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GE 2021/ENVIRONMENTAL

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING


B.E. Mechanical Engineering
June 2014 Nov 2014
Prepared by
Dr. P. GOPI KRISHNA
SLAEC
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ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY

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ECOSYSTEM
Defined area in which a community lives with
interaction taking place among the organisms
between the community and its non-living physical
environment
An ecosystem is formed by the interaction between
all living and non-living things

Structure:
Living (biotic)
Nonliving (abiotic)
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ABIOTIC components:
Solar energy provides practically all the
energy for ecosystems.
Inorganic substances, e.g., sulfur, boron and
carbon cycle through ecosystems.
Organic compounds, such as proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids, and other complex
molecules, form a link between biotic and
abiotic components of the system.
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BIOTIC components:
The biotic components of an ecosystem can be classified
according to their mode of energy acquisition.
In this type of classification, there are:
Autotrophs

Organisms that produce their own food from an energy


source, such as the sun, and inorganic compounds.
Heterotrophs

Organisms that consume other organisms as a food


source.
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Producers are able to capture the sun's energy through


photosynthesis and absorb nutrients from the soil,
storing them for future use by themselves and by
other organisms. Grasses, shrubs, trees, mosses,
lichens, and cyanobacteria.
Consumers are organisms that do not have the
ability to capture the energy produced by the sun,
but consume plant and/or animal material to gain
their energy for growth and activity. Consumers are
further divided into three types based on their
ability to digest plant and animal material

Herbivores eat only plants Deer, Elephant and


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Goat

Carnivores eat only animals, such as the snake, lion,


tiger etc.,

Omnivores eat both plants and animals, such as the


black bear, mice, rat, human etc.,

Decomposers they feed on dead organic matter


that includes the insects, fungi, algae and bacteria
both on the ground and in the soil that help to break
down the organic layer to provide nutrients for
growing plants. There are many millions of these
organisms in each square metre of grassland.
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Tropic Levels
A tropic level is the position occupied by an organism in
a food chain.
Tropic levels can be analyzed on an energy pyramid.
Producers are found at the base of the pyramid and
compromise the first tropic level.
Primary consumers make up the second tropic level.
Secondary consumers make up the third tropic level.
Finally tertiary consumers make up the top tropic
level.
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Food web
In nature simple food chains occur rarely
The same organism may operate in the ecosystem at more
than one tropic level i.e. it may derive its food from more
than one source. Even the same organism may be eaten by
several organisms of a higher tropic level or an organism
may feed upon several different organisms of a lower
tropic level. usually the kind of food changes with the age
of the organism and the food availability. Thus in a given
ecosystem various food chains are linked together and
interested each other to form a complex network called
food Web.
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ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION
In a particular area, one community of species may be
replaced by another community; The progressive replacement
of one community by another till the development of stable
community in a particular area is called as ecological
succession.
TYPES OF SUCCESSION
Primary succession.
If an area in any of the basic environments (such as
terrestrial, fresh-water or marine) is established by organisms
for the first time, the succession is called primary succession.

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Secondary succession.
If the area under established has been cleared by
whatsoever agency (such as burning, grazing, clearing, felling
of trees, sudden change in climatic factors, etc.) of the
previous plants, it is called secondary succession.
Autogenic succession.
After the succession has begun, in most of the cases, it is
the community itself (as a result of its reactions with the
environment) modifies its own environment and, thus,
causing its own replacement by new communities. This course
of succession is known as autogenic succession.
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ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM

Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. For living


organisms, it is the basic force responsible for running all the
metabolic activities. The flow of energy from producer level
to top consumer level is called energy flow.
The flow of energy in an ecosystem is unidirectional. It
flows from producer level to consumer level.
The process of energy flow involves transfer of energy from
autotrophs to various components of heterotrophs and help
in maintaining bio diversity. The main source of energy in the
ecosystem is sunlight. About 80% of energy is lost during flow
of energy from one tropic level to the next one.
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Food Chain in Ecosystem


In an ecosystem one can observe the transfer or flow of energy
from one tropic level to other in succession.
A tropic level can be defined as the number of links by which it
is separated from the producer, or as the which position of the
organism in the food chain.
Thus, primary producers trap radiant energy of sun and transfer
that to chemical or potential energy of organic compounds such as
carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
When a herbivore animal eats a plant (or when bacteria
decompose it) and these organic compounds are oxidized, the
energy liberated is just equal to the amount of energy used in
synthesizing the substances (first law of thermodynamics), but some
of the energy is heat and not useful energy (second law of
thermodynamics).
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If this animal is eaten by another one, along with transfer of


energy from a herbivore to carnivore a further decrease in
useful energy occurs as the second animal (carnivore) oxidizes
the organic substances of the first (herbivore or omnivore) to
liberate energy to synthesize its own cellular constituents.
Such transfer of energy from organism to organism
sustains the ecosystem and when energy is transferred from
individual to individual in a particular community, as in a pond
or a lake or a river, we come across the food chains.

