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Problem 3.1 :

A uniform plane wave is propagating in direction of the positive z-axis. Find the polarization

(linear, circular, or elliptical), sense of rotation (CW or CCW), axial ratio (AR), and tilt angle

τ (in degrees) for

a) Ex = Ey and Δφ = 0 ,

E x ≠ Ey Δφ = 0 ,

b) and

c) E x = Ey and Δφ = π / 2 ,

E x = Ey Δφ = −π / 2 ,

d) and

E x = Ey Δφ = π / 4 ,

e) and

f) E x = Ey and Δφ = −π / 4 ,

Ex = 0.5Ey Δφ = π / 2 ,

g) and

Ex = 0.5Ey Δφ = −π / 2 .

h) and

In all cases justify the answer.

a) Linear because +φ = 0 .

b) Linear because +φ = 0 .

c) Circular because Ex = Ey and +φ = π 2 ,

LHCP / CCW, AR = 1 .

d) Circular because Ex = Ey and +φ = −π 2 ,

RHCP / CW, AR = 1 .

e) Elliptical because Δφ is not multiples of π 2 ,

CCW,

= 1.30656 ⋅ E 0 ⎫⎪⎪

1/ 2

OA = E 0 ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 1 + 1 + 2 ) ]

⎪⎬ ⇒

= 0.541196 ⋅ E 0 ⎪⎪⎪

1/ 2

AR : Ex = Ey = E 0 : OB = E 0 ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 1 + 1 − 2 ) ] ⎭

1.30656

⇒ AR = = 2.414

0.541196

1 ⎡ 2 ⋅ 1 ⋅ cos ( 45D ) ⎤ 1

τ = 90D − ⋅ tan−1 ⎢ ⎥ = 90D − ⋅ ( 90D ) = 45D

2 ⎢⎣ 1−1 ⎥⎦ 2

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

CW,

OA = 1.30656 ⋅ E 0 ⎫⎪ 1.30656

AR = OA / OB : ⎪

⎬ ⇒ AR = = 2.414

OB = 0.541196 ⋅ E 0 ⎪

⎪ 0.541196

⎭

1

τ = 90D − ⋅ ( 90D ) = 45D

2

CCW,

AR = OA / OB .

⎪⎪ 1

⎬ ⇒ AR = =2

OB = Ey ⋅ [ 0.5 ( 0.25 + 1 − 0.75 ) ] = 0.5 ⋅ Ey ⎪⎪⎪

1/ 2 0.5

⎭

1 ⎡ 0 ⎤ 1

τ = 90D − ⋅ tan−1 ⎢ D D

⎥ = 90 − ⋅ ( 0 ) = 90

D

2 ⎣ − 0.75 ⎦ 2

CW,

AR = OA / OB .

OA = Ey ⎫

⎪ 1

⎪

⎬ ⇒ AR = =2

OB = 0.5 ⋅ Ey ⎪

⎪ 0.5

⎭

1

τ = 90D − ⋅ ( 0D ) = 90D .

2

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.2 :

Write a general expression for the polarization loss factor (PLF) of two linearly polarized

antennas if

a) both lie in the same plane,

b) both lie in different planes.

z

θ

φ

φ y

x y

x

G G G

ρw = ax cos φw + ay sin φw

G G G

ρa = ax cos φa + ay sin φa

2

G G 2 G G T G G

PLF = ρwT ⋅ ρa = ( ax cos φw + ay sin φw ) ⋅ ( ax cos φa + ay sin φa )

2 2

PLF = cos φw ⋅ cos φa + sin φw ⋅ sin φa = cos ( φw − φa )

G G G G

ρw = ax sin θw cos φw + ay sin θw sin φw + az cos θw

G G G G

ρa = ax sin θa cos φa + ay sin θa sin φa + az cos θa

G G 2

PLF = ρwT ⋅ ρa

G G G T

= ( ax sin θw cos φw + ay sin θw sin φw + az cos θw ) ⋅

G G G 2

⋅ ( ax sin θa cos φa + ay sin θa sin φa + az cos θa )

2

= sin θw cos φw sin θa cos φa + sin θw sin φw sin θa sin φa + cos θw cos θa

2

= sin θw sin θa ⋅ ( cos φw cos φa + sin φw sin φa ) + cos θw cos θa

2

= sin θw sin θa ⋅ cos ( φw − φa ) + cos θw cos θa

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.3 :

