CHENNAI- THE FUTURISTIC CITY OF DREAMS

PROJECT BY♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

PARTH JOSHI VIBHUTI GUPTA VAIBHAV DWIVEDI SAKSHI PAREEKH

INTRODUCTION

The future of our cities is dependent on the actions of today. In particular achieving cities that are sustainable is an imperative in our rapidly urbanizing world. The predictions are that by 2020 61% of population will be urban. Cities must be economically viable, socially equitable and contribute to environmental protection of all species: adhering to the concept of the 3 PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTS. We will be discussing now emerging conceptual ideas work when put into practice through a range of policies and planning strategies with ultimate objective of achieving urban sustainability. While CHENNAI has always experienced varying degrees of indiscriminate and unregulated change, it is suggested that a consented effort should be made to incorporate the city’s distinctiveness and evolving nature into a strategy of urban sustainability. Establishing the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainability can contribute to the recovery of a city’s urban spirit and the reemergence of a clear delineation between the currently blurred boundaries of the rural and the urban. Development should be such that the households and companies are within the reach of activity locations either without moving, or on foot, by bicycle or by public transport, or by making more efficient and cleaner use of private cars

Achieving a successful, sustainable city region can Only be achieved with a shift of focus in policy from the compact

City to the wider regional scale. Sustainable objectives include the efficient Use of land, good accessibility to employment, and key services

And facilities through public transport use, walking and cycling, High density would seem to be a fundamental prerequisite. However, the design of the sustainable urban form Cannot be restricted to high-density development alone. Lower densities are a reality in many places and it is suggested that they will continue to be. Sustainable design must then be adaptable to the specific requirements of a particular urban form, be it high or low density.

URBAN SPRAWL
"Sprawl" is the increased use of urbanized land by fewer people than in the past. Traditional cities were compact and efficient, but over the past 30-50 years, the density of land used per person has declined drastically.

IMPACTS OF URBAN SPRAWL
1. Loss of Farmland 2. Loss of wildlife habitats. 3. Increased TAX Burden. 4. Increased air pollution 5. Increased water use and pollution 6. Increased energy consumption 7. Social fragmentation 8. Loss of time 9. Increased private costs and risks 10. Loss of exercise 11. Degraded and noisy surroundings 12. Damage to tourism industry  In Chennai, urban sprawl is becoming one of the most dominant problem of chennai,as this city is increasing at fringe of an urban area over rural land.  As a result, several people have settled down in lake areas and in dry beds of water bodies. The reason being that it is cheaper to buy land and build a small shelter on. Over the years, these houses get bigger. The unauthorised occupation of lakes, tanks, canals and water bodies has only accentuated the problems for those who have built their homes on approved layouts.  Madhavaram and Valasaravakkam are classic examples of this civic dilemma. These burgeoning residential localities have

elected local bodies that possess neither the funds nor the technology or expertise to deal with the sewage problem. In rainy days, entire neighbourhoods are flooded with a mixture of rainwater and sewage. This has ensured that property costs plummet down as seen in parts of Madipakkam, Velachery and Madhavaram or Valasaravakkam. Many hesitate to buy a house or land in a place where three or four feet of water stagnates for two weeks during the monsoon. Bad roads, traffic congestion and inadequate parking space are among the major problems faced by residents.

Facts & Figures supporting these problems…………
 The bus transport is being operated by Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC), which had a fleet strength of 2,773 buses in 2004. They operate 537 routes and carry 36 lakhs trips/day.  There is acute overcrowding in buses during peak hours. The overloading is as high as 150% in certain routes as the supply is inadequate. As a result, overcrowding at the bus stops and spillover on the carriageways has become common. The waiting time at the bus stops has also increased. The