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Ecological Pyramids
In the successive steps of grazing food chain
producers, herbivorous, carnivores and decay
bacteria-the number and mass of the organisms in
each step is limited by the amount of energy
available. Since some energy is lost as heat, in each
transformation the steps become progressively
smaller near the top. This relationship is sometimes
called "ecological pyramid". The ecological pyramids
represent the tropic structure and also tropic
function of the ecosystem.
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Definition:
Graphical representation of structure and
function of tropic levels of an ecosystem.
Types of Ecological Pyramids
The ecological pyramids may be of following
three kinds
Pyramid of number
Pyramid of biomass
Pyramid of energy
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Pyramid of number
It depicts the number of individual organisms at different
tropic levels of food chain. The animals at the lower end (base
of pyramid) of the chain are the most abundant. Successive
links of carnivores decrease rapidly in number until there are
very few carnivores at the top. The pyramid of number ignores
the biomass of organisms and it also does not indicate the
energy transferred or the use of energy by the groups involved.
The grassland ecosystem provides a typical example for
pyramid of number.

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Pyramid of biomass
The biomass of the members of the food
chain present at any one time forms the pyramid of
the biomass. Pyramid of biomass indicates decrease
of biomass in each tropical level from base to apex.
For example, the total biomass of the producers
ingested by herbivores is more than the total
biomass of the herbivores in an ecosystem. Likewise,
the total biomass of the primary carnivores (or
secondary consumer) will be less than the herbivores
and so on.
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Pyramid of energy
When production is considered in terms
of energy, the pyramid indicates not only the
amount of energy flow at each level the
actual role the various organisms play in the
transfer of energy. the pyramid of energy is
constructed is the quantity of organisms
produced per unit time.
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Classification of Ecosystems / Ecology


Terrestrial Ecosystems -which encompass the activities that
take place on land.
Aquatic ecosystems - the system that exists in water bodies.
Terrestrial ecosystem
Forest ecosystem
Desert ecosystem
Grassland ecosystem
Aquatic ecosystem
Pond ecosystem
River or stream ecosystem
Marine ecosystem
Estuarine ecosystem
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FOREST ECOSYSTEM
A forest ecosystem is the one in which a tall and dense
trees grow that support many animals and birds.
Forest occupies 40% of the worlds land.
Total land area is 19% in India.
There are three important types of forests are
Tropical rain forests.
Temperate deciduous forests.
Coniferous forests.
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Tropical rain forests


They are found near the equator.
These forests have a warm annual mean temperature.
These forests have high humidity and heavy rainfall almost
daily.
These forests consists of broadleaf ever green plants.
These trees have larger surface on their leaves that allows
them to collect more sunlight and do photosynthesis
extensively.
Tropical rain forests have wide varieties of species.

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Temperate Deciduous forests:


Temperate deciduous forests can be found in the eastern part
of the United States and Canada, Europe ,China and Japan
Winter, spring and summer. Winters are cold and summers
are warm.
Temperate deciduous forests have a great variety of plant
species.
Conifers like spruce, fir and pine trees can also be found
mixed in with the hardwood trees.
There is great diversity of life. Insects, fox,deer etc., are
common.

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Coniferous forests:
The temperate coniferous forest includes areas South
America, New Zealand North America, northwest Europe and
Iceland and southern Japan
Many softwood trees such as fir, pine, spruce.
Most animals are herbivores, however some carnivores and
omnivores are thrown in. Animals in Coniferous Forests
include the red fox, moose and owl.
Coniferous Forests are the largest land of the World.
A Conifer is a tree that produces its seeds in cones. The Pine
tree is the most common example. Conifer leaves conserve
water with the thick, waxy layer that covers their leaves.
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STRUCTURE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM


ABIOTIC COMPONENTS:
Climate factors(Temp,light,rainfall)
BIOTIC COMPONENTS:
1.Producers: Trees,shrubs etc.,
2.Consumers:
Primary consumers : ants,flies & insects
Secondary consumers : snakes,birds.
Tertiary consumers : tiger,lion.
3.Decomposers: Bacteria,fungi
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GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM
20% of earth surface.

