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TAREA

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PROCESOS DE ALIMENTOS I 2015-2
DEPARTAMENTO DE INGENIERIA QUIMICA Y AMBIENTAL
UTFSM, CASA CENTRAL, VALPARAISO


















Alumno: Matas Lpez.


Profesor: Sergio Almonacid.
Fecha: 26/10/2015

1. The following data were obtained from a thermal resistance experiment conducted
on a spore suspension at 112C:

Time[min]
0
4
8
12

Number of survivors
1E+6
1,1E+5
1,2E+4
1,2E+3


Determine the D value of the microorganism. [4.1 min]
La pendiente de la grfica LOG(N) en el tiempo es igual a:

1
=

Entonces se grfica la siguiente tabla:



Time[min]
LOGN
0
6
4
5,041392685
8
4,079181246
12
3,079181246

LOG(N) v/s tiempo


7
6

y = -0,2431x + 6,0086

LOG(N)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

12

14

Tiempo[min]


La pendiente es de:

= 0,2431

1
1
=
= 4,11[]

0,2431


2. The following data were obtained from a thermal resistance experiment conducted
on a spore suspension at 112C:

Time[min]
0
15
30
45
60

Number of survivors
1E+6
2,9E+5
8,4E+4
2,4E+4
6,9E+3


Determine the D value of the microorganism. [27.8 min]
Se sigue el mismo procedimiento que el ejercicio anterior.

Time[min]
LOGN
0
6
15
5,46
30
4,92
45
4,38
60
3,83


LOG(N) v/s tiempo


7
y = -0,036x + 6,0031

6
LOG(N)

5
4
3
2
1
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Tiempo[min]

La pendiente es de:

= 0,036
1
1
=
=
= 27,77[]

0,036

3. Calculate the D value of an organism which shows 30 survivors from an initial
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inoculum of 510 spores after 10 min at 121C. [1.9 min]
Segn el problema se tiene que:

Time[min]
0
10

N
Survivor
5000000
30

LOGN
6,69
1,47


Se determina la pendiente de la recta.

2 1 6,69 1,47
=
=
= 0,52
2 1
10 0

1
1
=
=
= 1,91[]

0,52

4. The decimal reduction times D for a spore suspension were measured at several
temperatures, as follows:
T[C]
104
107
110
113
116

D[min]
27,5
14,5
7,5
4
2,2


Determine the thermal resistance constant z for the spores. [11.1C]
Se grafican los linealizan los datos, es decir, aplicar logaritmo en base diez.


T[C]
LOG(D)
104
1,43
107
1,16
110
0,87
113
0,60
116
0,34

Log(D) v/s Temperatura


1,6
1,4
LOG(D)

1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4

y = -0,0918x + 10,979

0,2
0
102

104

106

108

110

112

114

116

118

Temperatura [C]


Se tiene que:

1
=

1
1
=

= 10,9[]
0,0918


5. If the z value of a microorganism is 16.5C and D121 = 0.35 min, what is D110?
[1.62 min]
Igual que en el ejercicio anterior, se calcula a travs de la ecuacin de la recta (con los
datos linealizados).

T[C]
D
LOG(D)
121
0,35
-0,455
110
-
-

Se tiene que,

(2) (1)
=

2 1
1
=

1 (2) (1)
=

2 1
1
2
(2 1) = ( )

1
!
! (!!!!!)
2 = 1 10 !

(!!"!!"!)

2 = 0,35 10 !",!
2 = 1,62[]


6. Estimate the spoilage probability of a 50 min process at 113C when D113 = 4 min
4
-8
and the initial microbial population is 10 per container. [3.1610 ]
Se tiene que,
=

1 (/)
=

1
( ) = (/)

!
= 10!!(!!!")
!

= 10! 10!!(!") = 3,16 10!!



7. An F0 value of 7 min provides an acceptable economic spoilage for a given product.
Determine the process time at 115C. [27.9 min]
Se pueden relacionar el F y F de referencia de la siguiente forma:

=

!"# !"#

!!"# !!

