Paul Jones Mrs. Ryan AP Bio Science Fair March 6th, 2010 Journal Entries I. Title A.
A Study of the Effects of Steam and Humidity on Brand-Name and Generic Acetylsalicylic Acid (Final) B. A Study on the Effects of “Steamy-Bathroom Conditions” on Brand-Name and Generic Acetylsalicylic Acid and the Comparison of Brand-Name and Generic Aspirin Concentration (Amended 1/10/10) C. A Study of the Determination of Acetylsalicylic Acid (ASA, Aspirin) and an Analysis of the Effects of “Steamy-Bathroom Conditions” on Brand-Name and Generic Aspirin (Amended 1/5/10) II. Problem/Observation A. Over-the-counter drugs and supplements claim that as long as certain conditions are met, it is safe to store them in your bathroom's medicine cabinet. Oftentimes brand-name and generic versions of the same drug have the same warnings about storage and storage conditions. But do they have the same rate of degeneration when stress is applied? Is the advertised dosage an accurate reflection of how much of something is truly in a pill? Is there an accurate method to analyze and quantify these questions when they're applied to the popular analgesic, acetylsalicylic acid, better known as aspirin. In conclusion, is it safe to store aspirin in a “steamy-bathroom.” (Minor corrections, final) B. Over the counter drugs and supplements claim that as long as certain conditions are met, it is safe to store them for long periods of time. Oftentimes brand name and generic versions of the same drug have the same warnings about storage and storage conditions. But do they have the same degeneration conditions? Will brand name drugs last longer than their respective generic versions? Furthermore, are both types of over the counter medications truthful about the dosage? Specifically, are the brand name and generic versions of aspirin truly the same? (Amended 1/28/10) III. Hypothesis A. Method i. The development of a method to quantify results of this experiment is as important as the results themselves. I hypothesize that I will be unable to execute a method accurate enough to explicitly quantify data, but I will be able to execute a method precise enough to be able to compare two data points objectively. This is important because it classes this study as a comparative study. B. Concentration i. With a precise enough method, I hypothesize that I could conclude relative differences in brand name and generic aspirins, both in untouched and degraded forms. Specifically, there will be no significant difference in “pure-form” brand name or generic aspirins, but there will be a small difference in concentration when they are exposed to steam, the literal “steamy-bathroom.” But the differences in aspirin concentration due to steam will be equivalent in both brand name and generic drugs. Considering that ASA degrades at 140° C, and steam is approximately 100° C, I hypothesize it is not a great risk to have aspirin in “steamy bathroom conditions” ii. I hypothesis that the name brand over-the-counter aspirin will either be exactly the same as its generic alternative or better in regards to degradation and concentration.
(Amended 1/05/10) IV.Equipment, Supplies, and Materials A. Final i. Erlenmeyer flasks ii. Cuvettes iii. Graduated cylinder iv. Pipets v. Volumetric flasks vi. Spectrophotometer vii. Brand-name (Bayer) and generic aspirin (Good Neighbor Pharmacy) viii. Parafilm ix. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) x. Ferric (III) chloride (FeCl3) B. Initial i. UV spectrometer ii. 1000 mL beaker iii. graduated pipette, to measure 1.0 ml sample iv. (6) 15 mL sample bottles containing 14 mL water v. 100 mL volumetric flask vi. 200 mL Erlenmeyer flask vii. weighing boat viii. Parafilm ix. Labeling tape x. Salicylic Acid Standard Solutions (0.00-0.133 mg/mL), labeled xi. Beakers xii. Plastic droppers xiii. Phosphate Buffer Solution, 750 mL for 5 teams xiv. Acetylsalicylic acid xv.Methanol (Spectrophotometric Grade) in a beaker, with 3-ml plastic dropper xvi. Hot plates xvii. Thermometer 0-100 °C, preferably an alcohol thermometer xviii. Cuvette for spectrophotometer at 310 nm xix. Hothands xx. Funnel V. Method A. This method uses sodium hydroxide solution to hydrolyze ASA to produce salicylic acid. The salicylic acid then reacts with iron (III) to give a complex that absorbs light at 530nm. This absorption allows measurement using a spectrophotometer. As the study is comparative, standard (known) solutions of ASA are not required. B. Preparation (Excerpt) i. Place one aspirin tablet in a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Add 10 mL of a sodium hydroxide solution to the flask, and heat until the contents begin to boil. ii. Quantitatively transfer the solution to a 250 mL volumetric flask, and dilute with distilled water to the mark. iii. Pipet a 2.5 mL sample of this aspirin tablet solution to a 50 mL volumetric flask. Dilute to the mark with a iron (III) solution. Place solution in a 125 mL Erlenmeyer flask. C. Spectrophotometric (Final) i. Turn on the spectrophotometer. ii. Adjust the wavelength to 530nm.
iii. Insert the blank (0ppm – cuvet of iron buffer) and set the blank to 0 absorbance. iv. Obtain an absorbance reading for the aspirin sample. VI. Analysis of Results A. The results of my experiment clearly show a decrease of about 25% in the steamed generic ASA whereas the steamed brand-name ASA retained its structure. This would suggest that brand name ASA is more durable than generic. But the decreased concentration of the generic steamed pills shows that steam can definitely affect aspirin strength, and thus conclusively, one should not let one's aspirin come into contact with steam or humidity in “steamy-bathroom conditions.” (Final) VII. Error Analysis A. My method of measuring aspirin breaks down the aspirin tablet into salicylic acid (SA) and makes it react with a iron (III) to create a complex that absorbs light at 530nm. But what if the steam the “variable” pills were exposed to broke down the aspirin into salicylic acid? If steam breaks aspirin down into salicylic acid, this method couldn't measure it. (Final) VIII. Conclusions A. Aspirin concentration is affected by steam and humidity. B. Based on advertised aspirin concentration and absorbency initial aspirin concentration is equivalent in both brand-name and generic ASA. C. Brand-name aspirin has something that makes it more durable that generic aspirin. D. My method can detect relative differences in aspirin concentration. IX. Conclusion A. Steam and humidity degrades aspirin, and it is possible for steam from one's shower to affect aspirin in one's medicine cabinet. My experiment was able to detect these changes in aspirin concentration, and accurately, too (within almost 10% coefficient of variation). Initial concentrations of brand name and generic aspirin were found to be equivalent, but not necessarily “as advertised” (my experiment was relative, not quantitative). But once steam is applied, generic aspirin degrades while brand-name retains its structure (perhaps due to some “coating”). X. Works Cited A. "Aspirin." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 1 Jan 2010, 15:00 UTC. 5 Jan 2010 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aspirin&oldid=335288022>. B. University of Pittsburgh at Bradford, "Spectrophotometric Analysis of Aspirin, Lab 019". Science in Motion. C. S. Farrel, Dr.A. Aspirin Stability. Freshman Engineering Clinic I, 2003. D. Drugs.com, "Asprin". Cerner Multum. 1/4/10 <http://www.drugs.com/aspirin.html>. E. RxList, "Bayer (aspirin)". RxList. 1/4/10 <http://www.rxlist.com/aspirin-drug.htm>. F. How Stuff Works, "How Aspirin Works". How Stuff Works, INC. 1/4/10 <http://health.howstuffworks.com/healthillness/treatment/medicine/medications/aspirin.htm>.