number of goods vehicles in Chennai has increased from 6,671 in 1980 to 32629 in 2005.  Totally 20 international flights per day are operated from Chennai. The Indian Airlines operate daily 140 flights, which result in 12,500 trips.  The total number of motor vehicles in CMA has increased from 144,282 in 1984 to 1,674,185 in 2005. The vehicle population has grown at the rate of 50% per annum during this period. The number of two-wheelers has grown enormously from 87,000 in 1984 to 1,266, 114 in 2005, at the rate of about 65% per annum. Two-wheelers constitute 76% of the total vehicle population (67% in Delhi, 41.5% in Mumbai and 43% in Calcutta). The number of motorcars has also increased significantly.  In a group of 100, 38 travels by bus, 4 by train, and 30 by walk, 14 by cycle, 7 by two-wheeler, 2 by car and 5 by other modes. The fatality rate is also high at 40 per 10,000 vehicles. Forty-two percent of accidents involve pedestrians and 10% cyclists.  On an average, about 425 new vehicles are put on the roads every day without corresponding increase in memorable road space. The increase in road space accounts for only 3 to 4% of the total area, which is of very low order when compared with 11% in Bangkok and 20-25% in developed cities such as London, Paris or New York.  The State Transport Corporations similarly operate daily 4160 arrivals and departures, which result in another 1.66 lakhs trips • Slums A slum is an overcrowded and squalid district of a city or town usually inhabited by very poor people. Slums can be found in most large cities around the world. Slums are usually characterized by: I. high rates of poverty and II. Unemployment Slums are breeding centers for many social problems such as crime, drugs, alcoholism and despair. And in many poor countries they are also breeding centers for disease due to unsanitary conditions . The Term ‘slum’ speaks volumes about the plight of the urban poor. Though not all is well with life in urban areas, the rural poor migrate from rural areas to urban areas reaming of acomfortable life there. True, it is something different but not better than what they experience in their villages. Once they step into the city, they suffocate. The pure air, water and healthy and spacious living place which they enjoyed in their place of origin (rural) are all denied to them in cities and towns.

 1427 slums in Chennai. 1231 are developed slums and 242 are undeveloped slums. Estimations indicate that the slum families in undeveloped slums work out to 1.08 lakhs; out of which 72,827 families are living in objectionable slums. Estimations also shows that there are about 37,000 families in unobjectionable areas and further there are 6150 families who live in slum conditions in the encroached parts of the tenement areas which have been reserved as parks, public purpose sites etc • Chennai has highest crime rate amongst women from 23 mega cities in India. • Despite installation of a waste-to-power plant in Koyambedu, solid waste management is still a problem in the vegetable market. Decaying vegetables, leaves, flowers and fruits can be found lying uncleared on most days. Much of this biodegradable garbage is left unutilised. We need improvement not only in garbage collection but in overall market maintenance. • Encroachments in the market contribute to lack of proper garbage disposal. The situation worsens during rains, posing health hazards.

SOLUTION
I. CLUSTER ZONES to end urban sprawl
The Cluster zones is a land-use-cum-financial model for promoting balanced growth. A city or a town may be divided into a number of such zones, depending on the expected investment opportunity, present land use, population density and carrying capacity of the land. A town can be divided into small modules and infrastructure such as water and electricity supply for the population in the area needed to be taken care of. There also needs to be an idea about the number of vehicles coming in and going out of this module. A standard needs to be developed for a module. The idea is to provide an inner city development focus and not to spread out development.

We have estimated the main area of an cluster zone as the High Density Pedestrianised Core, where about 60 per cent of the people are involved in daily activities such as going to work, going to school, shopping for essentials, everyday essential services, recreation and sports and cultural activities, all of which will be within a walking distance of 500 m. This area will have a high floor-area ratio of 5 with coverage of less than 25 per cent. Hence, it will have large open areas and playgrounds within this half-a-kilometers distance. There will be no automobiles in the area — only cycles and tricycles for goods, the disabled and the elderly. Parking facilities will be provided on the periphery. That top infrastructure be provided in the core area with good road links from the main road and mass rapid transport lines. The local authority can sell the developed land in the high-density area to builders to develop mid- and high-end housing and mixed-use facilities. The local body can meet cost of purchase of land for housing for economically weaker sections, for service areas such as solid and liquid waste management, rainwater storage and other development. Economically weaker sections need to find accommodation, recreation and education near their workplaces. A Environ zone (EZ) has been proposed to conserve natural heritage features such as forests, wetlands, beaches, coastal areas, paddy fields, rivers, lakes and ponds. Private owners of such areas can be given compensation for transfer of the development. Land for service areas is important as there need to be space for footpaths, streetlights, storm-water lines, water tanks, pump houses, water supply main lines, decentralized solid waste, sewage and liquid waste treatment areas and buffer zones for unavoidable hazardous industries or chemical storage and transfer. Parks, playgrounds and community open spaces can be in and around the high-density core. After land is reserved for developing infrastructure, the rest of the cluster zone can be demarcated as a low development zone (LDZ) with a FAR of 1 and less than 33 per cent coverage. These areas can have villas, automobile workshops and other small industries which need land. Earthy building should be encouraged with own solid- and liquid-waste treatment facilities.