= 10 !
!"#
Se puede reescribir como:

!!"# !!

= 10 !
!"#
!!"# !!

!"!!!!"
!"

= !"# 10 ! = 7 10
= 27,86[]

8. The F value at 121.1C for a 99.999% inactivation of a strain of Clostridium


Botulinum is 1.2 min. What is the D value of this organism at 121.1C? [0.24 min].
El nmero de reducciones,
=

y
=
segn el enunciado el nmero final de sobrevivientes es igual a:

=

0,001

100

reemplaza:
=

= 5
0,001
100


5 = 1,2
= 0,24[]


9. Considering that 12 is the minimum sterilizing value for the inactivation of
Clostridium Botulinum spores, calculate F0 based on inactivation of Clostridium
Botulinum. [2.88 min]
Se debe trabajar con el D calculado en el ejercicio anterior para obtener una
esterilizacin adecuada (mnimo requerido):

! = 12

! = 12 0,24 = 2,88 []



10. A process is based on an F0 = 2.88 min. If a can contained 10 spores of an
organism having D0 = 1.5 min, calculate the probability of spoilage from the latter
organism. [12%]

=

= 10!

10
= ! = !,!! = 0,12
10! 10 !,!


11. A canned food prior to processing contains 1000 spores per can. The spores have a
D value of 1.5 min at 121.1C. If the process is carried out to an equivalent process
time of 10 min at 121.1C, what would be the probability of spoilage? [2/10000]
Del ejercicio anterior se sabe que:

1000
2
= ! =
!" = 0,0002 = 10000
10! 10!,!

12. If the most probable spore load in a product is 100 spores per can and the D0 = 1.5
min, calculate the time of heating at 121.1C necessary to achieve a probability of
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spoilage from this organism of one in 10 cans. Under these conditions, the D0 of
Clostridium Botulinum Type B is 0.2 min. Is the calculated process time F0 equivalent
to or more than what is required for a 12D reduction of Clostridium Botulinum?
[F0 = 10.5 min]
1

!
=
= 10 = 7

100
= 7 1,5 = 10,5 []
El valor calculado de F es mucho mayor que el F0 (2,54[min]).
13. What level of inoculation of PA 3679 (D0 = 1.2 min) is required such that a
probability of spoilage of one in 100 is attributed to PA 3679 would be equivalent to
12 D inactivation of Clostridium Botulinum? Assume the same temperature process
and the same z values for both organisms. The D0 value of Cl. Botulinum is 0.22
min. [N0=1.6]
Se sabe que:
= 12 = 12 0,22 = 2,64[]
y Do es igual a 1,2 [min].


!,!"

= 10! = 0,01 10 !,! = 1,6



14. For an initial inoculum of 10 spores/g of product (D121C = 1.2 min), a spoilage
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rate of one can in 10 is desired. Calculate an F value for the process that would give
the desired level of inactivation. Calculate F138C for a z value of 10C. [F0=7.2 min
F138,10=0.14 min]

! =

10
= 1,2
= 7,2[]
1

!
10
!!"# !!

= 10 !
!"#
!!"# !!
!

= !"# 10

!"!!!"#
!"

= 7,2 10


15. For an initial inoculum of 100 spores/can of product (D121C = 1.5 min, z = 8C), a
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spoilage rate of one can in 10 is desired. Calculate F115C value for the process that
would give the desired level of inactivation. [50.6 min]

!!"# !!
(115)
= 10 !
(121)
!!"# !!
10 !

!"!!!!"
!

(115) = (121)
= 1,5 10
(115) = 8,4[]


100
= 50,64[]
1
!
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16. Realice el mismo clculo hecho en problema 15, pero utilice k y Ea. Son los
resultados iguales. Explique.
= 8,4

Por Arrhenius:

! (! ) 2.303 394 (121 8) 2.303


=
= 364,85

281
!" !

= ! ! !!!"
(10)