagascar
Three Peninsulas Saudi, India, Malaysia
Two Gulfs: Red Sea and Persian Gulf
SE ASIA: Three Bumps SEASIA China, Korea
Islands: Sumatra, Java, Borneo, New Guinea, OZ, New Zealand, Japan, Philippines, Hawaii
Book Questions
Name three highly developed, moderately developed, and less developed countries.
How many earths would we need if everyone consumed the same level as the United States?
The current restoration project in the Florida Everglades is using all but which one of the
following strategies?
What is interesting about the city Curitiba, Brazil?
What are minerals and economic geology?
The 18th century British economist Thomas Malthus said that _____grows exponentially, while
_____ grows in a linear fashion. He predicted this would cause _____.
An age structure diagram that represents rapid growth for a population looks like a _____.
What is a Wildlife corridor:

Forest covers what percent of the Earth (land area):


Sustainable Development considers tree important factors because:
Define sustainable agriculture and some good examples of it.
The IPAT equation refers to:
An activity that is sustainable by definition should:
The role organisms in soil is:
What percent of the world's soil is suitable for agriculture?
The main world food problems are:
The Green Revolution is:
The scientific community have conclusive evidence to agree that Genetically Modified Foods are:
One of the worst problems with pesticides is that:
Nomadic herding is:
What is voluntary simplicity?
What does worldview mean?
What is the difference between National Forests, National Parks, and National Wildlife Refuges?
What are the percentages of forest ownership in the USA?
What is going on in the Tongass today?
Who is Julia Butterfly and why is she cool?
What is Species Richness?
What are ecosystem services of forest and grasslands?
What is bird friendly coffee?