It improves the production of grasslands.


Overgrazing leads to desertification.

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There are three types of grasslands


A. Tropical grasslands
B. Temperate grasslands
C. Polar grasslands
Tropical grasslands
They has high temperature and moderate rain fall, 40100cm.They have tall grasses with scatteres shrubs.They are
the shelter for animals like zebras, giraffes and African
elephant. Savanna grassland in Africa is good example for
tropical grassland.
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Temperate grasslands:
Cold in Winters and hot in summers, annual
precipitation is less and falls unevenly through the
year. Pampas in South America and Veldt in Africa
are examples for temperate grasslands.

Polar grasslands:
It is also known as arctic polar region.
Severe cold and strong winds along with ice
and snow. They have animals like arctic fox.
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STRUCTURE OF GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM


ABIOTIC COMPONENTS:
Climate factors(Temp,light,rainfall),C,H,O,N.,
BIOTIC COMPONENTS:
1.Producers: Grass,shrubs etc.,
2.Consumers:
Primary consumers : cow,deer.
Secondary consumers : snakes,birds.
Tertiary consumers : hawks,eagle
3.Decomposers: Bacteria,fungi
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DESERT ECOSYSTEM
Deserts are dry places with unpredictable and infrequent
precipitation.
Desert occupies about 35% of worlds land area.
It is characterizes by 25 cm rain fall.
The atmosphere is dry.
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STRUCTURE OF DESERT ECOSYSTEM


ABIOTIC COMPONENTS:
Climate factors(Temp,light,rainfall)
BIOTIC COMPONENTS:
1.Producers: Trees,grass etc.,
2.Consumers:Squirrels,foxes,rabbits.
3.Decomposers: Bacteria,fungi
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WATER or AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS


The aquatic system deals with water bodies.The
major types of organism found in this ecosystem.
1.Fresh water ecosystem :Ponds,river,stream,lake.
2.Salt water ecosystem: oceans and estuaries.
POND ECOSYSTEM:
It contains algae,plants,insects,fish.
Characteristic :
1.Pond is temporary,seasonal,get polluted easily.
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Lake ecosystem:
Littoral zone
light penetrates to the bottom, allowing aquatic
plants to grow.
Limnetic zone
the open water area where light does not generally
penetrate all the way to the bottom.
Euphotic zone
the layer from the surface down to the depth where light
levels become too low for photosynthesis.
Benthic zone
the bottom sediment.
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LAKE ECOSYSTEM:
Lakes are natural shallow water bodies.
Characteristic:
1.Permanent water body.
2.It helps in irrigation and drinking.
3.It is fresh water body.
RIVER ECOSYSTEM or STREAM ECOSYSTEM:
Well oxygenated,no.of animals are less.
1.It is fresh,flowing water,DO is high,rich in nutrients.
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ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM:
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal area at the
mouth of river, where river joins the sea.
Characteristic:
1.Estuaries are transition zone.

2.Water characteristic are periodically changed.


3.The living organism in this ecosystem have tolerence.
4.Salinity is highest during the summer
5.Salinity is lowest during the winter.
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STRUCTURE OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM


ABIOTIC COMPONENTS:
Climate factors(Temp,light,water,organic and inorganic compounds.
BIOTIC COMPONENTS:
1.Producers: phytoplankton
2.Consumers:
Primary consumers : zooplankton
Secondary consumers : small fish
Tertiary consumers : big fish
3.Decomposers: Bacteria,fungi

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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

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Pollution
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into an
environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or
discomfort to the ecosystem .

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Types of pollution

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Air pollution
Water pollution
Land or soil pollution
Noise pollution
Thermal pollution
Marine pollution
Nuclear pollution
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AIR POLLUTION
Air pollution is the presence of contaminants in atmosphere
in quantities such that it is injurious to human, plant animal
life and property.
Sources of air pollution :
Natural sources : Volcanic eruption, forest fires, biological
decay.
Manmade sources :thermal power plant ,fuel burning,
agriculture activities.

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Classification of Air pollutants:


1.Primary air pollutants: CO,NO & SO2.
Emitted directly in the atmosphere.
INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS:

Radon gas emitted from building materials like bricks,concrete,tiles etc.,


It is present in natural gas and ground water.
burning of fuel in the kitchen,cigaratte, smoke.
2.Secondary air pollutants:HNO3,H2SO4
Primary pollutant may react with one another to form new
pollutants.