SLUM MANAGEMENT:
1. SLUMS SHOULD BE IDENTIFIED AND TENEMENTS SHOULD BE BUILT. 2. LAND AQUISTION TO THE NEW TENEMENT SHOULD BE DONE, as there is enough government land available. “Plenty of land is available in Tiruvottiyur and Tondiarpet in north Chennai and Okkiyam Thoraipakkam in south Chennai. We will try to ensure that the slum-dwellers are neither marginalised nor segregated under the new plan. Apart from preserving the existing waterways, this will also enable us to work out a long-term housing policy for the slum-dwellers

Housing will either be free or provided at “a reasonable cost.” Wherever possible, the Government would go in for reconstruction of tenements or new tenements would be constructed .

The co-operation of non-government organisations would be sought whenever needed.
Resettlement is not the way towards a slum-free city. The existing slums should be restructured and basic amenities provided, they say.

BAMBOO PLAYING A MAJOR ROLE TO BUILD AND STRENGTHEN SLUM AREAS……..
SEVERAL BAMBOO HOUSES SHOULD BE CONSTRUCTED AS SHOWN IN FIGURE DUE TO THEIR FOLLOWING ADVANTAGES:
            THEY ARE DURABLE (30 YEAR LIFE)AND WEATHER RESISTANT. DESIGNED FOR WITHSTANDING HIGH WINDS(200 KMPH)$EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT. THEY ARE AESTHETICS PLEASING,FUNCTIONAL AND FIRE RESISTANT. LEIGHT WEIGHT,MODULAR AND INTERCHANGEABLE THEY ARE EASY TO CONSTRUCT REQUIRING MINIMUM SKILLED LABOUR. THEY ARE ECO-FRIENDLY,ENERGY SAVING IN MANUFACTURING AND IN USAGE. THEY HAVE GOOD THERMAL AND ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES. THE BASIC RAW MATERIAL BAMBOO IS A RENEWABLW RESOURCE. THEY ARE COST EFFECTIVE APPROX COST OF RS 450 TO RS 550 PER SQ FT FOR PLAIN AREAS AND RS 900 PER SQ FT FOR HIGH ALTITUDE AREAS THEY CAN BE SUPPLIED IN MODULES RANGING FROM 100 SQ FT TO 1000 SQ FT WITH WIDTH OF 20 FT. ALL STRUCTURES CAN BE RE-ERECTED AND TRANSPORTED WITH MINIMAL EFFORT. 1000 SQ FT OF COMPLETE STRUCTURE CAN BE ACCOMODATED IN ONE 24’ TRUCK.

Others measures which should be taken to remove poverty which is directly related to slum problems are
 Women’s education:literacy rate for womens should be increased.employment opportunities should be given to them.  Promotion of vocational education.  Establishment of more iti’s.  Small scale industries should be set up.  Micro-finance firms should be reinforced.  Consultancies services should be promoted.  Health standards of the people should be raised.

GARBAGE DISPOSAL PROBLEM IN CHENNAI:
Besides, segregating wastes at the household level into biodegradable and recyclable materials brought down the quantity of garbage that reaches the dump yard by 15 per cent. This is significant, considering that the city produces 3,500 tonnes of garbage a day. Chennai has succeeded in motivating its staff to collect wastes from houses and encouraging citizens to segregate garbage at home. The next step would be to modernise dump yards and set up composting plants or waste-to-power plants. In Chennai we want to set up garbage and sewage disposal plant for compost plants and scientific landfills with full remedial measures in the city's two dumpsites, Perungudi and Kodungaiyur. The flowchart of garbage disposal plant :

WATER HARVESTING IN CHENNAI:
 It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment.  Therefore, water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety of ways  Capturing runoff from rooftops  Capturing runoff from local catchments  Capturing seasonal floodwaters from local streams  Conserving water through watershed management These techniques can serve the following the following purposes: Provide drinking water Provide irrigation water Increase groundwater recharge Reduce stormwater discharges, urban floods and overloading of sewage treatment plants  Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas.    

