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Chapter 1

Introduction
Chapter 1 provides an overview of the fundamental
aspects of the industries that influence electronic safety
and security (ESS) design.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Table of Contents
Introduction to Safety and Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Industry Changes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Bodies of Knowledge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4


Access Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Intrusion Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Fire Detection and Alarm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Special Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Integrated Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5
Types of Projects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5

Current and Future Trends in Safety and Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6


Information Technology (IT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Physical Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Integration of Access Control Systems (ACS) and
.
Building Automation Systems (BAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Video Surveillance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Technology Advancements and Convergence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

Manual Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8


Chapter 2: Principles of Security. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Chapter 3: Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Chapter 4: Access Control Systems (ACS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Chapter 5: Video Surveillance Systems (VSS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Chapter 6: Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Chapter 7: Fire Detection and Alarm Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Chapter 8: Notification, Communication, and Display Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Chapter 9: Special Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Chapter 10: Network Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Section 1: Network Design Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Section 2: Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Chapter 11: Systems Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Chapter 12: System Operation and Commissioning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Appendix A: Codes, Standards, Regulations, and Organizations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11
Appendix B: Legal Aspects of Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design. . . . . . . . 1-11

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Introduction to Safety and Security


The Electronic Safety and Security Design Reference Manual (ESSDRM) is designed to
educate and inform professionals engaged in the electronic safety and security (ESS) arena.
Safety is protection against hazards, while security is protection against threats. To be safe is to be
protected, while to be secure is to be free from danger. Protection leads to a condition of being free
from danger or threat, which ultimately reduces risks.
The ESSDRM discusses trends and expertise in security areas that apply to information
technology systems (ITS) and the integration of ESS systems.
IMPORTANT: The ESSDRM is not intended to be a stand-alone reference manual; therefore,

the construction of a comprehensive ESS design requires reference to

additional bodies of knowledge.
This manual presents a guideline for the design and deployment of ESS systems and should
never be used in place of a legal opinion. An ESS designer should be familiar with the laws
governing surveillance, legislation that is pending, and the requirements of the authority
having jurisdiction (AHJ). The ESS designer should seek multiple legal opinions and use
these opinions and established standards, guidelines, and best practices to deploy an ESS
system as part of the overall security master plan.
The security industry has standards, practices, and organizations dedicated to defining and
refining those practices. In addition to the ESSDRM, BICSI is developing an industry
standard for the design and implementation of structured cabling for ESS systems. This
reference manual provides information from both the security and ITS industries so that
professionals in both industries will have a common understanding of each others roles in
designing and implementing ESS systems.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Industry Changes
Prior to 1996, security systems were viewed as an option to most architectural projects.
With the specialized cabling and equipment required for installation, not many changes were
made to the products offered within the industry for a number of years. That changed when
the first Internet protocol (IP) camera was introduced to the industry in 1996.
The opportunity to use standards-based telecommunications cabling and cabling
infrastructure was tempered with other complex issues. IP cameras tended to have extremely
high bandwidths. Users also had to consider whether to maintain or abandon the analog
systems they had previously implemented.
As late as 2002, there was some speculation that hybrid systems would remain very popular
over the use of pure IP systems. In spite of this speculation, the IP camera market expanded
dramatically. ESS equipment suppliers, system integrators, and users began to consider the
integration and implementation of entire safety and security systems on an IP platform.
This discipline has grown from the early human guarding of objects to sophisticated
surveillance cameras and building automation systems (BAS). Each began as a stand-alone
system, but the rise of networks and ITS has lead to an increased need to converge multiple
systems. As technology develops at a rapid pace, its influence in the relatively stable world of
security is ongoing and ever changing.
Advancements in common infrastructure have enabled manufacturers to create systems
based on similar network protocols, allowing different systems to communicate with one
another. The simple beginnings, exemplified by the employment of guards and patrols,
have progressed to complex advancements in surveillance that have enabled the addition of
intelligence to electronic security systems and BAS.
The cost benefits of cabling infrastructure convergence can be seen with lower cabling costs;
easy modifications for moves, adds, or changes (MACs); unified integration with other
information technology (IT) environments; elimination of specialized equipment; and space
savings by using ITS servers and storage devices instead of video cassette recorder (VCR)
tapes and video recorders.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Bodies of Knowledge


The ESS designer should have knowledge of:
ITS fundamentals.
Principles of security.
Design process.
Preliminary security design.
Architecture and engineering (A&E) design.
IP design.
Security systems.
Access control systems (ACS).
Surveillance systems.
Intrusion detection.
Fire alarms.
Special systems.
Network security.
Systems integration.
Project management.
Systems operation and commissioning.
Chapters in this manual are devoted to areas and practices that influence the design
of a security system. These chapters address:
Security consulting.
Design practices.
Codes, standards, regulations, and organizations.
Legal issues.
The design process of the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) and the American
Institute of Architects (AIA).
With the expansion of security and special systems, nontraditional bodies of knowledge
that can now be included in the responsibilities of the ESS designer include the
following systems:
Voice and notification.
Nurse call.
Mustering.
Radio frequency identification (RFID) inventory management.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design Fundamentals