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Sulphur dioxide:
The combustion of sulphur containing fuels such as coal and oil.
It can be converted into sulphuric acid.
Human Sources :
Coal burning in power plant (88%)
Industrial processes (10%)
Environmental effects :
In humans : it causes eye irritation, cough, lung diseases including
lung cancer and asthma
In plants: it causes damage of leaves, bleaching of chlorophyll
which turns leaves brown, damage to crops and to growth of plants.
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Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)


Nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and nitrous oxide are the
three main oxides of nitrogen found in the atmosphere
Sources:
The sources for the oxides of nitrogen are:
Bacterial decomposition of nitrogenous compounds
Combustion during lightning : During lightning, oxygen and
nitrogen in the atmosphere combine to give oxides of
nitrogen.
Industries and automobile exhaust - Air is sucked into the IC
engines. At high temperatures, nitrogen and oxygen in the air
combine to form nitric oxide.
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Effects:
The oxides of nitrogen combine with moisture in the
atmosphere to form nitrous and nitric acid. This leads to
increase in the acidity of rain water.
Formation of photochemical smog: oxides of nitrogen
combine with hydrocarbons present in the atmosphere
forming peroxyacyl nitrate.
Control:
Using catalytic converter in automobiles, Catalytic
converters use Pt/ Rh catalyst. the presence of these catalysts,
the oxides of nitrogen are converted to nitrogen and oxygen .
2NOx ---- N2 + x O2
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Carbon monoxide
Sources:
Cigarette smoking,incomplete burning of fuels.
Automobile exhaust- carbon monoxide is formed
during the combustion of fuel such as petrol.(77%)
Industries: carbon monoxide is released by industries
such as iron and steel and petroleum .
CO2 + C ------- 2CO
2CO2
--------- 2CO + O2
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Effects:
In humans:
When the atmosphere is polluted with carbon
monoxide, on inhalation, CO combines with the
hemoglobin to form car boxy hemoglobin and hence
oxygen carrying capacity of the blood decreases.
This causes, headache, dizziness, unconsciousness.
When inhaled for a long duration it may cause even
death.
In environment : it increase globe temp.
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Lead pollutant:
Sources:
The exhaust from automobiles which use lead tetraethyl as
antiknocking agent.
Paint pigments : Litharge and red lead ( oxides of lead ) and
lead chromate are used as pigments. These cause lead
pollution.
Effects:
It leads to anaemia and blood cancer in human beings.
Lead enters the blood and various organs of the body
including the brain and the Kidneys leading to dysfunction of
the kidney and damage to the brain.
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Control of air pollution


Source Control:
Use only unleaded petrol.
Use petroleum products and other fuels that have low
sulphur and ash content.
Reduce the no. of private vehicles
Ensure the houses, schools are not located on busy
streets.
Plant trees along busy streets to reduce particulates, CO
and noise.
Industries should be situated outside the city
Use catalytic converters to control CO &hydrocarbons
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Control measures in industries

The emission rates should be restricted to


permissible levels by industries.
Air pollution control equipments must be
made mandatory.
Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere
for the pollutants, to know the pollution
levels.
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EQUIPMENTS USED TO CONTROL AIR


POLLUTION
Use sufficient supply of oxygen in combustion
chamber, so that the combustion is complete.
Use mechanical devices such as
scrubbers, cyclones, bag houses and electrostatic precipitators to reduce particulate
pollutants
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Electrostatic precipitator

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Bag house filter/cyclone separator

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Wet scrubber

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WATER POLLUTION
Any alteration in physical, chemical or biological properties of water, as well as the
addition of any foreign substance makes it unfit for health and which decreases the
utility of water, is known as water pollution.
Definition of effluent: Liquid waste flowing out of a factory, farm, commercial
establishment, or a household into a water body such as a river, lake, etc.,

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Main sources of water pollution are:


Domestic and municipal sewage
Industrial waste
Agricultural waste
Radioactive materials, etc.,
POINT AND NONPOINT SOURCES
Two types of water pollutants exist;
Point source
Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are
emitted directly into water.
e.g.,Oil spill
Nonpoint source.
A non-point source delivers pollutants indirectly through
environmental changes.
e.g., Fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by rain
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Types of pollutant:
1.Infectious agents: Bacteria, viruses, protozoa
source : animal waste.
Effect : variety of diseases
2.Oxygen demanding waste:
Dissolved oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen dissolved
in given quantity of water at a particular P and T. The
saturation point 8-15mg/lit.
Sources: Sewage, paper waste, food processing waste.
Effects: affect to water quality, affect fish survival and
migration.
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3.Inorganic chemicals : Acids, pb, arsenic, selenium,


