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LESSON PLAN IN SCIENCE Grade 8

DISEASES RESULTING FROM NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY


February 12, 2015
I.

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:
A. Compare the characteristics of a healthy and malnourished child;
B. Identify the food sources of the essential nutrients and its functions;
C. Determine the signs and symptoms and diseases resulting from
nutritional deficiencies;
D. Appreciate foods that are low-cost but with high nutritive value;
E. Construct worthwhile informational posters that will serve as an
awareness to the diseases presented

II.

SUBJECT MATTER:

Topic: Diseases Resulting From Nutritional Deficiency


Reference: Practical Science Concepts and Skills; Science Learners
Module
Pages: 120-123; 314-315
Author: Luisito Evangelista
Materials: Visual Aids, Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, Chalk, Board,
Eraser
Values Integration: Giving importance to the scheme of a well- balanced
diet
III.

PROCEDURE

Teachers Activity
A. PRELIMINARY ROUTINE
Good afternoon/morning class.
Before we start, please arrange your
chairs and pick up the pieces of papers
or any dirt near you or under your chair.
Are we all ready?
Please stand everyone and let us pray.
Tina, kindly lead the Opening Prayer.
Alright, everyone, you may now take
your seat.
May I request the class monitor/ group
secretaries to please check the
attendance.
B. MOTIVATION
Before we start our lesson, I would like
you to take a look at these two pictures.
What can you say about them?
What can you say about this picture
(healthy child)?
How about this one (malnourished
child)?

Students Activity
Good afternoon/morning Maam.

Yes, Maam.
In the name of the Father

(The students will take a look and


scrutinize the pictures.)

A healthy child at the center.


A malnourish child.
A person with hepatitis.
A person who manifest yellowish
skin discoloration.
A child with sore lips and tongue.
Very good. What do you notice with the
tire of the wheel?

The tire of the wheel consists of the


pictures of the people experiencing
diseases that result from lack of
foods and because of poisoning.

Therefore, this morning/ afternoon we


will discuss about the diseases resulting
from nutritional deficiency and ingestion
of harmful substances.
The person will be thin, pale,
unable to perform activities, sickly

What comes into your mind when the


bodys nutritional needs are not
adequately met?
What do you think will happen if you
come to ingest certain harmful
substances unknowingly? How would you
feel?

I think I would be in panic. I will ask


for help for people to provide me
with first aid or rush me to the
nearest hospital.

C. ACTIVITY
Let us have an activity:
Nutrients

Food sources

Role in the Body

Carbohydrates
Protein
Fats
Vitamins and
Minerals

I will group you into three groups and


work on this activity.
On the 1st learning station, Group 1 will
label food sources.
On the 2nd learning station, Group 2 will
label the functions.
And on the 3rd learning station, Group 3
will label the deficiency signs and
symptoms.

Yes, Maam.

Okay class. Are you ready?


Kindly proceed to your designated group,
I will give you 10 minutes to perform the
activity.

Yes, Maam.

Deficiency signs
& symptoms

Are you ready to present the activity?


Good! The first group will present their
work.
Very good! The second group will now
present their work.
Great! Finally, the third group will now
share their work.
Excellent! Now, let us give each group a
Barangay Clap.
D. ANALYSIS
Now, we will check if you got it all
correct.
Nutrients
Carbohydrates

Food sources

Role in the Body

Bread, rice, wheat,


oats, corn, fruits
potatoes, beans,
milk
Meats, eggs, fish,
dairy
products(milk,
yogurt and
cheese), beans,
nuts
Meat, fish, poultry,
dairy products,
olive oil, animal
products

ENERGY- GIVING
Foods

Vitamins
Vitamin A
(Carotene)

Green and yellow


vegetables, egg
yolk, milk, fish

Vitamin B1
(Thiamin)

Eggs, nuts, green


vegetables, meat.
Soybeans, milk

Vitamin B2
(Riboflavin)