The practice of safety and security design involves the ability to use and integrate
various practices, methodologies, and devices, resulting in improved safety and
security. Many elements of design are unique to the protection of life and property,
and others are multidisciplinary.
The ESS designer must have a thorough understanding of the fundamentals described
in detail throughout this manual and be able to incorporate aspects of the trades brought
into the ESS design by other professionals. Depending on the expertise or knowledge of
the ESS designer, additional support may not be necessary. Physical and ESS systems
must work as a comprehensive package. The ESS designer must understand how they
influence each other to be successful.
Access Control
Access control is the process by which access to an asset or location can be limited to those
individuals expressly authorized for its use. Access control is important for overall personal
safety and the protection of physical and intellectual property. Access control devices can
include entry point locks, integrated electronic devices controlling a single door or room, or a
complex system of interconnected electronic devices controlling a zone, building, or campus.
ESS designs can be affected by each individuals location and the level of security desired.
Surveillance
Video surveillance is a widely used technology within ESS systems, and it involves the use of
cameras for watching or controlling assets. Video surveillance is the process of image:
Capturing.
Transmitting.
Processing.
Viewing.
Recording.
This technology requires knowledge of cameras and their placement, image transmission, and
recording principles.
Intrusion Detection
Intrusion detection is often viewed as part of the ACS because most door controls for access
control can alarm when the door is left open or opened without a valid card read. However,
it is a stand-alone system that must be evaluated to its own standards and levels of due
diligence. These systems use everything from simple switches to complex devices that detect
motion, heat, glass breaking, or other nonstandard occurrences in the area to detect the
presence of people in secure zones. Intrusion detection systems (IDS) can generate simple
local or paging alarms, or they can be integrated with other systems to provide more active
responses (e.g., turning on cameras or lighting).

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Fire Detection and Alarm


Fire detection and alarm involves the early detection and notification of life safety threats.
Fire detection and alarm requires that the ESS designer have a thorough knowledge of
specific codes, statutes, and the requirements of the applicable AHJ.
Special Systems
With the convergence of systems to the network, the addition of specialty systems, such
as nurse call, RFID tracking, intercom, and mustering, will sometimes fall under the
responsibilities of the ESS designer.
Network Security
As more systems migrate to the network, the issues associated with protecting those systems
must be addressed. Isolation can provide protection, but it comes at the cost of remote access.
Remote access to a network allows the possibility of outside interference and harm. Firewalls,
encryption, virtual private networks (VPNs), and other methods of protection are available.
Integrated Systems
Integrated systems cover concepts, systems, and processes related to the convergence of ESS
systems or their integration with other building systems. Through integration, ESS systems
begin to interact with other building systems. Integrated ESS systems are deployed in a wide
variety of applications, including facilities, campuses, vehicles, and personal tracking.
Types of Projects
An ESS project may be:
An original design.
A retrofit of an existing plan.
An upgrade or replacement of an existing system.
To successfully complete a project, the ESS designer must be able to interact with building
owners, tenants, architects, engineers, and security professionals. Additionally, the ESS
designer may need to consult end users and other stakeholders.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Current and Future Trends in Safety and Security


Several areas in ESS design are affected by rapid advancement in technology, including:
IT.
Physical security.
Integration of ACS and BAS.
Video surveillance.
Technology advancements and convergence.
Information Technology (IT)
Most current systems have migrated to the use of the IP network for communication
between the servers and control panels. Some are hybrid systems where there are limited
gateways to the network, and the devices communicate through older protocols for the
subsystem communication. The ESS designer must understand the system communication
methods, the required infrastructure particular to the specific system installed, and the
effect network outages will have on system functionality.
The ESS designer must understand the impact of the project on the clients IT networks.
The impact may be financial, operational, and physical (e.g., switch ports, bandwidth, cabling).
The ESS designer also must have a reasonable understanding of network terminology,
architecture, and function. Coordination with the clients IT department is important for
ensuring the success of any safety or security project that has an impact on the IT network.
Physical Security
Physical security involves measures that deter, detect, delay, mitigate, or notify any attempt to
injure, damage, modify, or remove an asset or person. This includes damage by accident, fire,
environmental elements, crime, vandalism, and industrial espionage. It can be a simple device
or multiple layers of electronic measures.
Strong security measures also come at a cost, and there can be no perfect security. It is up to
a security designer to balance security features and a tolerable amount of personnel access
against available resources as well as the risk to assets that are to be protected.
Depending on the situation, consulting with architects, engineers, and hardware designers
may be necessary for physical security considerations. This reference manual will describe,
in detail, situations and hardware types for general building applications being governed by
conventional codes. In some special situations (e.g., military, correctional facilities, hospitals),
codes commonly used for commercial buildings may not apply.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Integration of Access Control Systems (ACS) and Building