sodium chloride and fluorides.
Causes : surface runoff, effluents
Effects: Cause skin cancer, damage nervous system,harm to
fish and aquatic life, lower crop yields.
4.Organic chemicals:Oil, gasoline,plastics,
solvents ,detergents.
Causes: Industrial efflents, surface runoff forms.
Effects: Causing effect nervous system ,cancer, harm fish
and wild life.
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5.Plant nutrients:
Nitrate, phosphate and ammonium ions
Causes: sewage, runoff water from agriculture,fertillizer.
Effects: Excessive growth of algae, lower the oxygen
carrying capacity.
6.Sediment: Soil
Causes: Land erosion.
Effects: Can reduce photosynthesis, Affect aquatic food
webs.
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Sewage treatment
In primary treatment, the suspended solids and
floating objects are removed using coarse screens
and sieves.
In secondary treatment, the maximum proportions
of the suspended inorganic/ organic solids are
removed from the liquid sewage. The liquid material
passes into the sedimentation tank and finely
suspended particles are allowed to settle by adding
coagulants like Alum.
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Tertiary treatment
Remove detergents, metal ions, nitrates and
pesticides, as these are not removed in the earlier
treatments.
The phosphates are removed as calcium phosphates
by adding calcium hydroxide at pH 10-11. At this pH,
ammonium salts are also converted into ammonia.
The effluent is chlorinated to remove pathogenic
bacteria's and finally passed through activated
charcoal to absorb gases.
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Control of water pollution:


Avoid Pesticides and fertilizers on sloped land areas.
The nutrient rich water can be used as fertilizer in the
fields.
Separate drainage of sewage and rain water should be
provided to prevent overflow of sewage with rain water.
Planting more trees.
Use nitrogen fixing plants to supplement the use of
fertilizers.
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SOIL POLLUTION
Soil pollution is caused by the presence of human-made chemicals
or other alteration in the natural soil environment.

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This type of contamination typically arises from,


Application of pesticides and fertilizers
Percolation of contaminated surface water to
subsurface strata, oil and fuel dumping.
Discharge of industrial wastes to the soil. The most
common chemicals involved are petroleum
hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other
heavy metals.
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Effects of soil pollution:


Chronic exposure to chromium, lead and other metals,
petroleum, solvents, and many pesticide and herbicide
formulations can be carcinogenic.
Chronic exposure to benzene leads to leukemia.(blood
cancer)
Mercury and cyclodienes are known to induce higher
incidences of kidney damage.
Sewage sludge has many types of bacteria, viruses and
worms which cause types of diseases and also emits toxic
vapours.
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Radioactive fallout cause abnormalities .eg.,


Strontium-90 instead of calcium gets deposited
in the bones.
Soil contaminants can have significant
deleterious consequences for ecosystems.
Effects occur to agricultural lands which have
certain types of soil contamination.
Alteration of metabolism of endemic
microorganisms.
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N & P from fertilizer in soil reach water bodies with


agricultural runoff cause Eutrophication.
Chemicals contaminates ground water resources.
Acids, alkalis, heavy metals affect soil fertility.
Inhibit non target organism like flora,fauna and soil
productivity.
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Control of soil pollution :


Effluents should be properly treated before
discharging on the soil.
Solid waste should be properly collected and
disposed off by appropriate method.
From the waste, recovery of useful products should
be done.
Cattle dung should be used for methane generation.
Microbial degradation of biodegradable substance
for reducing soil pollution.
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NOISE POLLUTION
Definition: Noise Pollution can be defied as unwanted or unpleasant sounds
that causes discomfort for all living things.
The various sources of noises are associated with urban development;
road-air and rail transport; Industrial noise.
In our country, indiscriminate use of loud speakers, generator sets and
firecrackers has given new dimensions to the noise pollution problem.
The commonly used parameter for noise is the sound level in
decibel(dB). Human ears are sensitive in the frequency range of 20Hz to
20000Hz

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Major Noise Sources:


1. Road Traffic:
Road traffic noise is one of the most widespread
and growing environmental problems in urban area. The
impact of road traffic noise on the community depends an
various factors such as road location and design, land use
planning measures, building design, Vehicle standards and
deriver behavior. Motor vehicle ownership in India has
increased substantially over the last 30 years and general
levels of road traffic noise throughout India have increased
through out the period.
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2. Air Traffic:
The extend of aircraft noise impact depends on the
type of aircraft flown, the number of flights and flight paths.
The increase in number of flights, an important factor is
overall noise levels, the led to an increase in general noise
levels associated with air traffic.

