You are on page 1of 27

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL

PAGE 1 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

PIPENET VISION TRANSIENT MODULE


CHAPTER 3
SUBSEA PIPELINE SYSTEM

1.

Introduction

In this chapter, we shall consider two scenarios of pipelines carrying oil.


We shall also introduce some of the basic ideas of manipulating graphs, which are
discussed in more detail later in this manual.

1.1

Scenario 1

In the first scenario, we consider a single pipeline that is carrying oil from a platform to a
terminal. This is the scenario of a sub-sea pipeline.

1.2

Scenario 2

In the second scenario, we consider two cross-country pipelines that are connected by a
short pipe. This pipeline is a cross-country pipeline.

2.

Sub-sea Pipeline Modelling

This example is based on a network devised by ZADCO in Abu Dhabi, which includes
some pioneering work. The paper based on this pioneering work is reproduced as the
appendix to this chapter of the training manual.
In this problem, we demonstrate three aspects of modelling:

Creation of a user defined pipe schedule.


The effect of valve closure and closure time.
The effect of a pipe rupture.

A summary of the data is presented below, along with dialog boxes and descriptions of the
results.

2.1

Units

The units that are to be used are essentially metric, but with m/hr for flow rate. In this
case, we specify that the units are user-defined. These units can be set using the
PIPENET VISION menu system via either (a) Options | Units, if the Windows menu style
is used, or (b) Init | Units, if the PIPENET VISION menu style is used. The menu style
can be changed via the Windows Menu. In the remainder of this document, it is assumed
that the Windows menu style is being used.

-1-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 2 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

-2-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 3 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The actual units for the model are tabulated below.


Variable
Length
Diameter
Velocity
Temperature
Density
Viscosity
Time
Mass
Mass rate
Torque
Inertia
Force
Volume
Surface Tension
Thermal Conductivity
Heat Capacity
Youngs Modulus
Pressure
Flow type
Flow rate

Unit
metres
mm
m/sec
Celcius
kg/m3
cP
seconds
kg
kg/s
Nm
kg m2
N
m3
N/m
W/(m K)
J/kg K
Pa
Bar Gauge
Volumetric
m3/hr

Input these units into the Transient Module. Note that, to make the flow-rate units visible,
double-click on Flow type.

2.2

Simulation time

The first simulation is to begin at 0 seconds and end at 240 seconds. Note that the end
time will be increased subsequently, for some of the later simulations.
The time step will be user-defined, with a value of 0.05 seconds.
Enter these values in the appropriate dialog box (from Options | Module options).

2.3

Pipe Data

In this problem, we shall use a user-defined pipe schedule, the data for which is as follows.

-3-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 4 OF 27
Pipe schedule name:
Pipe roughness:
Poissons ratio:
Youngs modulus:

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Special Steel
0.0457 mm
0.33
2.279 x 109 Pa

The diameters of the pipes that are to be used in the network are defined in the following
table.
Nominal Bore (mm)
600
700
750
800
850
900

Internal Bore (mm)


581.2
679.5
730.3
781.1
831.9
882.7

External Diameter (mm)


609.6
711.2
762.0
812.8
863.6
914.4

Enter this data in the dialog box that arises from Libraries | Schedules, and then click on
the OK Button.

All of the library data is stored in a separate file that has an extension of .Lib. PIPENET
VISION automatically saves the library file once the Sunrise Data File (which has an

-4-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 5 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

extension of .sdf) is saved. The root name of the library file is the same as the root name
of the Sunrise Data File.

2.4

Fluid Properties

The liquid properties are shown below.


Density:
Viscosity:
Bulk modulus:
Vapour pressure:

877 kg/m3
6.8 Cp
1.5GPa
-0.996263

Enter these fluid properties by selecting Options | Fluid, and completing the dialog box as
shown below.

2.5

Pump Data

The following values are to be used to define the pump curve.

-5-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 6 OF 27
Flow rate (m3/hr)
0
6000
8000
10000
12000

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Pressure (bar)
64.877
59.186
56.91
53.495
46.666

The dialog box for the pump is obtained as follows.