Automation Systems (BAS)
The client often will require multiple levels of access within a space, and personnel may
require access to a number of different areas, rooms, or spaces. The access levels may
change over time and may impact or be impacted by other building systems. When an ACS
is integrated with one or more BAS, the design goals require a more holistic approach.
Observing the clients space and surrounding areas has always been a major aspect of access
control as part of the security system. Understanding how the ACS integrates with BAS and
subsystems in the surrounding areas is becoming a major factor in the design of ACS.
Video Surveillance
Video surveillance systems record activities in the clients targeted areas for local or
remote review. Modern camera systems may be:
Digital.
Analog.
Digital/analog hybrids.
IP.
Many factors will affect the selection, including court admissibility, network impact,
and available space within buildings to house equipment.
Technology Advancements and Convergence
Technologys growing impact on security has led to the convergence of many systems.
Convergence can encompass a range of capabilities, from limited monitoring to full
command and control functions across a common IP network.
Some of the most common types of convergence are the interconnection of:
Multiple systems within a single site.
Single systems across multiple sites.
Multiple systems across multiple sites.
This shift in implementation is driving a change in both the security industry and
communications industry. Professionals in both industries have to learn more concerning
each industry. Todays successful security professionals must understand the cabling
infrastructure required for an installation, while cabling infrastructure professionals are
asked to perform more safety and security related tasks.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Manual Overview
This third edition of the ESSDRM comprises 12 chapters and two appendixes that contain
information intended to assist both security specialists and IT professionals in understanding
the systems and the convergence that occurs between the industries. The following is a brief
description of what the reader can expect to find in each chapter of this reference manual.
Chapter 2: Principles of Security
Chapter 2 discusses security planning and applications that pertain to the integration of a
system of deterrence and detection by electronic means, including the:
Basics of security theory.
Fundamentals of security design.
Roles of practitioners involved in electronic security systems.
Skills and experience required for each role.
Chapter 3: Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design Process
Chapter 3 introduces the ESS design process by discussing the various types of contractual
relationships and the following design process phases:
Schematic design
Design development
Construction documentation
Bidding
Construction administration
Postconstruction
Chapter 3 also provides guidance to the ESS designer to adequately address the information
from the client as prepared by a consultant, including:
Threat assessment.
Client interview.
Facility location analysis.
Additionally, the roles of team members and the interaction between those individuals during
the various design process phases are explored.
Chapter 4: Access Control Systems (ACS)
Chapter 4 explores the purpose and application of ACS. The various types of systems are
discussed, including a review of the hardware and software requirements. RFID and IP
integration are included in this chapter.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 5: Video Surveillance Systems (VSS)


Chapter 5 provides an overview of video surveillance fundamentals. Designing with a
perspective-oriented approach is discussed. The progression from analog also is explained.
Chapter 6: Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
Electronic intrusion detection is designed to both ensure the detection of and allow a timely
response or deterrent to security breaches that may adversely affect people and property.
Chapter 6 explores the basics of design and provides examples of the application of various
types of sensors to provide intrusion detection.
Chapter 7: Fire Detection and Alarm Systems
Chapter 7 provides an overview of the complex subject of fire detection and alarm
systems, including:
Classes of fire alarm and detection systems.
Components that initiate a fire alarm condition.
Detectors and systems currently available.
Fire suppression systems and their related initiation devices.
Notification appliances.
Chapter 8: Notification, Communication, and Display Devices
Notification and display devices provide a means of communicating a message through the
use of audio or display devices or a combination of both. Chapter 8 discusses:
Audio communication.
Emergency telephones.
Public address and paging.
Display devices.
Chapter 9: Special Systems
Chapter 9 explains the design and application of various specialty systems. It provides an
ESS designer with the fundamental tools necessary to properly design some of the more
basic systems as well as a level of knowledge necessary to work in cooperation with the
specific system providers. Some of the systems discussed include:
Nurse call.
RFID.
At-risk human perimeter systems.
Asset management systems.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 10: Network Concepts


Chapter 10 is divided into two sections:
Network design principles
Network security
Section 1: Network Design Principles
The first section provides an introduction to the design principles for IP-based ESS
systems. It includes a brief overview of the IP network-based security world, followed
by a general introduction to network architecture and the considerations necessary for
the planning, design, and implementation of state-of-the-art systems.
Section 2: Network Security
The second section focuses on a broad overview of threats and countermeasures for
network security as it relates to IP-based ESS system design. Risks and control measures
are explained and discussed.
Chapter 11: Systems Integration
Chapter 11 discusses the concepts, systems, and processes related to the integration
of ESS, including:
ESS systems.
Command and control.
Data networks.
Building automation.
Fire-life-safety.
Energy/lighting management.
Chapter 12: System Operation and Commissioning
Chapter 12 provides ESS designers, security contractors, and end users with a framework
to develop standardized policies and procedures.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Appendix A: Codes, Standards, Regulations, and Organizations


Appendix A provides an overview of the codes, standards, and regulations that the ESS
designer must work with, including:
Telecommunications.
Building and construction.
Electrical.
Fire protection.
Life safety.
Security.
Appendix B: Legal Aspects of Electronic Safety and Security (ESS) Design
Appendix B examines some of the legal issues relevant to the ESS designer regarding
liability and risk.

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