TRANSPORTATION
To make our Chennai a city of dreams the next step will be
in the field of transportation. The current rate of fuel consumption and its hazardous effects in the field of pollution and human health has forced us to think of some revolutionary ideas in this field. Our new transportation system will be using all those methods which are highly fuel efficient, clean, safe, affordable and most importantly, ECO-FRIENDLY.

Private transport

In

field of PRIVATE TRANSPORT the answer to our problem comes in form of JATROPHA OIL.

Jatropha curcus is a drought-resistant perennial, growing well in marginal/poor soil. It is easy to establish, grows relatively quickly and lives, producing seeds for 50 years. Jatropha the wonder plant produces seeds with an oil content of 37%. The oil can be combusted as fuel without being refined. It burns with clear smoke-free flame, tested successfully as fuel for simple diesel engine. The by-products are press cake a good organic fertilizer, oil contains also insecticide.

It is found to be growing in many parts of the country, rugged in nature and can survive with minimum inputs and easy to propagate. Soil type: Grows on well-drained soils with good aeration and is well adapted to marginal soils with low nutrient content. On heavy soils, root formation is reduced. Jatropha is a highly adaptable species, but its strength as a crop comes from its ability to grow on very poor and dry sites.

The especial features of this plant areIts vegetable oil can be used as it is crushed – ie - unrefined in the engines of cars as biofuel.  This vegetable oil can be refined and sold as pure diesel  Its vegetable oil can be blended with normal diesel and used in cars as biofuel.

The other advantages of this fuel are-

Smaller Trade Deficit: Rather than importing other countries’ ancient natural resources, we could be using our own living resources to power our development and enhance our economies. Instead of looking to the Mideast for oil, the world could look to the tropics for bio fuels. producing more bio fuels will save foreign exchange and reduce energy expenditures and allow developing countries to put more of their resources into health, education and other services for their neediest citizens.  Economic Growth: Bio fuels create new markets for agricultural products and stimulate rural development because bio fuels are generated from crops; they hold enormous potential for farmers. In the near future—especially for the two-thirds of the people in the developing world who derive their incomes from agriculture.

Today, many of these farmers are too small to compete in the global market, especially with the playing field tilted against them through trade distorting agricultural subsidies. They are mostly subsistence farmers who, in a good year, produce enough to feed their families, and in a bad year, grow even poorer or starve. But bio fuels have enormous potential to change this situation for the better.

At the community level, farmers that produce dedicated energy crops can grow their incomes and grow their own supply of affordable and reliable energy. At the national level, producing more bio fuels will generate new industries, new technologies, new jobs and new markets.  Cleaner Air: Bio fuels burn more cleanly than gasoline and diesel. Using bio fuels mean producing fewer emissions of carbon monoxide, particulates, and toxic chemicals that cause smog, aggravate respiratory and heart disease, and contribute to thousands of premature deaths each year. : Bio fuels contain carbon that was taken out of the atmosphere by plants and trees as they grew. The Fossil fuels are adding huge amounts of stored

  

  

carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, where it traps the Earth's heat like a heavy blanket and causes the world to warm. Studies show that bio diesel reduces CO2 emissions to a considerable extent and in some cases all most nearly to zero. Bio Diesel is environmental friendly and ideal for heavily polluted cities. Bio Diesel is as biodegradable as salt Bio Diesel produces 80% less carbon dioxide and 100% less sulphur dioxide emissions. It provides a 90% reduction in cancer risks. Bio Diesel can be used alone or mixed in any ratio with mineral oil diesel fuel. The preferred ratio if mixture ranges between 5 and 20% (B5 - B20) Bio Diesel extends the live of diesel engines Bio Diesel is cheaper then mineral oil diesel Bio Diesel is conserving natural resources

The Process
Now after being visualizing all the splendid results and out comings this extra-ordinary plant JATROPHA its turn to talk in terms of ground reality i.e. how we can extract fuel from this plant The process of converting vegetable oil into bio diesel fuel is called Transesterification and is luckily less complex then it sounds. Chemically, Transesterification means taking a triglyceride molecule or a complex fatty acid, neutralizing the free fatty acids, removing the glycerin, and creating an alcohol ester. This is accomplished by mixing methanol with sodium hydroxide to make sodium methodize.

