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Noorul Islam College of Engineering

Short & Long Questions

Department of Aeronautical Engineering
AE-1012 Aircraft Transportation and maintenance management
April - 2011
1. What does Annex.18 and Annex.13 of ICAO stand for?
Annex.18 states The Safe Transport of Dangerous goods by Air.
Annex.13 states Aircraft Accident and Incident Investigation.

2. What do you mean by SARP?

It means Standard and Recommended Practices. SARPs cover all technical and operational
aspects of international civil aviation such as safety, personnel lisensing, operation of A/C,
aerodynamics etc.
3. Draw the structural diagram of ICAO.

(1) Assembly
(189 country)

(2) Council of limited

(36 states)



(3) Secretariate is
Bureau of




4. Draw the structural diagram of Airlines operational management.

A/C manufacturer
Leasing Companies


and Goods

Government Authorities
Air traffic control
They contribute to Airlines and Airlines gives service to passengers and transport goods.

5. What do you mean by Open skies agreement?

Open skies means unrestricted access by any carrier into sovereign territory of country without
any written agreement.
Thus in theory when the skies are open, any foreign airline can choose any route and can land any
aircraft at any airport, with no restrictions. (eg.) EU (Europe) i.e. Common Air space under common
security and safety rules.

6. What do you mean by Cambotage?

Cambotage means right to move passengers on a route from a home country to destination country
that uses more than one stop along which passengers may be loaded and unloaded.
7. What do you mean by On demand Air transportation?
On demand Air transportation: The transportation of passengers and cargo by aircraft from one
point to another when requested or needed. It is a non scheduled Air transport.
Air Transport


Personal / Business /

& private)
8. What does DGCA, BCAS and AAI stands for?
DGCA Director General of Civil Aviation.
BCAS Bureau of Civil Aviation Security.
AAI Airport Authority of India.
9. Define Airworthiness.
Airworthiness means meeting the civil Aviation authority established standards for safe flight and
equipped and maintained in a condition to fly.
10. What is the concept of international multi- media transport?
The concept of international multi-modal transport covers the door-to-door movement of goods
under the responsibility of a single transport operator. Combining different mode of transport such as
rail, road, sea, Air etc. we can boost the global economy by reducing time.
11. Differentiate between amortization and depreciation.
Amortization is intangable assert (valuable goods) cost over the duration of its useful life.
(Intangable good will, brand etc.)
Depreciation is a process by which a company allocates a tangible assert cost over the duration of
its useful life. (Tangable machines, building, land etc.)
12. What is the role of Civil Aviation authorities? Name any five.

The CAA is the name for the national body governing civil aviation in a number of countries.
CAA provides: Personal Licensing / Flight Operations / Airworthiness / Aerodromes / Air traffic
services / Safe sky etc.
Eg. (i) DGCA India
(ii) EASA (European Aviation Safety Agency) EU (European Union)
(iii) FAAT (Federal Agency of Air Transport) Russia
(iv) FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) USA
(v) CASA (Civil Aviation Safety Authority) Australia
13. What do you mean by AMO, TC and EO?
AMO means Aircraft Maintenance Organization.
TC means Task Cards.
EO means Engineering Order.
14. Differentiate between functional and operational checks.
Functional Check: A quantitative check to determine if each function of an item performs within
specified limits. This check require use of auxiliary (outside) equipment.
Operational Checks: A task to determine if an item is fulfilling its intended purpose. This is a
failure finding task and does not require outside equipment.
15. What do you mean by Bottom up and Top down approach for maintenance?
Bottom up approach: It looks at the component as the most likely causes of equipment
Top down approach: It looks at the consequence of failure i.e what caused the problem.
16. What is AOG?
AOG means Aircraft on ground. An aircraft out of service (i.e. grounded) waiting for a part or
parts before it can be returned to service.
17. Define Down time.
The length of time lost during an operation because of non scheduled stoppages such as failure,
delay etc.
18. What do you mean by MRO?
MRO means maintenance Repair and Overhaul.
19. Write a brief note on line personnel.
They include everyone directly involved in producing or selling an airline services.
Mechanics (M & E)
Dilects (Flight operations)
Flight attendants
Sales & Marketing
20. What do you mean by span of control in level of management?
This concept states that a supervisor or manager can effectively supervise or control three to
seven people.

21. What do you mean by deregulation? After deregulation, what still remains regulated?
Deregulation means freedom to operate by anyone. It gives free market competition. It was
applied to Air Cargo and passengers.
What remains regulated:
Bilateral agreements between international air services.
Open sky agreements.
Safety can never be deregulated. Its always under full control of government.

