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# INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR MECHANICAL SCIENCES

## COURSES AND LECTURES - No. 220

APPLICATION OF
INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS
IN THE THEORY OF ELASTICITY

EDITED BY

I.N. SNEDDON
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW

SPRINGER - VERLAG

W%CM

## DYNAMICS OF ELASTIC AND VISCOELASTIC SYSTEMS

WITOLD NOWACKI

Professor of Meohaniaa
in The University of Warsaw

1.

Introduction
In this course of lectures we shall deal with the theory of two-

In Chapter I we

## present general methods of derivation of the displacement differential

equations describing the considered systems and a method of their solution.

## We consider also, some particular cases, namely strings and

beams.
The differential equation of deflection of a string or a membrane
and on the other hand of a beam or a plate, have been derived on a common
basis, namely the principle of virtual work implying the Hamilton principle.
Moreover, we present a unified procedure for solving the differential equations describing transverse vibrations of strings, membranes
and beams and plates.

350

W. Nowacki

## The above general method consists in making use of the Green

function in solving the differential equations for deflections.

We

## shall prove that a determination of the deflection of a structural

element may be reduced to an integral expression containing the external
the Green function.
Another important problem consists in the determination of the
Green function.

## integral and finite transforms.

In dynamic problems we first use the integral Laplace transform
with respect to the time t, in order to eliminate the time from the
differential equation for deflection.

conditions.

## Thus, for a plate strip simply supported on its boundaries,

we first apply the exponential Fourier transform and then a finite sine
transform.

## function. We arrive at the final results by substituting the Green

function into the integral expression examined in Sec. 4.

The general

## procedure presented in this Chapter can be extended to more complicated

systems, e.g. shells and to discrete gridworks.

Finally we demonstrate

## an application of an analogous method to the problem of free and forced

vibrations of systems the material of which is viscoelastic.

2.

## The principle of virtual work and Hamilton's principle

Consider an elastic body subject to the action of external forces;

## the latter include body forces and surface tractions.

We assume that

These sources

produce in the body a displacement field u(x,t) and the associated with
this field state of strain e.. and stress a...
to
%3

351

## In linear elasticity we define the strain tensor as follows:

tjj = i("- 4 + U4 ,'>'

td = 1.2,3.

(2.1)

## The components of the state of stress are linear functions of strain.

The generalized Hooke law has the form

The quantities y,X are material constants called the Lame1 constants.
The above equations are completed by the equations of motion which are
derived from the fundamental principles of mechanics, namely the principle of conservation of linear and angular momenta.

"Jtj

+X

i = Pai*

ji = ai3*

5e V*

t>0

'

(2 3)

"

## where X is the vector of the body forces, referred to a unit volume, p

is the density and u. =

i the acceleration.

## Equations (2.1) - (2.3) constitute the system of equations of

linear elasticity.
conditions.

two parts, A - A
on A

tractions.

+A .

On A

## Thus, we have the boundary conditions

u.(x,t) = w.(x,t),
t t -

x e A , t > 0,
u

(2

^}

## a,Ax,t)nAx) = p^(x,t), x, e A , t > o,

where u. and p . are known functions.
The initial conditions have the form
u.(x,0) = /.(x),fi.(x.O)= ff.(x), x e V, t a 0.

(2.5)

They express the fact that at the initial instant t = 0 the distribution
of the displacement field /.(x) and its velocity gAx) are prescribed.
The principle of virtual work and Hamilton's principle are of a
fundamental importance in deriving the differential equations for the
vibrations of strings, beams, membranes, plates and shells.

352

W. Nowacki

## The principle of virtual work has the form

j(X.-P.)SuAV J p.tuM
V

- \oi;.Sc.AV.

Ao

(2.6)

## Here Su. is the virtual increment of the displacement,fie.,the virtual

increment of strain.