Meat, milk, fish,


eggs, liver, whole
grain, leafy
vegetables
Tomatoes,
potatoes, meat, fish
liver, eggs, whole
grain, leafy

Protein

Fats

Vitamin B3
(Niacin)

Deficiency signs
& symptoms
Body weakness,
loss of stamina

BODY BUILDING
Foods

Growth failure,
muscle wasting,
thin limbs, wrinkled
face

Can be used as
energy and
protects us from
cold

Dry, scaly skin, dry


eyes, mouth &
throat, excessive
thirst, craves for
fats

Fostering normal
vision and skin;
normal growth and
proper
development of
bones and teeth
Normal appetite
and functioning of
the nervous
system; muscles
and heart;
oxidation of foods
Healthy skin,
functioning of the
eyes; oxidation of
foods
Healthy skin;
proper functioning
of the nervous
system, stomach,

Skin that is prone


to infection, night
blindness, stunted
growth, defective
reproduction
Beriberi

Inflammation
(soreness and
swelling) of the
tongue and lips
Pellagra

Vitamin B12
(Cobalamin)

vegetables
Liver, kidney, fish,
green vegetables

Vitamin C
(Ascorbic Acid)

Citrus fruits, fresh


tomatoes, leafy
green vegetables

Vitamin D
(Calciferol)

Milk, eggs, liver,


fish-liver oil

Vitamin E

Whole grain, meat,


leafy vegetables;
milk, butter
Leafy green
vegetables, egg
yolk, milk

Vitamin K

Minerals

Dairy foods, green


leafy vegetables,
fish, milk, eggs,
poultry, liver,
kidney, table salt,
drinking water

intestines
Normal action of
the nervous
system, normal
blood formation
and growth
For growth,
strength of blood
vessels
development of
teeth, health of
gums
For normal growth
and condition of
teeth and bones
Normal production

Normal blood
clotting

Building of bones
and teeth, blood
clotting, conduction
of nerve and
signals and acidbase balance

Pernicious anemia
and disorders of the
nervous system

Disease of the
gums called scurvy

It can result to soft


bones called rickets
Problems on the
reproductive
system
Hemorrhage in
minor wounds

Stunted growth,
tooth decay, bone
and muscle
weaknesses,
cramps, anemia,
diarrhea,
dehydration

Your answers are all correct.


I have here the different diseases
caused by nutritional deficiency
based from your answers.
Nutrients
Carbohydrates

Deficiency signs & symptoms


Body weakness, loss of stamina

Protein

Growth failure, muscle wasting,


thin limbs, wrinkled face
Dry, scaly skin, dry eyes, mouth &
throat, excessive thirst, craves for
fats

Fats

Vitamins
Vitamin A
(Carotene)
Vitamin B1
(Thiamin)
Vitamin B2
(Riboflavin)

Skin that is prone to infection,


night blindness, stunted growth,
defective reproduction
Loss of appetite, indigestion,
fatigue nerve irritability, heart
failure
Inflammation (soreness and
swelling) of the tongue and lips

Diseases
Usage of fat as fuel;
ketosis; low blood sugars;
underweight; marasmus
Kwashiorkor; marasmus
Cardio-vascular diseases,
mental health conditions,
inflammatory conditions
Nyctalopia (night
blindness)
Beriberi

Corneal vascularization,
glossitis, dermatitis,
cheilosis, anemia

Vitamin B3
(Niacin)
Vitamin B12
(Cobalamin)
Vitamin C
(Ascorbic Acid)
Vitamin D
(Calciferol)
Vitamin E
(tocopherol)
Vitamin K
Minerals

Indigestion, canker sores, fatigue,


vomiting, depression
Skin paleness, muscle weakness,
change in intestinal color, fatigue,
chest pain
Slow wound healing, bleeding,
failure to form connective tissue
Defects in bone formation
Fragile red blood cells, muscular
weakness
Internal bleeding