3. Rail Traffic:
The two main sources of noise and vibration relating to
the operation of the rail network is
1. The operation of trains and the maintenance
2. Construction of rail infrastructure.

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4.Neighborhood & Domestic Noise:

Other significant source of noise


annoyance is car alarms, building construction
and household noise,Celebrations- religious
function,social and elections.
5.Noise generated by noise levels of 125dB as
per Environmental rules 1999.

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Effects:
1. Noise can disturb out work, rest, sleep and
communication.
2. It can damage our hearing and evoke other
psychological, physiological and possibly pathological
reactions.
3.It effects health efficiency and behaviour.It may cause
damage to heart,brain,kidneys and liver.
4.It causes muscles to contract leading to nervous
breakdown, tension.
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5.Change in hormone content of blood, which turn increase the


rate of heart beat.
6.Recently it has been reported that blood is also thickened by
excessive noise.
7. Hearing damage : it can cause permanent hearing loss.

8.Interferences with mans communication :In noise area


communication is affected.
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The CPCB-The central pollution control board recommended noise levels.


Sound Source

Sound Level
dB

Subjective Feeling
of Human Beings

Rockets and missiles,


heavy explosives

160

Unbearable

Jet Planes and cannons,


explosives

140

Unbearable

Aircraft Propeller and


Machine Guns

130

Unbearable

Diesel, steam engine and


ball mills, crackers

120

Unbearable

Electric saws and looms,


heavy trucks

110

Unbearable

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CONTROL MEASURES OF NOISE POLLUTION:


1.REDUCTION IN SOURCE OF NOISE : Heavy vehicles and old
vehicles may not be allowed in populated areas.
2. Noise making machines should be kept in containers with sound
absorbing media.
3. Proper oiling will reduce the noise from the machinery.
4. Use sound absorbing silencers: Silencers can reduce noise by
absorbing sound.
5. Planting more trees having broad leaves.

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6. Through law:
sound production is minimized at various social
function.
7. The use of fireworks or fire crackers shall not be
permitted except between 6.00a.m and 10.00p.m.No
fireworks or fire crackers shall be used between
10.00p.m and 6.00a.m.
8. Silence zone in area comprising not less than
100meters around hospitals, educational institutions
,courts and religious places.
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THERMAL POLLUTION
Energy is the basic necessity for the economic
development of a country.
The electrical energy is produced in power plants or
generating stations. The conventional power plants
are:
- Steam or Thermal Power station,
- Hydro-electric Power station,
- Nuclear Power station
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Steam or Thermal Power station


In the thermal power station, the steam is
produced in the boiler, using the heat released by the
combustion of coal, oil or natural gas.
The steam is used to rotate the steam turbine
(impulse/ reaction).
The steam turbine drives the alternator, which
converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.1016oC higher than initial temp.
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Hydro-electric Power station


Hydroelectricity is the term referring to
electricity generated by hydropower.
The production of electrical power through the
use of the gravitational force of falling or
flowing water.
It is the most widely used form of renewable
energy.
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Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project


produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of
the greenhouse gas & carbon dioxide (CO2).

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Nuclear Power station


Nuclear power is produced by controlled
(i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions.
Commercial and utility plants currently
use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to
produce steam, which is then used to generate
electricity.
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Effects of thermal pollution


Elevated temperature typically decreases the level of dissolved
oxygen (DO) in water.
Thermal pollution may also increase the metabolic rate of aquatic
animals.
A large increase in temperature can lead to the denaturing of
life.-barrier for oxygen penetration
into deep cold water.
Fish migration is affected due to formation of various thermal
zones.
Discharge of hot water near the shores can be disturb and even
kill young fishes.
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Toxicity of pesticides ,detergents and chemicals into the effluent


increases with increase in temp.
The composition of flora and fauna changes.
Control of thermal pollution
Thermal pollution from industrial sources is generated mostly by
power plants, petroleum refineries, pulp and paper mills, chemical
plants, steel mills and smelters.
Cooling ponds, man-made bodies of water designed for cooling by
evaporation, convection, and radiation.
Cooling towers, which transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through
evaporation and/or heat transfer.
Cogeneration, a process where waste heat is recycled for domestic
and/or industrial heating purposes.
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RADIO ACTIVE OR NUCLEAR POLLUTION


The uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material
in a given environment.
Radioactive contamination is typically the result of a
spill or accident during the production or use of
radionuclide (radioisotopes), an unstable nucleus
which has excessive energy.
Contamination may occur from radioactive gases,
liquids or particles
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Effects
Radioactive contamination can enter the body
through ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or
injection that causes discomfort, diarrhea, nausea or
vomiting, and burns skin and hair loss.
The cumulative damage can cause serious health
problems long term, such as cancer, especially
leukemia and Thyroid Cancer.
For this reason, it is important to use personal
protective equipment when working with radioactive
materials.
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Control methods:
It includes the stoppage of leakage from the
radioactive materials including the nuclear reactors,
industries and laboratories.
The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and
secure.
The protective garments must be worn by the
workers who work in the nuclear plants.
The natural radiation must be at the permissible
limits and they must not cross it.
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SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:Each household generates


garbage or waste day in and day out. There are different types
of solid waste depending on their source
Types of solid waste: Solid waste can be classified into different
types depending on their source:Household waste is generally
classified as,
Municipal waste
Industrial waste as hazardous waste
Biomedical waste or hospital waste
E waste-Electronic waste
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SOURCES OF URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE:


Waste from homes:polyethylene bags,Al cans,glass
bottles,waste paper,cloth,food waste,empty metal.
Waste from shops:Cans,bottles,waste paper,tea
leaves,packaging material.
Biomedical waste : discarded medicines, chemical
wastes, disposable syringes, swabs, bandages and
body fluids.
Construction waste :wood,concrete,cement.,
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Industrial waste :Packaging meterial,organic waste,


acid,alkali and metals.
Solid waste: Rubber,plastic,paper,glass,
wood,oils,paints, dyes,heavy metals, asbestos.
Effects of solid waste :
Physicochemical and chemical characteristics
affecting productivity of soils.
Toxic substance contaminate the ground water.
Burning of materials produce dioxins, furans causes
cancer.
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TYPES INVOLVED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:


1.REDUCE,REUSE,RECYCLE:
a.Reduce the usage of raw materials:
If usage is reduced,generation of waste also
reduced.
b.Reuse of waste materials:
1.Refillable containers can be reused
2.Discarded cycle tubes can be made into rubber rings.

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c.Recycling of materials:
1.Old Al cans and bottles are melted and recast into
new cans and bottles.
2.Preparation of cellulose insulation from paper
3.Preparation fuel pellets from kitchen waste.
Methods of disposal of solid waste:
a. Landfill :
The bottom is covered with several layers of
clay,plastic & sand protects ground water
contamination.
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Landfill is covered with clay, sand & gravel.


Methane gas is collected and used to produce electricity.
b. Composting:
The biodegradable waste is allowed to decomposed into
oxygen rich medium and quality rich environment is formed
which improves soil fertility rate.
c. Incineration :Burning of waste at high temp(700oC -1000oC) in
combustion chamber and used to produce electricity and
incinerate100-150tonnes per hour.

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Role of individual in prevention of pollution


Individuals can, however, play an important role in
abatement of air, water, soil or noise pollution in the
following simple manners:
Use low-phosphate, phosphate-free or biodegradable
dishwashing liquid, laundry detergent, and shampoo.
Use manure or compost instead of commercial
inorganic fertilizers to fertilize gardens and yard plant.

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Use biological methods or integrated pest


management to control garden, yard, and household
pests.

Don't pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oils, or


other products containing harmful chemicals down
drain or on the ground.

Recycle old motor oil and antifreeze at an auto


service center that has an oil recycling program.

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Test water for lead, nitrates,


trihalomethanes, radon, volatile, organic
compounds and pesticides.
Support ecological land-use planning in
your community.
Get to know your local water bodies
and form watchdog groups to help monitor
and protect.
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Flood
Definition: Whenever the magnitude of water flow
exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its
bank, the excess of water over flows on the
surroundings causes floods.
Types:
1.Slow kinds: Runoff from sustained rainfall 2.Rapid
snow melt exceeding the capacity of a river's channel.

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Flood

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3.Fast kinds: sudden release of water from dam,


landslide, or glacier.
Effects
1.Primary effects
Physical damage Can damage any type of
structure, including bridges, cars, buildings,
sewerage systems, roadways, and canals.