(2)

## kinematic conditions on the surface A.

We require that
the virtaal increments 6M . vanish on the surface A and are arbitrary
tu
onAa.
The principle of virtual work states that the sum of the virtual
work performed by the body forces, inertia forces and surface forces in
arbitrary virtual displacements is equal to the virtual work of the
internal forces.
Introducing the concept of the work of strain

hd7 = *Jv<n (

(2.7)

V
V
V
we write Equation (2.6) in the form

(coshtei - c
2A2

2A2 6

>

(9.11)

399

## Elastic and Viscoelastic Systems

Observe that
i ) = X(.O)A(.x)+X'{O)B(x1)+X"(O)C(xi)+X"'(O)D(.x),
(9.12)

where
. D
m

## Consider a plate with the clamped edges x\ - 0, <X\- In this case we

have
*(0) = X'(0) = X(ax) = X'taO = 0,

(9.13)

XUO

## = X"(0)C(xi) + X'" (O)D(a;i).

Here the two first conditions of the set (9.13) have been used.

(9.14)
The

## remaining conditions lead to the system of equations

X(ai) = X"(0)C(ai) + r" (O)D(ai) = 0
X'iaO

= r(0)C"(ai) + r"(0)C(ai) = 0.

to zero, i.e. if
2

(an) = 0.

## Thus we are led to the relation

1
-)(6coth^

^"1
ecot^) = 0.

(9.15)

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W. Nowacki

The equation
&tanh-x~ + e t a n - y = 0

(9.16)

equation
ficotanTj

ecotan-- = 0

(9.17)

## to the antisymmetric modes of vibration.

For a given value of 3 the consecutive value of A
can be

m
run
calculated by means of Equations (9.16) and (9.17);

furthermore the

## consecutive frequencies of vibration are given by the formula

u
= e\2
(9.18)
ran
ran
The mode of the eigenvibrations is given by Equation (9.12)i, i.e.
C(ai)

= r'(0)
D(ai)

(9.19)

## In the particular case of a plate simply supported along the edges

x, - 0, a.\ we obtain

Since
n

^ ran

we have
A2 = a 2 + B2,
nm
n
m

a = .
n a\

## This leads to the result

u
- a\ - (az+32) /-.
nm
mn
n n A/ a
The mode of the eigenvibrations has the form
nvxi
.

(9.20)
'
'

(9.21)

401

## Consider two different modes of free vibrations of the plate

(satisfying the same boundary conditions), namely W. .(xi,x2) and
W*^(xi,X2) with the corresponding eigenvalues A., and A,-.
These satisfy the differential equations

## From these equations we have

WidWkl)6A
A

= aifXk)^y..Vkt6A.
A

(9.23)

But the left side of Equation (9.23) is equal to zero (see (4.2)1). we
have

A
Since X .. =/= X, 7 , Equation (9.24) is satisfied only if
ff
..W.^dA = 0,

(t / k, 3 t I).

(9.25)

A
The eigenfunctions of the free vibrations of plates are orthogonal;
their coefficients are chosen to satisfy the condition
W2..dA = 1 .

(9.26)

I'd

In the following considerations it will be assumed that the eigenfunctions satisfy both conditions (9.25) and (9.26).
Observe that the orthogonality property holds also for modes of
vibration which cannot be written in the form of a product

## Consider a plate which undergoes forced and free vibrations.

402

W. Nowacki

Assume that at time t - 0 the deflection and the velocity of the plate
are known, i.e. that
w(x,0) = fix), u(x,O) = g(x),

x S (xi,x2).

(9.27)

## The solution of the differential equation

c2tkw + w - -q(x,t)
takes the form
t
u(x,i) =

IdTJL(xlst-T)G(x',x)T)d4(x')
0

(9.28)

A
Now, we must solve the differential equation for the Green's
function G(x,x',t):
(c2V4 + 32)C(x,x',t) = -6(x-x')6(t),

(9.29)

with the same boundary conditions as the deflection u(x,t) and with
homogeneous initial conditions.
Applying the Laplace transform to Equation (9.29) we obtain
(c2Vlt+p2)G(x,x',p) =-6(x-x').