The dialog box for the pump curve should be completed as shown below.

-6-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 7 OF 27

2.6

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The Network

The schematic diagram of the network is shown below. Input this network, and ensure
that the pipes are created in the same order, so that the network is consistent with the data
table for the pipes. Note that two components are coloured green, as results have been
selected for these components (by right-clicking on the component, and choosing Select
Results, Variable v Time, and All).

The variation of the length of the pipes in the network is indicated in the diagram below
(which can be obtained from Colouration | Simple rules).

The data for the pipes in the network is shown below.


Pipe Label
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

Diameter (mm)
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800
800

Length (m)
25
40
60
100
10000
5000
5000
2000
3000
3000
2000
60
1000
-7-

Elevation (m)
0
-10
-40
-20
0
10
-10
10
-20
20
20
30
10

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 8 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Once the data for Pipe 1 has been entered, the Properties Window for this pipe should be
as follows.

The data for all of the pipes in the network can be tabulated by selecting View | Data
Window, and then choosing Pipe from the pull-down menu next to Browse.

Note that, at this stage, no results have been selected for the pipes.

2.7

Valve Data

Choose the valve to be a non-library linear valve, with a Cv value of 8000 (m/hr, bar1/2),
and indicate that all graphical results are required for the valve (by right-clicking on the
valve, then selecting Select Results, Variable v Time, and All). The Properties
Window for the valve is then as follows.

-8-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 9 OF 27

2.8

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Time Step

As there are some short pipes in the system, the user-defined time step option has been
chosen (as described earlier). The time step has been set to 0.05 seconds.
As mentioned previously, if the user-defined time-step option is specified, PIPENET
VISION automatically categorises pipes into long and short pipes. How exactly this
division has been performed can be seen by selecting Calculation | Options | Output,
and clicking on the Timestep Button. It can be seen that three of the pipes (namely, Pipes
1, 2, and 14) are treated as short pipes.

3.

Results

Consider the following five closure modes for the valve.

Case 1: 20 seconds (linear)


Case 2: 60 seconds (linear)
Case 3: 120 seconds (linear)
Case 4: 240 seconds (linear)
Case 5: 240 seconds (quadratic)

In all of these cases, it is assumed that the valve starts to close after two seconds of the
simulation.
In the first three cases, the simulation time is 240 seconds; in the last two, the simulation
time is 360 seconds.
An additional case (Case 6) is considered, relating to pipe rupture, and this case is
described later in this section.

3.1

Case 1: 20-second Linear Valve Closure

For the 20-second valve-closure time, the specification at the information node of the valve
(Node 19) is for a linear profile.

-9-

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 10 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The data that defines the profile (which can be displayed by double-clicking on the profile
graph) is as follows.

The graph of the pressure just upstream of the valve and the valve position are plotted on
the same graph. The result is shown below.

- 10 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 11 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The PIPENET VISION Transient Module has powerful graphical-display capability.


Use the following steps to produce the above graph.

Use the command Output | Graphs, or click on the Graph Viewer Button.
When the graph viewer is open, ensure that the Time Graphs Tab is selected.
Click on the prompt next to the directory tree.
Click on the prompt next to All variables of valve 1.
Tick the box by Inlet pressure of valve 1.
Tick the box by Setting of valve 1.

In order to copy the graph into a document, use Edit | Copy (Ctrl + C) in the graph viewer,
and then paste the graph into the required document.

3.2

Case 2: 60-second Linear Valve Closure

The data that defines the linear profile for the 60-second closure is as follows.

- 11 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 12 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The graph for the 60-second valve-closure case is shown below. Note that this graph
contains a title, 60-second Valve-closure Case, which is added by supplying text in the
title field of the graph viewer.

The label on the Y Axis for the valve information can be changed to Valve Position by
clicking on Setting of valve 1, clicking on the Y Axis Tab below, and changing the text for
the axis title.

The resulting graph is as follows.