Pellagra
Pernicious anemia and
disorders of the nervous
system
Disease of the gums
called scurvy
It can result to soft bones
called rickets
Problems in reproductive
system
Hemorrhagic diseases

Stunted growth, tooth decay, bone


and muscle weaknesses, cramps,
anemia, diarrhea, dehydration

The following are other diseases of the


digestive system:
1. Colon and rectal cancer
2. Stomach cancer
3. Diarrhea
4. Heartburn
5. Hepatitis
6. Stomach and duodenal ulcer
The following are other diseases that
result from ingestion of harmful
substances:
1. Chemical Poisoning. This is
caused by ingestion, inhalation, or
absorption of harmful substances
by the body. These chemicals can
cause damage to the cells and
organs, affecting the whole body
systems.
Can you cite the common chemicals that
can cause poisoning?

Alright. You got it right. The two most


common harmful chemicals are the
mercury and lead. What do you think can
be the possible symptoms when you
have ingested these harmful chemicals?
The answers of yours were all correct. It
can cause headaches, nausea, vomiting
and memory loss.
E. ABSTRACTION
Upon knowing all these information
about nutritional deficiencies and the
ingestion of harmful substances, can you

Lead.
Mercury.
Gas.
It can cause headache.
It can manifest vomiting.
Maybe it can deteriorate brain
functions?

Group 1. It is very significant to be


familiarized with the essential
nutrients that our body needs. So
that, we can prevent such diseases.
GROUP 2. We became aware of the
diseases, so that, we can
disseminate this in our school, at
our homes and in the community.

pause for a moment and reflect with the


consequences of an unhealthy diet and
improper labeling and storage of harmful
substances. At least 1 to share every
group?

Thank you.
With all these remarkable realizations of
yours, I will let you construct an
informational poster regarding the
diseases that we have mentioned so that
other students, teachers and parents of
this school will be aware of the necessary
group of foods to be eaten.
F. APPLICATION

Group 3.

Answer: Chemical Poisoning


Answer: Rickets
Answer: Fats
Answer: headaches, nausea,
vomiting, memory loss

Write the correct answer:

Answer: Hemorrhage/ bleeding

1. It is caused by the ingestion,


inhalation, or absorption of harmful
substances by the body.
2. It is the disease that is caused by
deficiency in vitamin D manifested by
soft bones and bone deformation.
3. It is the nutrient that can be used as
energy and can protect the human
body from cold season.
4. Give me the four symptoms when a
person have ingested/ inhaled
harmful substances/ pollutants.
5. What can be the manifestation of a
person if he is lacking vitamin D in his
diet?
6. This nutrient is essential in building
muscles for growth.
7. Give at least 3 foods that are rich in
protein?

Answer: Protein

IV.

Answer: Meat, fish, eggs

EVALUATION

Find out by accomplishing the scoring rubric honestly and sincerely.

V.
ASSIGNMENT/ AGREEMENT
1. Read on how to prevent, detect and treat the diseases that result from
nutritional deficiency and ingestion of harmful substances.
2. Cite ways on how to prevent, detect and treat those diseases.
Reference: Practical Science Concepts and Skills
Pages: 117-120

Prepared by:

KATHY CLAIRE P. BALLEGA

LESSON PLAN IN SCIENCE Grade 8


DISEASES RESULTING FROM NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY AND
INGESTION OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCES
February 12, 2015
I.

OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:
1. identify diseases brought by nutritional deficiency and
ingestion of harmful diseases
2. explain how nutritional deficiency and ingestion of harmful
substances results from diseases
3. construct health information poster that will serve as an
awareness to the diseases caused by nutritional deficiency
and ingestion of harmful substances

II.

SUBJECT MATTER:

TOPIC: Diseases Resulting from Nutritional Deficiency and Ingestion


of harmful substances
REFERENCE: Practical Science Concepts and Skills; Science
Learners Module
Pages: 120-123; 314-315
AUTHOR: Luisito Evangelista
MATERIALS: Visual Aids, Charts, Pictures and Illustrations, chalk,
board, eraser
VALUES INTEGRATION: Giving importance to the scheme of a
wellbalanced diet.
III.