(9.30)

## Let us now expand the function G into a series of the eigenfunctions

J/..(x), which satisfy the Equation (9.2) with the same boundary
conditions as the functions W and G.

finite transform

## TVG(X! ,x2;x' ,x' ;p)WkAxi ,x2)dxldx2,

(9.31)

0 0
00

CXI

'l,x'2;p)ykl<.xl,x2).
k=l 1=1

(9.32)

403

## Multiplying Equation (9.30) by ^ ( s ^ ,x 2 ) and integrating over the

whole region of the p l a t e , we obtain

(p2+o2^t)GHktl;xl,x'2;p)

= ^ k i <*{*p.

(9.33)

## Making use of the inverse transform (9.32) and inverting the

Laplace transform, we obtain the following expression for the Green's
function of the rectangular plate:-

(9 34)

KL

fcsl 1=1

Introducing

## (9.34) into Equation (9.28) and assuming g = / = 0, we have

fc=i Z=i

oo

w
(9#35)

Suppose that the force q(x,t) moves with the constant velocity V along
the line x^ = H2J a n d hence that
0 < Vt < a\

## for Vt > a\.

Inserting q(.x,t) into Equation (9.35.) and taking into account the relation

0 0

## we arrive at the formula

00

00

^T)'*'W^Tr2)JHjinuw(t-T)dT.

u(x,t) = i Tjia^l
fe=i 1=1

If Fit)

= P0H(t),

mkl

## where ff(t) i s the Heaviside-step function, then

(9.36)

404

W. Nowacki

V, ,(Vt ,n2H:-siiW,,(t-T)dT .

fc*l 1=1

(9.37)

Kt

## In the case of a plate simply supported along the whole boundary a

particularly simple expression for the deflection of the plate is
obtained.

Since

## we obtain after carrying out the integration indicated in Equation

(9.37)
OO

w(x,t) =

CO

[a.Ksiiw^t-w^sinaj/t]. (9.38)
0 < Vt < a.

## If V + 0, and sina.Kt + sina,ni Equation (9.38) gives the statical

deflection of the plate produced by the force PQ located at the point
en

oo

w(x,t) =
k=l 1=1

^kTWl'

## Having found the deflection surface, we can calculate the stresses

occurring in the plate with the aid of Equations (3.34).

10.

## Transverse vibrations of rods and plates resting on an

elastic foundation
The differential equation of the transverse vibrations of a rod

405

w = -(q-r),
a

3a*

c 2 = , o = pA.
a

(10.1)

## Assuming a linear relation between the resistance r of the foundation

and the deflection (Winkler's foundation), we have
r(x,t) = ht(x,t)
where k is the foundation modulus.
a2

+ w + K2W = ^q(x,t),

aa*

(10.2)
Thus Equation (10.1) takes the form
K2 - k/a.

(10.3)

## Equation (10.3) is only an approximation to real conditions.

valid only for small deflections.

It is

## the resistance v(.x,t) produces a deflection only in the section x while

in fact w(x,t) depends on the resistance at all points of the rod.

We

assume also that during the deformation the rod is in contact with the
foundation over the whole length.

## (10.3) only approximately describes the phenomenon of vibration.

Consider now an infinite rod resting in an elastic foundation,
which at time t - 0 is subject to the instantaneous loading
q(x,t) = P06(a:)6(t).
To Equation (10.3) we first apply the Laplace transform with
respect to time and then the Fourier cosine transform.

Inverting the

P

8u3I

-(

0*

406

W. Nowacki

difficulties.

(i:)l(tk

(10.5)

For the

w(x) =

8Tn3

(10.6)

bI

## The differential equation of the transverse vibrations of a plate

resting on an elastic foundation has the form
C2VVK3+IC2W

= q(x,t), a2 = f, a = ph,

KZ

-k7Q.

