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Design of Pollution Control Equipment

Workplace environment has direct impact on a employees
Particulate matter is a major air pollutant in the industrial
workplace environment.
Major harmful effects of Respirable Suspended Particulate
Matter (RSPM) are bronchitis, red eyes, respiratory
symptoms and aggravated asthma.
De-dusting systems are used for abatement of such
potential health hazard as a part of industrial hygiene.
Design of a more efficient and effective de-dusting system
as compared to the existing one has been done using
ACGIH guidelines for Industrial Ventilation.

Limit Values of Dust (TWA/8 hrs)

Related Research Work

S.M.T.K Samarakoon and S.Thiruchelvam (2006) showed
in their research results that about 41% and 12% of the
total population living within 500 m and 1000 m distance
from the lime kiln area, respectively were experiencing
high health costs due to exposure to lime dust.
Ali B.A, Ballal S.G,Alba A.A et al (1998) showed in their
epidemiological study that particulate matter like cement
dust causes increased risk of respiratory diseases.
A case study in alumina industry by P.K.Pattajoshi (2006)
revealed that permissible limit values exceeded in locations
like lime plant bunker area and recommendation of a good
dust extraction was given.

Related Research Work (contd)

C.M.Hammond (1980) stressed the importance of further
research in design of local exhaust ventilation hoods.
Krieger,Dames and Moore(1995) showed in their risk
assessment project that fugitive emissions of a lime factory
contributed to air pollution.
Many such studies have been cited in project which show
that particulate matter is an occupational health hazard and
emphasize on the use of dust captive systems for effective
management of occupational health in any industry.

Site Visit Findings

With focus on status of work zone area, following observations
were made
Dust generation during handling and transfer of powdered
raw material, material unloading and vehicle movement.
Fugitive emissions generation due to dust leakage from
conveyors and conveyor transfer points.
Too much dust in ambience
Dust control being done by dry cyclone based dust extraction

Problems in Existing Dust Control System

Low cleaning efficiency

Higher dust emission from stack
Ducts get frequently choked
Inadequate suction at the hoods
Puffing taking place at suction points
Work zone is dusty
Dust deposited on floor of work place
Loss of precious material
Adverse effects on workers health
Breakdowns and repetitive problems for long duration

Site Pollutant Characteristics

Reacts with water to form Ca (OH) 2 and lots of heat
Reacts with CO2 to form CaCO3
Exposure causes severe eye irritation, burning, skin irritation and
respiratory irritation.
Concentration Limits


Common name



Calcium oxide

Quick Lime

5 mg/m3

2 mg/m3



15 mg/m3

10 mg/m3



10 mg/m3

10 mg/m3



15 mg/m3

10 mg/m3

Basics of Industrial Ventilation

Industrial ventilation is a method of controlling worker
exposure to airborne toxic chemicals or flammable vapors
by exhausting contaminated air away from the work area
and replacing it with clean air.
Local exhaust ventilation is used in industries to capture

Air cleaning device

Selection criteria for appropriate dust

collection equipment
Following factors are considered

Contaminant concentration
Gas stream characteristics
Contaminant characteristics
Energy consideration
Dust disposal
Efficiency required

Comparing all the factors for various dust collectors, bag filter was
selected for the proposed dust extraction system.

Design of Bag Filter Based Dust Extraction System

Dust is generated in work zone area during material
transfer by conveyor belt.
As compared to the present dust control system, a better
and more efficient dust extraction system is designed for
conveyor belt ventilation.
Changes made

Review of suction air quantity based on ACGIH norms

Designing a number of suction hoods and their location
Designing a bag house filter
Designing a stack of suitable height

Design Philosophy
Several empirical formulae are available for calculations
and design. Amongst them, the design guidelines and
criteria given by the American Conference of
Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) in
Industrial Ventilation A Manual of Recommended
Practice are most widely followed by engineers to design
local ventilation systems.
The ACGIH ventilation manual contains dozens of design
plates of ventilation systems for specific industrial
applications that have been used to control emissions. The
next slide is the ACGIH design plate for conveyor belt

Design Calculations


BELT WIDTH: 1.2 metre
BELT SPEED: 1.5 m/sec

MATERIAL: LIMESTONE (~ 50 mm size) LIME (less than 3 mm)