A linearly polarized wave traveling in the negative z-direction has a tilt angle τ of 45°. It is

G G

G 4ax + jay

ρa =

incident upon an antenna whose polarization characteristics are given by 17

G G

G ax + ay

Polarization vector of the linearly polarized wave : ρw =

2

G G

G 4ax + jay

Polarization vector of the elliptically polarized wave : ρa =

17

2

G G 2 1 1 ⎛ 4⎞ 17

PLF = ρ wT ⋅ ρ a = (1 1) ⋅ ⎜ j ⎟ = 34 = 0.5 = −3dB

2 17 ⎝ ⎠

elliptical

LH / CCW

y

x

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

A right-hand circularly polarized antenna has normalized electric far-field pattern given as:

⎧

⎪ sin θ ⋅ cos φ 0D ≤ θ ≤ 180D, − 90D ≤ φ ≤ 90D

⎪

E ( θ, φ ) = ⎨

⎪

⎪ 0 elsewhere

⎩

a) Calculate the direction (θ,φ) of maximum radiation and the exact maximum

directivity in dB.

b) Find the 3-dB beamwidths in azimuthal and elevation planes.

c) A CW elliptically polarized plane wave propagates along –x-direction towards the

antenna. The major axis of the ellipse is positioned along the y-axis and is twice as

large as the minor axis. Find the polarization loss factor (PLF).

Note: It is assumed that the antenna is placed at the center of the coordinate system.

1 2 1

a) U = E ( θ, φ ) Æ U max = @ θ = 90D & φ = 0D

2η 2η

4πU max

D0 =

Prad

π π

π 2 π 2

1

Prad = ∫ ∫ πU sin θ ⋅ d θ ⋅ d φ = 2η ∫ ∫ π sin2 θ ⋅ cos φ ⋅ d θ ⋅ d φ

θ = 0 φ =− θ = 0 φ =−

2 2

π

π 2

1 1 π

Prad =

2η ∫ sin2 θ ⋅ d θ ⋅ ∫ π cos φ ⋅ d φ = 2η 2 ⋅ 2

θ =0 φ =−

2

π

Prad =

2η

Thus

1

4π ⋅

2η

D0 = π =4

2η

D0 = 10 ⋅ log 4 = 6.02 dB

D

b) Azimuthal plane ( θ = 90 ):

U 1 = 1 @ φ1 = 0D

1

U2 =

2

@ 0.5 = cos φ2 ⇒ φ2 = cos−1

1

2

= 60D ()

D D

HPBW azimuthal = 2 ⋅ 60 = 120

D

Elevation plane ( φ = 0 ):

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

U1 = 1 @ θ1 = 90D

1

U2 =

2

@ 0.5 = sin θ2 ⇒ θ2 = sin−1

1

2 ()

= 30D

c) the polarization vector of the RHCP receiving antenna at origin, looking in +x-

direction, is

G G

G a y − ja z

ρa =

2

is

G G

G 2a y + ja z

ρw =

5

G G G G 2

G G 2 a y − ja z 2a y + ja z 2+1 2 9

PLF = ρa ⋅ ρw = ⋅ = =

2 5 10 10

circular

RHCP

y

elliptical

x CW

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.5 :

A λ / 2 dipole, with a total loss resistance of 1 Ω , is connected to a generator whose internal

impedance is 50 + j 25 Ω . Assuming that the peak voltage of the generator is 2 V and the

impedance of the dipole, excluding the loss resistance, is 73 + j 42.5 Ω , find the power.

a) supplied by the source (real),

b) radiated by the antenna,

c) dissipated by the antenna.

a

RL

Vg Ig

Rg Rrad

Xg

b

XA

Rg = 50 Ω, X g = 25 Ω, RL = 1 Ω, Rrad = 73 Ω, X A = 42.5 Ω

2 2

Ig = A= A

( 50 + 1 + 73 ) + j ( 25 + 42.5 ) 124 + j 67.5

I g = ( 12.442 + j 6.7724 ) mA = 14.166 ⋅ e− j 28.56 mA

D

a)

1 1

PS = Re {Vg I g * } = Re { 2 ⋅ ( 12.442 + j 6.7724 ) ⋅ 10−3W } → PS = 12.442 ⋅ 10−3 W