(10.7)

infinite plate.

## The load q(r) = _^

_ is applied to the

## The problem of determining the deflection of the plate

is an axisymmetric one.
PQ

32

Sir)

13

atfy+rpw =

, V =
a

2nr

+
8r

2, i

= (^)cr.

(10.8)

r 3r

## Multiplying Equation (10.8) by rJ'o(cir) and integrating with respect to

r in the interval <0,>, we transform Equation (10.8) to the form

p0
(c2a4+nlt)w(a) = ,

w(a) =

w(r)rJ0(.ar)dx>.

(10.9)

0
Applying the inverse Hankel transform, we have
p

w(r) =

2j .SnVr2

(10.10)

## Elastic and Viscoelastic Systems

407

or
v = (< + x | r .
There keio(z) is the modified Kelvin function.

(10.11)

Assuming PQ = 1 and

## moving the concentrated force to the point a; , we obtain

-jb^of'c!) 4 ].

= [(si-a,1)2*^-^)2]*.

## Consider a plate-strip resting on an elastic foundation, simply

supported at the edges xj = 0 , aj and subjected to the action of a
concentrated force qi.xtt) - P 0 6(x 1 -xJ)6(3 2 ).
We have to solve the equation

P 0o

k
w44 ==
U
ac22
ao

u = 6(Xi-a;')6(x
(*!-!)6(a22),

k
= -.
N^

(10.13)

Using the finite sine transform and the integral cosine transform, we
obtain
2P 0
W(x) =

Jl,
r cos&czdg
) sina xjsina x.
1

rnt
, a =

(10.14)

cosBx2dB

o W+tn2Wn*>

/ O ~Y^2

fl-n

*M2-Y

where

## We must take the real part of the integral (10.15).

case k - 0, we have to do with the integral

In the particular

408

W. Nowacki

r COSfJa^dP

It

2 2

i (a 2+3 )
On

(1+a x2)e~anXz
Ha 3
"
n

x2 > 0.

(10.16)

## The deflection u(x) takes the form

u( } =

nX2)

-a x
X22 .

s i n a a x{sina
: s i n a ^1,0:2
sina
2SIiyZrir3 : L i ee' o nna ; 2'sinot
i rf
n Xisi

n=l

> 0. (10.17)

n=ln

(10.18)

n=l

sina aJxsina^x]

(10.19)

"

or
(10.20)

## Elastic and Viscoelastic Systems

409

Now we can determine the bending and twisting moment in the closed form

M U ( G ) = -il

(10.23)
"3a:2

11.

"

3aj2*

q o, g = 0.
SB

,t) = of /(*'

(11.1)

## We have to solve the differential equation for the Green's function

-V3'~ r ' , t ) = -6(a;-x')6(t), e 2 = , a = p/1.

## Let us perform over the differential equation (11.2) the Laplace

transform and further the Fourier exponential transform.

(11.2)

W. Nowacki

410

pG(x,x' ,p) =

(11.3)
2TTO

Since

we obtain

(11.4)

/2TT
-00

## Introducing (11.5) into the integral expression (11.1), we obtain

air^-SL

(11.6)

f{x-x')\cos t sirf^|dx'.
Hot

(11.7)

/(*')[c

or
w(.x,t) In the particular case
-x2,

"+az
i.e. when the initial curve has a prescribed form, w e obtain from (11.7)

fa
- e x p

atx2

4(a4+e2t2)

cos

411

t=0

t-N

Fig. 11.1

## Figure 11.1 represents the graphs of the function w(x,t) for

consecutive values of parameter t.

## dotted line represents the propagation of a transverse elastic wave in a

string, for the same values of t.

## "crests" propagated in the opposite directions, for a rod, however, such

a division does not occur.
Let us discuss the problem of free vibrations of an infinite plate
and confine our considerations to axisymmetric modes of vibrations.
Assume that the initial conditions depend on the variable r only, and
are independent of the angle 9.