This liquid is then mixed into the vegetable oil. After the mixture has settled, Glycerin is left on the bottom and methyl esters, or bio diesel is left on top and is washed and filtered. The final product Bio Diesel fuel, when used directly in a Diesel Engine will burn up to 75% cleaner then mineral oil Diesel fuel. If Jatropha feedstock is used, the fuel will cost depending on the country approximately US $ 0,40 per litre plus tax when applicable.

Area Coverage vs. Blending Requirements
Year Diesel Demand MMT 49.56 52.33 66.90 Bio-Diesel @ Area for 5% Bio-Diesel 5% MMT Mha @10% MMT 2.48 2.62 3.35 2.07 2.19 2.79 4.96 5.23 6.69 Area for 10% Mha 4.14 4.38 5.58 Bio-Diesel @20% MMT 9.91 10.47 13.38 Area for 20% Mha 8.28 8.76 11.19

2005-06 2006-07 2011-12

PUBLIC TRANSPORT
Considering the vast population of Chennai we have decided to increase the extent of public transport usage by people. This can be done by increasing the comfort level and approachability of public convenience such that the first thing that comes to a common persons mind when he thinks of travelling locally is some sort of public transport instead of his own car or anything. For this we have introduced two new public transport systems, one is the rail and the other is a road transport. The description of of HY-RAIL(rail transport) is as follows:

FUEL CELL HYBRID HYRAIL
This development is a modification of the conventional train. From the beginning of its development, the HYRAIL train has been designed for modification to a fuel cell railcar. Now that prospects have been reached for practical application of a diesel hybrid system,. The figure below shows an image of the railcar.

Control System For Fuel Cell Hybrid Railcar
The control system for the fuel cell railcar is based on the diesel hybrid system, but replaces the diesel generator with a fuel cell. This efficient system supplies the necessary electric power from both the fuel cell and the storage battery when accelerating, and saves the electric power produced by the regenerative brakes in the storage battery when breaking.

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Fuel cell system

Hydrogen is separated into hydrogen ions (H+) and electrons at the cathode, and then oxygen, hydrogen ions and electrons react at the anode to produce water. At this time the electrons move from the cathode to the anode, producing electricity.

Aim of fuel cell system development
Fuel cells that use hydrogen as fuel make it possible to:  Further reduce the burden on the environment  Provide new motive power systems that overcome the problem of exhaustion of fossil fuels. In addition, the generation of power using fuel cells mounted on each railcar will reduce the scale of wayside facilities and improve railway 

Goals of this development

The development of this system aims to:

 

Develop railcar system technology using fuel cells that can utilize breakthroughs in fuel cell technology. Understand issues when using fuel cell systems with railways

Development outline (1) Test railcar configuration The engine and generator of the current NE train will be replaced with fuel cells. The control system will be a hybrid system that uses a combination of the fuel cells and the energy from storage batteries to drive the motors. (2) Fuel cell specifications The test railcar will be equipped with solid polymer type fuel cells that use hydrogen as fuel. Fuel cells with high power output and high reliability that can support a railcar system have been selected, and two 65 kW output fuel cells will be mounted on the test railcar.

The following is a sound proof device system which will be inserted in the Hyrail such that it will not produce any noise.