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2.Secondary effects
Water supplies Contamination of water. Clean
drinking water becomes scarce.
Diseases Unhygienic conditions. Spread of waterborne diseases.
Crops and food supplies Shortage of food crops
can be caused due to loss of entire harvest.
Trees Non-tolerant species can die from
suffocation.
Transport - Transport links destroyed.
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Methods of control:
Flood management:
1.Diverting excess water through channel or canals
like river ,lake.
2.Satelite pictures of preflood,flood and post flood
with other information.
3.River networking .
4.Optical and microwave data.
5.Flood warning given by central water comission.
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Cyclone

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Definition:

A cyclone is an area of closed, circular


fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the
Earth.
Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on
areas of low atmospheric pressure.
Cyclones are powerful destructive and active from days
to weak and speed varies 180-500km/hr.
A broad area of low pressure rotating "counterclockwise" (cyclonically) is also a cyclone.
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Occurrence:
1.Tropical cyclone in the warm oceans are formed,
because of heat and moisture.
2. Sea surface temperature must below 25Oc .
3.It move like spinning top at the speed of 10-30km/hr.
4.Indian cyclone occurs during octo-dec or April may.

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Effects:
Tropical cyclones are responsible for large amounts of
damage to human life,crop,roads,
transport, tanks wherever they strike.
Slow down the developmental activities of the sea.
Control:Damage can be reduced but not completely
prevented by doing the following:

Boarding up homes and businesses, strategically


placing sand bags, and building more wind resistant
structures.
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Cyclone management:
Satellite images are used by meteorological
department.
Radar system is used to detect the cyclone and for
cyclone warning.
For observing exact location of cyclone ,every half an
hour satellite picture are analyzed.
Its difficult to stop the formation of cyclone, but the
effect minimized by planting more trees.
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Earthquake

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An earthquake is a sudden vibration caused on the earths surface due to the
sudden release of tremendous amount of energy stored in the rocks under the
earths crust.

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Causes
Volcanic eruptions, rockfalls, landslides, and explosions
,hydrostatic pressure of manmade water bodies.
Under ground nuclear testing.
Decrease under ground water level.
Its measures by Richter scale.
less than 4 insignificant,4-4.9 minor,5-5.9- damaging,66.9 destructive,7-7.9 major,more than 8 severe
damage.
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Effects
Earthquakes produce deformation of ground space.
This includes damage to buildings and in worst cases
the loss of human life.
The effects of the rumbling produced by earthquakes
usually leads to the destruction of structures such as
buildings, bridges, and dams.
They can also trigger landslides.

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Control:
To prevent an earthquake hazard the building
should be properly designed.
Do not construct houses on high risk prone
areas.
In case of an earthquake move out of the
building and came in the open but not panic.
Do not use lifts in case of an earthquake.
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Tsunami
Tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large
volume of a body of water, usually an ocean.

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Causes :
Earth quake ,landslide
Deformation of the sea floor due to the movement
of plates.
Ordinary wave 100,tsunami 500km.
It travels across the deep sea at very high velocity of
at around 800-900km/hr.
Velocity decreases ,the height and energy of wave
increases.
Its height near the sea shore ranges from 15-65m
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Effects:
The effects of the tsunami on the country during this period range from
destruction damage, death, injury, millions of dollars in financial loss, and long
lasting psychological problems for the inhabitants of the region.
Tsunami management :
Under the water are monitored by sensors.

If any p changes, sensor send information.


The information passed through earth stations.
Warning system are warned of the danger approaching.
Make the people alert through the media to take all precautions.

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Land slides
Land slides are the process of large differential
movement of two land portion.
OR
A landslide or landslip is a geological
phenomenon which includes a wide range of ground
movement.

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Causes:
Down hill movement of earth cauesd by rain,forces
either increaing top materials.
Movement of heavy vehicles.
Earthquake ,shocks,vibrations,cyclone creates landslides.
Erosion in the hilly tract due to runoff water.
Undergroung caves,underground mining operation.

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Effects
Property damage,
injury
death
adversely affect a variety of water supplies,
fisheries,
sewage disposal systems,
forests, dams, and roadways
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Control
Soil Conservation:
Ways to reduce soil erosion:
Terracing: Terracing reduces soil erosion on steep slopes by
concerting the land into a series of broad, level terraces.
This retains water for crops at each level and reduces soil
erosion by water run off.
Contour Farming: This method is adopted for gently sloped
land. This involves planting crops in rows across the
contour of gently sloped land.

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Agro forestry: In this method crops are planted together in strips


or alleys between trees and shrubs that can provide fruits and
fuel wood. The trees and shrubs provide shade which reduce
water loss by evaporation and preserve soil moisture.
Wind Breaks : Wind breaks and shelter belts or trees are
established to reduce wind erosion and also for retaining soil
moisture
Unloading the upper parts of the slope.
Concrete support.
Draining the surface and subsurface water from sloppy region.
Soil stabilization by using quick lime in weak areas.
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