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Environmental Science

Dr Claire Cosgrove

Course Text:
Environmental Science: A Study of
Enger, Eldon, D and Smith, Bradley F.
2013, 13th Edition
McGraw-Hill Publisher

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Ionic and molecular compounds
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Theories and Laws

Theory is an accepted generalization
about fundamental concepts in science
that explains WHY things happen.

This concept / theory is used to explain

why materials disperse in water
why materials change from solid to liquid
Why different chemicals interaction during
chemical reaction

Theory & Hypotheses

Theory is a broad concept that
helps us frame a hypothesis
Hypothesis provides a possible
explanation for a specific question

Scientific Laws
Scientific law is a unchanging
(constant) fact of nature that describes
what happens in nature.

Laws describe what happens

while theories explain why
things happen.
e.g. Law of conservation of mass

Law of Conservation of Mass

Law of conservation of mass
states that matter is not gained or
lost during a chemical reaction

Kinetic Molecular Theory - all matter is

made up of one or more kinds of atoms
that are in constant motion.

Kinetic energy is defined as the energy

of motion.
Any object that is in motion -- either
vertically or horizontally -- has an
amount of kinetic energy.
The energy is defined by the amount of
work needed to accelerate a given mass
from rest (being still) to its current

Matter and its structure

MATTER is anything that takes up
space and has mass.

Kinetic energy theory is the central

theory for describing the structure
and activity of all matter.

Atomic Structure

The fundamental unit of matter is the

atom which is made up of protons,
neutrons, and electrons.
All atoms have a central region which is
known as a nucleus.

Atomic Structure

The nucleus is made up of

protons, which are positively charged
particles (+),
and neutrons, which have no charge
( ).

Atomic Structure

Surrounding the nucleus of the atom is a

cloud of lightweight, fast-moving,
negatively charged particles called
electrons ( - ).

The atoms of different element are

not the same.
They differ from each other in the
number of protons, electrons, and
neutrons present.

Atomic Structure

All atoms of an element always

have the same number of protons and
electrons, but the number of neutrons

( ) may vary from one atom to the


Atoms of the same element
that differ from one another
in the number of neutrons
they contain are called


Hydrogen Isotopes

Example: There are 3 isotopes of hydrogen. All

atoms have 1 proton and 1 electron, but one
isotope of hydrogen has no neutrons, one has 1
neutron, and one has 2 neutrons.

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Atoms, elements and molecules
-click here- no have to go outside ppp

Molecular nature of matter

Atoms act as individual particles
Atoms bond to one another
chemically to create stable units
called molecules
Atoms or molecules may gain or
loose electrons and become
electrically charged particles called

Molecules are units made of a

combination of two or more atoms
bonded to one another. Example: H2O

Atoms that loose electrons are
positively charged they have more
protons (+) than electrons (-)
Atoms that gain electrons are
negatively charged they have more
electrons (-) than protons (+)

Ions: Charged particles are called ions.

They are of 2 types:

Positive ions: They have a positive charge. They

can accept electrons. Eg. H
Negative ions: They have a negative charge. They
give away electrons. Eg. O, Cl

An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion (NO3). Areas

colored red are lower in energy than areas colored yellow

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Chemical compounds
Just address H2O compound
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Element: matter that is composed of only

one kind of atom is known as an element.
E.g. Oxygen, Gold

Compounds: made of two or more different

atoms which are bonded together
E.g. Water: H2O; Table salt: NaCl
Methane gas : CH4

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Understanding atoms, elements and
-click here- need to step outside of ppp

Acids: any compounds that release

hydrogen ions in a solution are called
acids. Eg . HCl, H2SO4

Base: any compound that accepts

hydrogen ions in a solution are called
bases. Eg. KOH, NaOH

Acids: any compounds that release

hydrogen ions in a solution are called
e.g. HCl, H2SO4
Sulphuric acid in car batteries
Acetic acid in vinegar

Base: any compound that accepts

hydrogen ions in a solution are called
bases. e.g. KOH, NaOH

Opposite of an acid

How to measure acids - pH

The concentration of an acid or
base is given by a pH number
The pH scale is a measure of
hydrogen ion concentration (1-14)
inverse scale
Logarithmic scale

How to measure acids - pH

Lower the pH, the greater the number
of hydrogen ions present
Two consecutive numbers, difference
is a factor of 10 (logarithmic)
Neutral = pH =7 Means equal number
of H+ ions and OH- ions
Low pH numbers acids
High pH numbers - bases

Acids and Bases in the Home

GO to the following website and carry out the first activity online
Litmus Test


Organic compounds consist of molecules

that contain carbon atoms that are usually
bonded to form chains or rings.
Sugar, proteins, and fats are
examples of organic compounds that
are produced and used by living
Oil and gas and coal are organic.

Methane (CH4)is the simplest possible organic compound

Organic compounds are large and

there are many of them.
Chemical bonds in organic
molecules contain a large amount of
chemical energy that can be released
when the bonds are broken and new
inorganic compounds are produced.

Inorganic compounds generally

consist of small molecules and
combination of ions and relatively
few kinds exist.
Salt, water, metals, sand, and oxygen
are examples of inorganic compounds.

Chemical Reactions:
When atoms or ions combine to form compounds, they
are held together by chemical bonds.
Chemical Bonds are attractive forces between atoms
resulting from the interaction of their electrons.
When a chemical bond are broken or formed, a chemical
reaction occurs.
Each chemical bond has a certain amount of energy
which changes during a chemical reaction energy may
be given off as heat
If heat is absorbed, there must be an additional source of

Chemical Bonds are attractive forces between atoms

resulting from the interaction of their electrons. Each
chemical bond has a certain amount of energy which
changes during a chemical reaction

Vapors of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test

tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride.

Two types of chemical reactions


If energy is given out during a

chemical reaction, the reaction is
exothermic reaction.
E.g. Burning of methane:

CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + H2O + heat + light

Other examples of exothermic

Neutralization reactions such as
direct reaction of acid and base
Adding concentrated acid to water
The setting of cement and concrete
Many corrosion reactions such as
oxidation of metals

Most polymerisation reactions

If energy is taken in during a

chemical reaction,
the reaction is called
endothermic reaction.
E.g. Nitrogen and oxygen can be combined to
form nitrous oxide.
2N2 + O2 + heat 2N2O

Other examples of endothermic

processes are:

Depressurizing a pressure can

A chemical cold pack consisting
primarily of ammonium nitrate and

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Exothermic and endothermic reactions
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Assignment #1
Describe the structure of an atom
How do atoms and elements relate to
each other? Give 2 examples.
How do molecules and compounds
relate to each other? Give 2 examples.
What is an acid? What is a base?
What is the pH and what is it used for?
Describe exothermic reactions and give
an example.
What is an isotope?