The acoustic barrier particularly for railways ,comprises at least a first sound-proofing member (2)arranged at sides of a train(3)proximate to at least each bogie(4)and at least a second sound proofing member(5)arranged on the supporting plane(6)on the rails(7)at the sides of said rails,the second sound proofing member cooperates with the first sound proofing member for the abating the noise generated by the passage of the train on the rails

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Acoustic pollution has now reached a paramount importance in designing,developing and producing machines and apparatus in all fields,particularly in the construction and industrial fields. There are several possibilities of eliminating noise without reducing the productivity.In railways,for example,this problem has been particularly felt because railways passing close to or provided in cities are of great source of acoustic pollution. So far,the problem of acoustic polluton of the railways has been partially solved by arranging sound –proofing barriers at the sides of the ballast or,in the case of rail on tie plates,at the sides of the tie plates. Conventional acoustic barriers however limit only a fraction of the noise produced passage of the train.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
These objects are achieved by an acoustic barrier ,particularly for railways ,which comprises at least a first sound-proofing member ,arranged at the sides of a proximate to at least each bogie,and at least a second sound-proofing member arranged on the supporting plane of the rails at the sides of the rails,the second sound-proofing member cooperating with the first sound-proofing member for abating the noise generated by the passage of said train on said rails.

YELLOW WHEEL
As we said before,there is also a road transport system for the masses.There will be buses plying on various routes such that they will cover the major as well as remote areas.now the twist is that instead of using a conventional fuel the bus will use solar energy and hence they will be called YELLOW WHEEL. This solar bus will be the first electric bus to be charged 100%by solar energy. International research suggests people strongly prefer electric buses to those powered by other means, such as diesel engines. Electric buses can operate in busy City streets and residential neighbourhoods in a clean and quiet manner, which makes them very popular with both passengers and the public. Batteries Recent advances in battery technology have helped the successful development of pure electric buses with a suitable range between recharges. The solar electric bus uses 11 Zebra battery modules, giving it unprecedented energy storage capacity and operational range. The Swiss-made Zebra batteries use sodium/nickel chloride technology, with their benefits including: Designed for long life and reliability Not affected by external temperatures Can be stored indefinitely fully charged Lightweight High energy and power density The Zebra batteries used in are virtually maintenance free, and are therefore expected to result in significant cost savings.

The unique battery management interface ensures that the batteries system can’t be damaged by inappropriate operation or charging protocols. Unlike other batteries available for electric buses, these controlled temperature batteries operate without loss of performance or life expectancy in virtually any conditions. In addition to conventional controls and instrumentation, a driver display panel is provided, from which the bus operator and maintenance staff can check the status of bus’s drive and charge. Carbon Neutral Yellow wheel will be recharged using a unique solar photovoltaic (PV) system at all the Central Bus Stations. The solar PV system on the Bus Station’s roof is currently largest grid-connected system, generating almost 70,000 kilowatt hours of zero carbon emissions electricity each year to offset the total energy required to recharge its batteries. There are very few pure battery electric buses around the world. Most are characterised by being significantly smaller in size, and having shorter operational range.

Vehicle Management System
The vehicle management system (VMS) is critical to achieving full potential. It’s the main controller for all the electric vehicle-related items on the bus, and ensures that the driver’s operational requests are processed and the equipment performs to meet those requests. The VMS monitors all equipment on the bus and makes sure that it’s all working within the desired and correct parameters. Should any item not be working properly, the vehicle management system adjusts other equipment to compensate. The VMS is responsible for controlling main drive system and the auxiliary battery charging and management, and it logs all fault and warning conditions relating to the drive system. A display panel on the driver’s console provides information from the vehicle management system on the operations of the bus.

Accelerating
Electrical energy from the batteries is fed to the motor inverter. The motor inverter converts this electrical energy into a format correct for the electrical motor. The electric motor uses the energy from the inverter to produce a rotational motion. The rotational motion from the motor is connected to the drive chain, which makes the bus move.

Braking
When the vehicle slows down, the batteries are no longer driving the vehicle. The motor electronically converts into a generator. The forward motion of the bus then turns the motor/generator to

generate electricity which is stored back into the batteries. This is referred to as regenerative braking.

Highlights
Performance: 200 km between recharges under typical urban conditions “Fast charge” provides 1 km of extra range per 1 minute of charge Acceleration and hill climb equivalent to a diesel bus Battery and drive systems deliver full performance under almost all conditions Reliability: Robust, proven components Drive system components rated to last 130,000 hours or better Quality chassis design and assembly Abuse-tolerant batteries Integrated on-board charge system Precision battery “state-of-charge” metre (fuel gauge) for driver Safety: Battery modules electrically isolated Interlocks on all high-voltage cabinets Hermetically-sealed batteries – no gasses produced No exposed electrical terminals Minimum battery maintenance Maintenance: Onboard diagnostics via the vehicle management system (VMS) Propulsion system virtually maintenance free No frame corrosion because no battery gasses are created Life-Cycle Costs:

Long-life batteries Low maintenance components Forklifts, battery trucks, load banks not required Minimised training for mechanics Fuel costs 50% lower than for a diesel bus Use of on-board electronics for charging functions

Technical Specifications
Dimensions: Length – 10.42m Width – 2.48m Height – 3.06m Weight – 11,480kg (Curb) Capacity:

Seated – 50 Wheelchair – 4 Total – 54 Performance: Motor power nominal – 36 kW Motor power peak – 160 kW Charge power – 36 kW Speed – 76 km/h Gradability – 12.5% Battery System: Type 11 modules Zebra Z36-371-ML3C-64 Rated energy 261.8 kWh Accessible energy 235.6 kWh Roof-mounted solar PV Uni-Solar PVL-68 W (peak) Fast Booster Charger : Power – 70 kW Input – 400V 3-phase AC 100a Output – 386V DC 200a 70 kW 1 minute of charge = 1 kilometre

The above given route map gives the brief idea about the major areas to be connected by YELLOW WHEEL.

THE ABOVE DESIGNED FUTURISTIC AND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES WILL RESULT IN :
1.Mode usage (A)Motorised transport Vehicles per day:4,35,000 Vehicles per hour(avg):12,400 Vehicles per hour(peak):28,000 (B)Proportion(vehicles per day in percent) Cars : 3.2 Taxis : 5.1 Autos : 13.3 Motorised 2 wheelers : 50.7 Buses : 20.3 Trucks : 5.3 Light commercial vehicle : 12 (C)Mode usage(no. of people transported,in thousands): Cars : 60.6 Taxis : 10 Autos : 15 Motorised 2 wheelers : 70 Buses : 1892 Trucks : 10 Light commercial vehicles : 11.7 Walking : 621 Cycling : 40 The above clearly indicates reduction in the use of private vehicles and increase in usage of mass transit vehicles like hyrail and yellow wheels.

ROADS
Roads are the lifeline of a city. Roads not only connects places but it connects people also with each other, people of different languages, different customes,different traditions are able to meet and interact with each other through roads. Roads of a city defines its status, all the major civic facilities are dependent directly or indirectly on roads. But with the changing times the condition of roads also needs to be changed.With the growing pressure of population,increasing number of vehicles the advancement of roads needs to taken upto next level.roads play a very vital role for the development of any kind of transport system. At present situation also, the condition of roads in Chennai is vulnureable.So, talking in terms of year 2020 we’ll have to make many advancements and technological upgradations for our roads. The development of roads will be divided in 2 phases1) LOCAL\INTRA CITY ROAD DEVELOPMENT. 2) HIGHWAY ROAD DEVELOPMENT.

INTRA CITY ROAD DEVELOPMENTrun on roads.So for our

In Chennai city the major problem with roads is that they are not able to hold up the pressure of vehicles running over them.With the growth in economy,only more and more vehicles can be expected to

DREAM CITY CHENNAI we need

to implement and introduce new and innovative concepts for handling this problem.  Instead of conventional circles which are used at intersection of roads coming from all four directions we will be using newly designed and conceptualised intersections. The conventional circles were designed to resolve the problem of traffic jams but with increase in number of veichles they are becoming mainsource of accidents and as a result traffic lights are put in there which further results in long queues of veichles and wastage of time. So to overcome this problem we’ll be using newly designed circles which will be looking as-

Such type of circle intersections will result in smooth and easy transportation.The above figure illustrates one of such circle implemented at KOYAMBEDU,this will lead to easy and smooth traffic diversion to POONAWALLE,PADI JUNCTION,PARRY,VADAPALUI.There will be smooth going of traffic as we have introduced an elevated road so people go wants to go to PAARYS and POONAWALLE wont have to wait or face the traffic coming from PADI JUNCTION and VADAPALUI side. 2).Intra city roads will be divided into lanes.For example average width of roads is 45m.Then it will be divided into 4 lanes CYCLE LANE-The width of cycle lane will be 3 metres on one side.All the cyclist will have to run their cycles in this lane,this will safeguard them against city traffic.  BUS LANE-The width of bus lane will be 7 meters on one side.All the buses will be passing only through this lane only.This will avoid unnecessary traffic jams which are created due to excessive space covered by buses in city.Also it will bring down the road accidents to a optimum level