## vibration of the plate can be written in cylindrical coordinates,

namely
,t) + U(r,t) = 0.

(11.9)

The equation (11.1) takes for the axisymmetric form of vibration the

412

W. Nowacki

form
00

''^dr

(11.10)

o
We have to solve the differential equation for the Green's function
(o2v2 + a2)G(r,r',t) = h(r-r')&(t).

(11.11)

## Let us perform over the differential equation (11.11) the Laplace

transform and further the Hankel transformation.

After inverting, we

obtain
CO

= if r(J0(ar')aJ-0(ar)cos(a2ct)da.

(11.12)

o
Introducing (11.12) into the integral expression (11.10) we obtain
CO

w(r,t) =

CO

aJ0(ar')JQ(ar)cos(oa2t)da.

r'/(r')dr'
0

(11.13)

## Consider the Weber integral

Inserting v = iat into Equation (11.14) and taking the real part
of the integral, we have

This procedure leads to the following final form of the formula for the
free vibration of the plate

## Elastic and Viscoelastic Systems

413

k w / f0

1.0
/1)

f^

0.5
n -0

**__

7j = 3

Fig. 11.2

(11.15)

2ct
Let the initial deflection of the plate equal

w(r,t) =

(11.16)

aexp(-

/o
w{vtt) =

exp(

(11.17)

l+n:

414

W. Nowacki

= r

/a*

in Figure 11.2.

12.

## In formulating the stress-deformation relation of a viscoelastic

body, it is convenient to represent them in a form analogous to that of
the perfectly elastic body.

## In the latter the Hooke law has the form

The system of Equations (12.1) can take a different form, corresponding to the representation of the deformation as a sum of volume and
shear deformations.

have

a - hhfku=

2ue

+ (Xe

fc*" s V V

(12 2)

a

kk

= {3X + 2vH

kk'

(12 3)

'

## In view of (12.2) the system of Equations (12.1) - (12.3) can be replaced

by the system of equations
s- = 2ue..,

(12.4)

s = 3Ke,

(12.5)

where

'., K = X + | u .
(12.6)

415

## s . . i s called the s t r e s s deviator and e . . the deformation deviator.

i<a
T-a
The stresses s.. produce a change in shape only, this fact being
expressed by formula (12.4), while the mean normal stresses produce a
change in volume.

body.

## as perfectly elastic, Equation (12.5) remains unaltered.

Relations

(12.4) are generalized by adding to the right hand side a term representing the Newtonian viscosity, i.e. the term 2ne... Thus

%a
Equation (12.7) represents the Kelvin model.

The quantity t - n/ is

## called the retardation time.

The relation
* ^ t ^ i = 2veid>

e = 3Jfe, tp = n/ y ,

(12.8)

## occurs for the viscoleastic Maxwell body.

General stress-deformation relations for linear viscoelastic
bodies can be represented in a form analogous to (12.4) and (12.5), viz.
Pl(D)8..U,t)

= P 2 (O)e..(x,t),

P3(D)sU,t) = Pk(D)eU,t),

x = (xi,x2,x3),

(12.9)
(12.10)

where
N.

## PAD) = 5 "4"V\ f*> tQ.t. 1,2,3,4,

n=0
n 8M
are differential operators and D =
denotes the n time derivative,
a.

## are constant coefficients.

Assume that the viscoelastic body is in natural state for t < 0,

416

W. Nowacki

i.e. there are no stresses and deformations, and the loading is applied
at the instant t - 0.

## (12.9), (12.10) the one-sided Laplace transform.

s..(x,p) = 2p(p)e..(x,p)

(12.11)

-7(x,p) = 3K(p)7(x,p),

(12.12)

where
P2(p)

vip) =

. i\(p)

, Kip) = i
2Pi(p)

## Observe that Equations (12.1) and (12.2) are of analogous structure to

Equations (12.4) and (12.5) for the perfectly elastic body.