2 2

1 2

b) Prad = I g Rrad = 7.325 ⋅ 10−3 W

2

1 2

c) PL = I g RL = 0.1003 ⋅ 10−3 W

2

The remaining supplied power is dissipated as heat in the internal resistor of the generator, or

1 2

Pg = I g Rg = 5.0169 ⋅ 10−3 W

2

Prad + PL + Pg = ( 7.325 + 0.1003 + 5.0169 ) ⋅ 10−3 W=12.442 ⋅ 10−3 W

Thus,

Prad + PL + Pg = PS

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Assume a horn antenna located at the origin of the coordinate system. Its E-plane lies in the

yz-plane and its H-plane lies in the xz-plane. The antenna is operated at 3 GHz. The figure

below shows the orientation of the antenna and its equivalent circuit. The radiation resistance

is RR = 45 Ω and the loss resistance is RL = 5 Ω. The maximum directivity of the antenna

appears in the +z-direction and is D0 = 12 dBi.

a) Calculate the maximum effective aperture of the antenna with the assumption of a

matched load and a matched polarization.

b) A generator with an internal impedance of Z G = 50 + j 20 Ω and a peak generator

voltage of VG = 4 V is connected to the antenna. Calculate the peak electric field

strength at z = 1km .

c) A lossless dipole antenna is located at z = 1 km and lies in the plane parallel to the

xy-plane. The E-field of the antenna is parallel to the xy-plane and assumes an angle

of 45° with respect to the x-axis. Calculate the polarization loss factor (PLF).

RL= 5Ω

y

x Rr= 45Ω

z

⎛ 12dBi ⎞

⎛ Rr ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎛ λ2 ⎞

a) ecd = ⎜ ⎟ = 0.9 , D0 = 10 ⎝ 10 ⎠

= 15.848 , Aem = ecd ⎜ ⎟ D0 = 0.011m

2

⎝ Rr + RL ⎠ ⎝ 4π ⎠

b) The E-field strength at R = z = 1 km distance can be calculated from the local power

E2

density Wt according to: Wt = (free-space wave impedance η). The radiated power Prad

2η

1

is related as Wt = Prad D0 , where D0 = 12 dBi = 15.85. Using ZG = Rg +jXg , the

4π R 2

Vg ⎡ ⎤

2

⎢ RR ⎥ 34.62 mW ,

radiated power can be calculated: Prad =

2 ⎢ ( RR + RL + Rg )2 + ( X A + X g )2 ⎥

⎣ ⎦

P D 2η V

where XA = 0. Finally, E = rad 0 2 = 5.74 ⋅ 10−3

4π R m

ρ t ρ r = cos2 450 = 0.5

2

c)

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.7 :

The effective antenna temperature of an antenna looking towards zenith is approximately

5 K. Assuming that the temperature of the connected transmission line (waveguide) is 72 °F,

find the effective temperature at the receiver terminals when the attenuation of the

transmission line is given as 4 dB / 100 ft, and its length is :

a) 2 ft,

b) 100 ft.

Tcable … cable temperature

ILcable … cable insertion loss

5

Transfrom Fahrenheit to Kelvin: Tcable = 72D F = (72 − 32) + 273 = 295.2 K

9

TA = 5 K

Solutions 3 – Fundamentals Antennas and Propagation, Frühjahrssemester 2010

Problem 3.8 :

In a long-range microwave communication system operating at 9 GHz, the transmitting and

receiving antennas are identical, and they are separated by 10 000 m. To meet the signal-to-

noise ratio of the receiver, the received power must be at least Pr = 10 μW. Assuming the two

antennas are aligned for a maximum reception to each other, including being polarized

matched, what should the gains (in dB) of the transmitting and receiving antennas be when

the input power to the transmitting antenna is 10 W ?

Data given:

f = 9 GHz → λ = 3 cm , R = 104 m , G0t = G0r , Pt = 10 W Pr = 10 μ W

Pr ⎛ λ ⎞⎟2 2

= ⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ G0 = 10−6

Pt ⎜

⎝ 4πR ⎠

Results:

G0 = 10−3 ⋅ 12π ⋅ 105 = 3769.9

G0dB = 10 log 3769.9 = 35.76 dBi

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