- 12 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 13 OF 27

3.3

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Case 3: 120-second Linear Valve Closure

The corresponding graph for 120-second valve-closure case is shown below. Labels and
arrows have been added to this graph, via the Annotations Menu.

After a label has been created, double-click on the text to reveal a rectangular box.

The text can be rotated, by (a) left clicking on the node above the top of the box, (b)
holding down the left-hand mouse button, and then (c) moving the mouse. The text can
also be moved, by (a) moving the cursor inside the box, until the interior of the box
becomes blue, (b) holing down the left-hand mouse button, then (c) dragging the box to
the desired position.
- 13 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 14 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

To hide the rectangular box, double click in its interior.


Arrows can be created and moved in a similar manner. To change the length of an arrow,
hold down the left-hand mouse button on an edge and drag.

The legend can be removed by un-ticking the box called Show Legend.
The resulting graph is as follows.

3.4

Case 4: 240-second Linear Valve Closure

The graph for the 240-second valve-closure case is shown below. Note that the simulation
time has been extended to 360 seconds (in both Options | Module options and
Calculation | Options | Output).

- 14 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 15 OF 27

3.5

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Case 5: 240-second Quadratic Valve Closure

A quadratic profile is obtained by changing the exponent of the ramp function to 2, as


indicated below.

- 15 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 16 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The graph for 240-second valve closure with a quadratic profile is shown below. Note that
the simulation time is still 360 seconds.

- 16 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 17 OF 27

3.6

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Case 6: Pipe Rupture

We now consider the effect of a pipe rupture. Since the network has already been
created, we need only place a valve at the position where the pipe ruptures, and then
change the specifications as appropriate. The schematic is shown below. Note that
results for Pipes 6 and 7 have been selected (as these pipes are coloured green).

Location
of leak

The scenario that we wish to simulate is the following. A leak-detection system has been
installed, and we assume that the leak-detection system sends a signal to the pump to
stop (and to the downstream valve to close) within 5 seconds of detecting a leak.
Let us further suppose that, upon receiving a signal to stop, the pump takes 120 seconds
to spin down, and the valve takes 180 seconds to close. (Here, we are making a
simplifying assumption that the pipe upstream of the valve is always full of oil.)
- 17 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 18 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Fortunately, seawater has a higher density than oil. Consequently, the external pressure
at the point of rupture is higher than the pressure inside the pipe, and so the flow will
eventually stop.
The external pressure at the point of rupture is calculated using the fact that the rupture
occurs 60 metres below sea level. The density may be assumed to be 1025 kg/m3, and so
the pressure is therefore
(1025 x 9.81 x 60) Pa = 603315 Pa = 6.03315 bar.
We assume that the pipe rupture starts two seconds into the simulation, and finishes three
seconds later.
The properties of the new pipe (at the location of the leak) are as follows.

The valve properties are as follows.

The operation of the new valve (at its information node) is defined as follows. Note that
the simulation time is 360 seconds.

- 18 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 19 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The variation of the flow rate (at the inlet of Pipes 6 and 7) with time is plotted below. The
flow rate through the pump momentarily increases, because the resistance to flow
decreases when the pipe ruptures. However, fairly soon afterwards, the pump spins
down, and so the flow rate decreases.

- 19 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 20 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

This example is based on pioneering work done by ZADCO. A publication based on their
work is presented in the following appendix.

- 20 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 21 OF 27

APPENDIX 1.

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

TECHNICAL PAPER PRESENTED BY ZADCO

ARAB OIL & GAS SHOW, ABU DHABI SEPTEMBER 2001

THE USE OF PIPENET IN MODELLING PIPELINES AND LEAKS


SUBSEA AND ONSHORE PIPELINES
Eur. Ing. Dr. Waheed Al-Rafai, ZADCO, United Arab Emirates
Dr. Dev Sebastian, Sunrise Systems Ltd, United Kingdom
In this paper we present results based on the pioneering work done by ZADCO in pipeline
design. We believe that this represents a major step achieved by ZADCO in developing
techniques for pipeline design and sets a new worldwide standard. The project concerned
with the integrity modelling of the arterial oil pipeline, which is a major asset of ZADCO.