LEARNING TASKS:

A. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES:
Greetings
Opening prayer
Checking of attendance
Checking of assignment
Recall
B. UNLOCKING OF DIFFICULTIES:
Disease- an impairment of the normal state of the living body.
Nutritional deficiency- occurs when the body doesnt absorb
the necessary amount of a nutrient.
Ingestion- the taking of material into the digestive system
Harmful substances- a chemical that causes one to become
sick.
C. MOTIVATION:
Present the WHEEL OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS to the class. Let
them analyze the pictures on the wheel.

D. ACTIVITY:
Divide the class into five groups and fill in the table with the needed
data.
DISEASES
SIGNS AND
NUTRIENT
SYMPTOMS
DEFICIENCY
1. Kwashiorkor
Body weakness
2. marasmus
Protein
3. nyctalopia
Night blindness
4. beri-beri
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)
5.
swelling in the
tongue
6. pellagra
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
7. Pernicious
Pale skin
Anemia
8.
Spongy and bleeding
gums
9. rickets
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
10.
Hemorrhag Bleeding in wounds
e

Nausea, vomiting,
headache

Ingestion of harmful
substances such as
lead, mercury.

E. ANALYSIS:
Lead the learners to the discussion on the different diseases, its
signs and symptoms and how nutritional deficiency and ingestion of
harmful substances affects ones health. Thoroughly discuss also the
importance of healthy lifestyle and proper diet.
E. ABSTRACTION:
Let the students reflect on the consequences of an unhealthy
diet and improper labeling and storage of harmful substances.
F. APPLICATION:
Have the students construct a health information poster that will
serve as awareness to the diseases caused by nutritional deficiency
and ingestion of harmful substances.
IV.

EVALUATION:
Identify what is being asked by the following statements. White
your answer on a sheet of paper.
1. It is a disease caused by deficiency in vitamin D manifested
by soft bones and bone deformation.
2. It is caused by the ingestion, inhalation or absorption of
harmful substances by the body.
3. Lack of ___________ in ones diet likely results to nyctopia.
4. A ____________that lacks essential nutrients generally causes
nutritional deficiencies.
5. A disease characterized by a blush coloration of the skin (seen
on hands, feet, lips).

V.

AGREEMENT:
1. Cite ways on how to detect and treat diseases resulting from
nutritional deficiency.

Reference:
Practical Science Concepts and
Skills
Pages: 117-120

Prepared by:
KATHY CLAIRE P. BALLEGA

DISEASES
1. Kwashiorkor
2. marasmus
3. nyctalopia
4. beri-beri

5. glossitis
6. pellagra

SIGNS AND
SYMPTOMS
Body weakness
Severe muscle
wasting
Night blindness
Blush coloration of
the skin (seen on
hands, feet, lips)
swelling in the
tongue
thick, scaly
pigmented rash on
skin exposed to

NUTRIENT
DEFICIENCY
Carbohydrate
Protein
Vitamin A
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B2
(Riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

7. Pernicious
Anemia
8. scurvy
9. rickets
10.
Hemorrhag
e
11.
Chemical
poisoning

sunlight
Pale skin
Spongy and bleeding
gums
Skeletal deformities
Bleeding in wounds
Nausea, vomiting,
headache

Vitamin B12
(Cobalamin)
Vitamin C (Ascorbic
Acid)
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Vitamin K
(Phytomenadione)
Ingestion of harmful
substances such as
lead, mercury.

UNLOCKING OF DIFFICULTIES:
Disease- an impairment of the normal state of the living body.
Nutritional deficiency- occurs when the body doesnt absorb
the necessary amount of a nutrient.
Ingestion- the taking of material into the digestive system
Harmful substances- a chemical that causes one to become
sick.