However,

## in the latter, the quantities p, K appearing in Equations (12.t) and

(12.5) are constants, while in the case of viscoelasticity we are dealing
with functions of the parameter p.

## Thus, we obtain the relations

),

(12.13)

where

Tip) =
We haw-already indicated the analogy between formulae (12.13) and ( 1 2 . 1 ) .
The analogies may be employed in constructing the stress-deformation
r e l a t i o n s for plane s t a t e s of s t r e s s , one dimensional s t a t e of s t r e s s ,
etc.
In the plane s t a t e of s t r e s s , we have for the e l a s t i c body

aB

~r[(l~v)eae+Ve6oi3~-l'

where
_ )i(3X+2u)

H + e 2 2 , <>>(? = X,2

(12.14)

417

a8

L^d-^+v^eJ,

<*. B = 1,2

(12.15)

formulae

(12.16)

X+vi

2(Xtu)

## The above elastic-viscoelastic analogy was announced by Alfrey and Lee.

To solve a dynamic problem of viscoelasticity we can use the corresponding
solutions of the perfectly elastic problem, replacing in the latter X, v
by X, u and inverting the Laplace transform.
Consider now an example of transverse vibrations of rods of viscoelastic material.

## The differential equation of the transverse vibration

of a rod of perfectly elastic material (after applying the Laplace transform) has the form
O2^H
1

p2y - ^(XiP)

dx *

+ pf(x) + g(x),

(12.17)

where

## w(x,p) = j e~ptw(x,t)dt, a = J^.

0
For a viscoelastic body, a should be replaced by o(p), the latter being
a function of p, the parameter of the Laplace transform.

The transformed

,p) + p f U )

## For the viscoelastic body

W. Nowacki

418

P(p) - n(p)(3A(p)+2p(p))

I(p)+u(p)
Suppose that w, /(a;), g(x)can be expanded into a series of eigenfunctions
of the rod of perfectly elastic material, with the same conditions of
support as the rod under consideration:

=1

(12.19)

n=l

g(x) -

## x), q(x,p) M=l

The functions V ix) are orthogonal and normalized, and they satisfy the
equation

El
(12.20)

= 0,

## Introducing (12.19) into (12.18) we obtain

(12.21)
Introducing (12.21) into (12.19), we have

(12.22)

;'tp)V (ar'Jdx'
00

(12.23)

## Elastic and Viscoel.iv.i. Systems

419

We have now to carry out the required integration and then to invert in
(12.23) the Laplace transform.

## latter operation is due to the complicated form of the function C 2 (p).

Taking into account that, in accordance with relations (12.12) and
(12.13)
P1(.p)Pk(p)-P2(p)P3ip)
X(p) =

_
, y(p)

P2(p)

we obtain
-2(p)

, .
E(p)I _ I
o

3P2(p)P4(p)
i
IS

(12.24)

o 2P1(p)Pl|(p)tP2(p)P3(p)

## In the particular case of a Kelvin body, we have

Pi(p) = 1, P2(p) = 2 0 ( 1 + ^ ) , P3(p) = p , Pn(p) = 3Kp.
Hence
9G(l+t v)

a2(p) ^

(12.25)

3 + fd+t^p)
Introducing (12.24) into (12.23) and inverting the Laplace transform,
we arrive at the required function w(x,t).

A considerable simplification

## of the expression ~P-{p) follows if we assume that the material is

incompressible (K * , v = j ) .

(12.24), we have
P2ip)
4 2 a

2 aP _
l ( ,p ). "

ZGI
=

(1+tp)a

3*

## Introducing (12.26) into (12.23) and inverting the Laplace

transform, we obtain the solution of our problem:

(12.26)

W. Nowacki

420

n=l
B2)J 9-U')A/n(

IV s
^ u n (1-0^)
n=l
no
where
U) t

= tan
n

ntfc% + ] +
(12.27)