 NORMAL Lane-All the private vehicles will pass through this lane.The width of this lane will be 7m,all the major city traffic comprising of motorcycles and cars will be running through this lane  SPECIAL LANE-This lane will be specially made for V.I.P movements and other emergency services like ambulance,fire brigade,police patrolling.Its width will be 5m. This lane will save the people who lost their important and precious time standing in long traffic jams which occurs at the time of V.I.P movements.Also effective care of citry will be taken as the emergency services like ambulance,police patrolling,fire brigade wagons will not have to wait in city’s main stream traffic.This lane will ensure effective,fast and smooth working for them.

Apart from these measures all the roads will be equipped with in built sensors.Thise sensors will detect the speed of moving vehicles and if any vehicle crosses the speed limit its speed will be gradually reduced.These sensors will be placed in all lanes except the special lane.In case of any emergency the droiver can contact the speed junction which will be located after every 5 km in case he wants to switch over to special lane but his plea will be taken onto consideration only in case of emergency.This measure will prevent people in caught in emergency from any unwanted delay.

2)HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT-

The second phase of road development will be for highways.WE will construct 6 lane highways with special lanes for buses and heavy vehicles.This will reduce the number of accidents and will ensure smooth and fast movement of vehicles.The average width of highways will be 48m (apprx).

PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY

In densely populated city like Chennai it is often seen that pedestrians become the main source of traffic related problems,this fact is supported by increase in the number of road accidents and traffic jams.In densely populated areas of Chennai which are important from commercial point of view,like,PARRY’S CORNER,FISH MARKET,etc.,there is urgent need to reduce the rush on the roads.This can be achieved by shifting the pedestrians from roads to alternate way,which will ensure smooth traffic on road and will also reduce the no. of pedestrian accidents.The walkway will ensure pedestrians their safety in terms of accidents.This alternate way will be PEDESTRIANS WALKWAY. Pedestrian Walkway will not only smoothen the road traffic but IT WILL PROMOTE CYCLING AND WALKING amongst people.The walkway will also cater to the needs of daily shopping of people,by either opening shops on the walkway or on its entry and exit

roads.This will allow them to purchase their daily goods without actually going to the market.The layout of some of the PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS is illustrated in figures below:

CYCLING ‘N’ WALKING :
Travelling by bicycle has numerous advantages, both as regards health and mobility. In addition, of course, it is easier to park a bicycle. In addition, a bicycle often makes the journey quicker in urban areas, is easy to park, costs far less than a car and is environmental-friendly.Physical activity is the key to a healthy lifestyle and it should be an integral part of your everyday life. Space-saving :Takes up a fraction of the parking space and road space required for cars: more of our campus can remain green. Clean:No polluting emissions. Healthy:The cyclist benefits from exercise, and the whole community benefits from the lack of pollution. Cheap:Running costs far less than for cars. Walkable neighborhoods offer surprising benefits to our health, the environment, and our communities.

Better health: A study in Washington State found that the average resident of a pedestrian-friendly neighborhood weighs 7 pounds less than someone who lives in a sprawling neighborhood.1 Residents of walkable neighborhoods drive less and suffer fewer car accidents, a leading cause of death between the ages of 15–45

INDUSTRIAL SETTLEMENT
Most of the industries in Chennai are located in its northern region. This leads to the fact that people everyday have to travel from their residential areas(which is mainly the inner part of Chennai) to their place of work. This practice leads to loss of both time and energy, leading to low productions. To overcome this problem we have decided to give residential quarters to all company employees, depending on their rank in a particular company. This residential area will be placed in eastern part of the industrial area and all basic amenity shops will be opened to fulfil there daily needs.also,this part of the industrial region will be well connected to other parts of Chennai so that people staying here don’t feel

Alienated from rest of Chennai. The residential quarters will look

Company buses will be plying for all the employees which will pick them from their places n drop them to their places of work. This will not only lead to an organised industrial area but also reduce half the traffic jams caused in the office hours due to the working people.

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