The water content of the main oil line is low at present but it is expected to increase in the
future. This brings with it the danger of significantly increased pressure surges due to
increased water cut, even though the valve closure time may remain constant. The use of
state-of-the-art techniques developed by ZADCO is invaluable in optimising and planning
costly subsea rehabilitation activities, and in quantifying and justifying the benefit of
installing a leak detection system in support of improved pipeline operation.

The paper also gives an introduction to the role played by the PIPENET software in this
application.

- 21 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 22 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

SUBSEA PIPELINE MODELLING


In this example we consider modelling a pipeline which carries oil from an offshore
platform to onshore reception facilities.

The effect of valve closure and closure time


The effect of a pipe rupture

The objective in the first case is to determine the relationship between the valve closure
time and the maximum pressure with the view of determining the optimum valve closure
time. This calculation is particularly important where the integrity demand on the pipeline
progressively increases due to weakening by corrosion, the need to transfer greater
quantities of oil and an increase in the amount of produced water. By selecting an
optimum valve closure time, which is inevitably a compromise between the emergency
shutdown requirement and pipeline integrity constraints due to corrosion, the inspection
frequency as calculated by Risk Based Inspection (RBI) and the time to repair the line can
also be optimised.
The objective in the second case is to minimise the environmental effect and the waste
caused by the occurrence of a pipe rupture under the sea. During a leak every second
counts and quick response by a leak detection system is critical for improved safety
especially lines containing H2S. For the purpose of comparison, it was assumed that it
took 15 minutes to detect a leak manually and a further 1 minute to shutdown the pump.
On the other hand, with a leak detection system installed, it took 4 minutes to detect a leak
a further 1 minute to shutdown the pump. The estimated oil which is drained into the sea
is an important consideration in this.
For the valve closure surge analysis the network in the schematic form is shown below.

The pipeline is approximately 35 km of 200 mm pipe following the profile of the seabed.
The lowest point of the pipeline is 80 m below the level of the platform. Oil is pumped by a
booster/transfer pump and there is an isolation valve at the end of the pipeline.
Consider the following four valve closure cases.
60 sec
120 sec
240 sec
600 sec (quadratic valve closure)
In the first scenario, the valve is set to close in 60 sec. The wave speed is 1159 m/sec.
- 22 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 23 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The period for the pressure wave to return to the valve after traversing the length of the
pipe is approximately 60.4 sec. As this time, which is sometimes referred to as the critical
time, is longer than the valve closure time, this scenario is likely to generate the maximum
surge pressure.

As expected the maximum pressure occurs at the lowest point in the system and reaches
a value of 95.3 bar.
In the second scenario the valve closure time is increased to 120 sec. One would expect
the pressure surge to decrease a little but not very significantly. This is because in a
system of this type, the pressure surge can be expected to decrease significantly only after
the valve closure time is many times the critical time. As described in the previous
paragraph the critical time is the time it takes for the pressure wave emanating from the
valve to travel the length of the system and return.

The maximum pressure again occurs at lowest point in the system and reaches 92.5 bar.
As expected this is a little less than the maximum pressure with 60 sec valve closure time
but not greatly.

- 23 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 24 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The pressure peak occurs at the lowest point and has a value of 88.9 bar.
In the next case we consider a valve closure time of 600 sec with a quadratic pattern. The
advantage of quadratic valve closure is the following. Generally, the pressure surge is
created during the final stages of valve closure. With quadratic valve closure the valve
closes quickly to begin with and slowly during the final moments. So, within a given valve
closure time, the effective rate of closure during the critical period is slow.

The maximum pressure at the lowest point of the system is 69.1 bar. It is difficult to
reduce this significantly for the following reason. The closed head of the pump is 57 bar.
The additional pressure due to static head is approximately 7 bar. The pressure at the
lowest point would therefore be 64 bar even without any pressure surge.
The next scenario we consider is the case in which the pipe ruptures on the seabed. This
is potentially a serious hazard from two points of view. In an area like the Gulf leakage of
oil into the sea could be a major disaster. Furthermore, the sheer waste is something the
operator has to contend with.
One major issue in a matter like this is the analysis of the economics of the system. Is it
cost effective to install a leak detection system? It would therefore be of interest to
consider two cases.