Calculation of suction velocity
According to ACGIH Design Norms for conveyor belt ventilation; Suction air
quantity Q is greater than or equal to 2800 m3/hr/m belt width for belt speeds over
1 m/sec. Considering 20 % design cushion for leakage air entrance from either side
of the hood, the total volume of air to be considered for designing the components
of the dust extraction system may be
Air Quantity Q = 2800 m3 / hr x 1.2 = 3360 m3 / hr
However as the material is lime powder, which is very dry and dusty, a material
factor of 2 is considered.
Suction Air Quantity Q = 3360 x 2 m3 / hr = 6720 m3 / hr

Design Calculations (contd)

Since the height of fall is more than 1 metre, we add an extra exhaust air of
1700 m3 / hr at the other end. It is proposed to install three suction hoods as

Design Calculations (contd)

Air quantity from hood H1 = air quantity from hood H2
Thus, the air quantity to be sucked from hood H3 = 1700 m3 / hr
The total Suction Air Quantity Q to be considered for further designing of components of
dust extraction system = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 = 6720 + 6720 + 1700 = 15140 m3 / hr


The suction hood is fabricated from MS plates. The capture velocity of a hood ranges
from 0.8 m/sec for fine powder to 2.5 m/sec for grains and 3 m/sec for lumps.
Air Quantity = 6720 m3 / hr = 1.87 m3 / sec
Now, air quantity Q = area A x capture velocity
Taking capture velocity of hood to be 1 m/sec
1.87 m3 / sec = A x 1 m / sec
Area of hood = 1.87 m2

Design Calculations (contd)

For a square section, Area = Side2
Hood size = 1.87 m x 1 m
Selecting a canopy hood and considering the belt width, the dimensions are
obtained as shown.
1.87 m


Design Calculations (contd)


Duct velocity is in the range of 18 to 22 m/sec for horizontal ducts and 14

to 18 m/sec for vertical ducts. The inspection and cleaning doors are to be
provided at suitable locations in the ducting layout. The duct shall be of
circular cross section.
Suction Air Quantity = 6720 m3 / hr = 1.87 m3 / sec
Q = D x velocity

where D is the diameter of duct.

Taking duct velocity to be 22 m/sec
Q = D x 22

D = 328 mm
A duct of size 325 mm is selected.

Design Calculations (contd)

Air Quantity = 1700 m3 / hr = 0.472 m3 / sec
Now, air quantity Q = area A x capture velocity
0.472 m3 / sec = A x 1 m / sec
Area of hood = 0.472 m2
A square canopy hood of 0.7 side is considered.

Air Quantity = 1700 m3 / hr = 0.472 m3 / sec
Diameter comes out to be 165 mm. A duct of size 165 mm is selected.
Considering 20 % design cushion for leakage, ageing, etc
System Capacity = 15140 m3 / hr x 1.2 = 18000 m3 / hr

Design Calculations (contd)

Inlet dust load as measured = 10 gm / Nm3
As per latest CPCB norms, Stack norms = 150 mg / Nm3
Designing shall be done for a lower value of 100 mg/Nm3
Bag filter efficiency = 10 1000 100


Bag filter efficiency = 99%

Air to cloth ratio is generally taken as 90 m/hr.
Air quantity coming to the bag filter system = 18000 m3 / hr
Cloth area = Air Quantity = 200 m2
Air to cloth ratio

Selecting bags of diameter 160 mm and height 3.6 m as per standard bags
available in the market;
Cloth area / bag = D L = x 0.16 m x 3.6 m = 1.8 m2
Number of bags required =


= 111 or say 112.

Design Calculations (contd)

The type of fan for dust extraction application shall be centrifugal type with provision of
direct type. The impeller of the fan shall be backward curved radial type. Noise level at
1 m distance from fan and motor assembly shall be limited to 85 db. For this purpose,
the noise silencer shall be provided at the fan outlet side.
Capacity required = 18000 m3 / hr
Static Pressure = 300 mm WC
1.1 Q H
Rating of motor =
102 3600 fan efficiency motor efficiency derating factor

Air Quantity = 18000 m3 / hr

H = 300 mm of water column
Assuming Fan efficiency = 0.8 Motor efficiency = 0.95 Derating Factor is 0.9 for 50 C
1.118000 300
102 3600 0.8 0.95 0.9 =

Rating of motor =
23.64 kW
Motors available in market are of standard horsepower. Thus the rating of electric motor
shall be 30 kW and speed 1500 rpm.