The case in which a leak detection system has been installed.


- 24 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 25 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

The case in which a leak detection system has not been installed.

In both cases we assume that the leak takes 30 sec to fully develop. The leak itself occurs
approximately 15 km downstream of the pump.
In the first case the leak is detected 240 sec after it begins and a signal is sent to the pump
to stop and the valve to close. After receiving the signal to stop, the pump takes 60 sec to
wind down. The valve closes in 180 sec after receiving the signal to close. The system
schematic and the graphical results are shown below.

In the second case we assume that the pump continues to operate and the valve remains
open even after the leak starts. The operators manually detect that there has been a leak
and the system is shutdown 15 minutes after the leak starts.

As expected, the case without the installation of the leak detection system results in a
considerably greater environmental impact. In addition what PIPENET can do is to
estimate the amount of oil which has leaked into the sea in the above cases. Furthermore,
PIPENET can be used to assess the impact of parameters such as the response time of
the leak detection system, the spindown time of the pump, the valve closure time and
other parameters.
- 25 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 26 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

Amount of oil leaked with leak detection system


Amount of oil leaked without leak detection system

- 600 m3
- 2070 m3

ONSHORE PIPELINE MODELLING


The second case we consider is an onshore cross-country pipeline system. The system
imports oil from three tanks in a tank farm and delivers to two delivery points using two
parallel pipelines. The oil is pumped by one pumping station consisting of four pumps,
connected in the form of two parallel sets. The parallel pipes have an interconnecting pipe
approximately half way along.

We model the case in which both pipes rupture approximately in the same location. The
leak fully develops in 10 secs. The following scenarios are considered.

In the first scenario we assume that a leak detection system has been installed
which sends a signal to shut down the pumps, within 5 sec of the leak beginning
to develop. The pumps themselves take 60 sec to spin down. (Graph 2.1.)

In the second scenario we consider the case where a leak detection system has
not been installed. The pumps continue to operate normally even after the leak
occurs. (graph 2.2.)

In both the scenarios there is a rush of oil when the leak occurs. However, in the case
where a leak detection system has been installed, the flow rapidly goes down to almost
zero. There is a small remaining flowrate because of the static head caused by the oil
level in the tanks. In the scenario without the leak detection system, the flowrate through
- 26 -

PIPENET VISION TRAINING MANUAL


PAGE 27 OF 27

TRANSIENT: CHAPTER 3
REVISION 2.1, SEP 2010

the leak continues at a substantial level.


PIPENET can be used to estimate important factors such as the volume of leakage and
the impact of parameters which are under the control of the design engineer.
CONCLUSION
ZADCO has achieved pioneering leadership in the field of developing pipeline design
techniques. This has been achieved by using the PIPENET software.
In this paper we have shown how to achieve practical benefits to support pipeline integrity
risk management activities. This is an important issue in the Arabian Gulf.
THE AUTHORS
Dr Waheed Al-Rafai obtained his PhD in Fluid Mechanics in 1990. He worked for Brown &
Root Energy Services in the Arabian Gulf, USA and the UK. He now works for ZADCO in
the UAE, with responsibility for developing a Pipeline Integrity Risk Management System
for an extensive subsea pipeline network. He is a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical
Engineers in London and has a Master of Business Administration degree. He is the
author of a number of papers on pipelines and related technologies.
Dr Dev Sebastian obtained his PhD in mathematics from Imperial College, London. He
also has an MSc in Chemical Engineering. After working for BOC and CAD Centre, he is
now the Marketing Manager at Sunrise Systems in Cambridge, United Kingdom. He is the
author of a number of papers on numerical methods.
The authors would like to thank ZADCO for giving permission to present this paper.

- 27 -