Design Calculations (contd)

Norms are that the stack height should be at least 30 m or 15 m above the nearest
tallest building in the immediate surrounding area of the stack. The building
nearest to the place of proposed stack is 35 m in height.
Thus stack height will be 50 metre
Air Quantity = 18000 m3 / hr = 5 m3 / hr
Air Quantity =

D 2

x efflux velocity of stack

Efflux velocity of stack is taken to be 15 m/ sec for effective dispersion of dust

emissions from the stack
5 m3 / hr =

D 2

D = 650 mm

x 15 m/sec

Design Calculations (contd)

An electrical panel and the power will be made available by a suitable feeder up to the
motor control center (MCC). The following instruments also need to installed
Flow measurement of fan
Temperature measurements of incoming air in duct, inlet of bag filter
Differential pressure measurements across bag filter
The following safety aspects need to be kept in mind during the design and operation of
the dust extraction system.
Bag filter casing design shall withstand shut off head of fan
The fan and bag filter shall be interlocked with the belt conveyor system so that
the fan will suck air only when the belt conveyor is running.
The hopper below the bag filter shall have minimum 8 hrs of storage capacity.
Lightning arrester, orange and white stripes and aviation lamps shall be installed
on the stack.
Port holes, ladder and platform for stack monitoring shall be provided with all the
stacks and be maintained in good condition.

Design Calculations (contd)


The following utilities are needed to be set up alone with the dust extraction system.
All electrical supplies and works including wiring, cabling etc and power facility
at 40 kW 3 phase connection, 415 V 50 Hz
Compressed air facility of 20 m3/hr at pressure 6-8 kg/cm2 is required for bag
Industrial water facility
Fire Fighting water facility
Drinking water facility
Handling and hosting facilities- moonbeam with electric hoist shall be provided
for motor and fan maintenance
Screw conveyors to remove captured dust from the bottom of the hoppers under
the fabric filter and (if used) mechanical collector. Alternatively, air conveying
(pneumatic) systems and direct dumping into containers can be used for dust removal
from the hoppers.

Conclusion and Recommendations

This project was commenced to design an appropriate de-dusting system for dust
extraction during material transfer in an industry. This project addresses the basic
necessity of a healthy work zone area i.e. occupational hygiene for greater productivity.
Bag filter based de-dusting system has been suggested with cleaning efficiency of
99%. Latest CPCB norms of 100 mg / Nm3 (stack emissions) has been considered in
line with latest industrial trends following Air Act, CREP etc
The total dust extraction system for the junction house consists of 3 suction
hoods, ductwork, butterfly dampers at appropriate locations, a modular casing entry, offline, pulse-jet bag filter, a centrifugal ID fan and a self supported stack.
3. Proper dust conveying velocities have been selected to avoid dust settling in ducts.
Sufficient cushion has been kept in the air volume calculations to maintain proper
suction at hoods.
The designed dust extraction system not only keeps the work atmosphere free
from air pollution but also aids in precious material (lime) being recovered, which can
be ploughed back into the process.

Conclusion and Recommendations

In addition to the more efficient de-dusting system designed for air pollution control in
work zone, the following steps are recommended to be brought into practice in the Lime
Shop as routine job.
Provision should be made to spray water on the feeders before charging the raw
material into shaft kilns in Lime Shop. This would ultimately result in less dust
generation, healthy environment for the workers and stack emissions inside the norms.
Stationary and mobile super suckers or industrial vacuum cleaners should be
utilized regularly as per requirements in various areas and floors for better
In house training program on pollution control systems at the Shop and feedback
clarification should be done for the workers.
Scheduled and routine maintenance of the pollution control systems should be
carried out.
Handling of lime, a sticky and hygroscopic material, is an operationally difficult
task. Special moisture repellant polypropylene filter bags can be used .

Conclusion and Recommendations

6. Hopper heaters, zero speed switches, level switches and DP switches
which ensure the smooth and trouble free operation of the system can be
7. Dust masks meeting the NIOSH N95 rating should be made compulsory
for workers.
8. Full clothing to cover arms and legs, gloves, safety glasses or face shield
should be provided to workers handling lime.
9. Eye wash and shower station should be readily available.
10. Offline cleaning should be preferred as high level particulate emission
takes place during on-line cleaning process.