22. What is GDP and GNP and how its related to transportation?
GDP is gross domestic product. It is a measure of the total value of goods and services
produced by a domestic economy during a given period, usually one year.
GNP is gross national product. It is the total market value of goods and services produced
during a given period by labor and capital supplied by residents of a country, regardless of where the
labor and capital are located.
In many developed countries, transportation accounts for between 6% and 12% of the
GDP. And transportation contributes about 20% of the total GNP of the nation.
23. Differentiate between Macro and Micro economics.
Macro economic: The importance of transportation for a whole economy.
Micro economic: The importance of transportation for specific parts of the economy.
24. What do you mean by yield management?
The process of finding the right mix of fares for each flight is called as inventory or revenue
When to do discount
When to do overbooking
Should we have First class, Business class and Economy class etc.
25. What do you mean by code sharing agreements?
Code sharing agreements can be between a larger airlines and reginal airlines or foreign airlines.
It allows two different airlines to offer better co-ordinated services to their customers. In this a
carrier simply hands off passengers to another carrier to get the passenger to destination under same
26. What is fleet assignment and A/C routing?
Planning process of large airline companies require fleet assignment and A/C routing. First,
flight schedule is determined based on forecasts of passenger demand, available airports and other
information. Then specific type of A/C is assigned to the individual flights of the schedule providing
rotation of flights in each fleet. This process is termed as fleet assignment and aircraft routing.
27. Differentiate between Airline Revenue and Airline Cost.
Airline Revenue where the money comes from i.e. passengers / cargo / domestic travel /
international travel.
Airline Cost where the money goes i.e. flying operations as fuel / maintenance / ATC /
promotion passenger service / Administration / Depreciation / Amortization.

28. What do you mean by budgeting?

Budgeting is to minimize airline cost i.e. where money goes and to increase airline revenue.
The material manager of M & E organization along with CEO of airlines makes the budgeting for
29. Explain Fixed and Variable direct operating cost. How are they related to indirect operating cost?
Direct costs in airline are those which are related to the A/C. They are fixed (depreciation,
internet, insurance) and variable (crew, fuel, maintenance, ATC charge etc.)
Indirect costs are those related to the airline itself (sales, advertising, passenger service)
30. What is utilization?
Utilization is total flying per year or total flying per day. A high amount of utilization will result
in low hourly charges for depreciation and make it easier to earn profits or to cut fares.
31. Explain different types of international tariffs.
International tariffs are framed by IATA but big Giant Airlines do make their own tariff.
Types of international Tariffs are,
First class fares
Business class fares
Economic class fares
Preferential fares
Promotional fares
32. What is the difference between Airline production and Load factor? How does CRS affect the load
Airline production = Seats offered x Distance = Seat Km.
Passenger load factor = Passenger Km
Seat Km
Computer reservation systems (CRS) have raised the average load factor expected by scheduled
service airlines.
33. Who should have control of material maintenance or finance?
Maintenance of M & E organization.
34. How is material in airlines functioning?
Material is one of the key units within an airlines M & E organization.Its function involve,
Ordering of parts and supplies.
Storing of parts and supplies.
Controlling of parts and supplies.
Handling of parts and supplies.
35. What is the relation between budgeting and material?
Material is the one the spends the most money in Airlines. It formulates budget with respect to
inventory control, stores, purchasing, shipping and receiving. Material under the control of M & E
organization makes budgeting.

36. Define Human Factor.

Human factor is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions
among humans and other elements of a system, starting from design process to the human use.
37. Define LPG and how it affects global economy?
LPG means Libralization, Privatization and Globalization.
More airlines, more compitition, more air traffic, more GDP, Technology growth all because of

38. Differentiate between proportional fares and preferential fares.

Preferential fares are low type of fares offered to children, young people and senior citizen and to
military personnel, diplomats etc.
Proportional fares are special schemes given by airlines to passengers in proportion to demand.
39. What costs are involved in flight operations?
Flying operation involves,

Crew salaries and expenses.

Fuel and oil.

40. Differentiate between flight crew and ground crew. How do they assist each other?
Ground crew is the support crew supplying the A/C with fuel and maintenance.
Flight crew are pilots, flight attendants, flight engineers etc. who fly with A/C.
Both are two pillars of airlines.
41. Differentiate between visual and transit checks.
Visual check: An observation to determine if an item is fulfilling its intended purpose. This is a
failure finding task.
42. How do hourly checks differ from letter checks?
Daily checks: A maintenance check performed every day or any time the aircraft has sat on the
ground for more than 4 hours. For recent A/C models, this has been changed to a 48 hour interval.
Letter checks: Standard check cycles done after certain flight hours, flight cycles or calendar
time. Usually named as A, B, C, D.
43. Differentiate between MEL and MMEL.
MEL (minimum Equipment List) A list of equipment that flight crews agree to accept as in
operative for short periods. Operators create the MEL.
MMEL (Marter Minimum Equipment List) Marter list of MEL items. Includes all related items
available for the A/C type whether installed on operators vehicle or not. Manufacture creates the
44. Differentiate between routine maintenance and non routine maintenance items.

The basic maintenance checks have task requirements for various inspections, functional checks
and operational checks of A/C equipment. They are called routine maintenance items and require
fixed amount of time to be carried out.
The requirements in skill, parts, supplies and time can vary considerably depending on the nature
of the malfunction found. These are called non routine items and by nature can extend the down time
45. Define Redundancy and Reliability. How are they related to each other?
Redundancy: The use of two or more items in parallel to ensure full support in case one unit fails.
Reliability: The probability that an item will perform a required function, under specified
condition without failure, for a specified amount of time. With redundancy the reliability increases.
46. Talking about parts availability, what is Chasing parts and JIT?
Chasing parts: Depending on which parts and supplies will be needed for routine and non routine
work, the mechanic has to do the chasing of parts.
JIT: Material delivers parts and supplies it to hanger Just In Time (JIT) for maintenance to use
47. What is MCC? Also define PIREPS.
MCC Maintenance Control Center. The hub of maintenance activities on the flight line for inservice aircraft.
PIREPS Pilot report i.e. a log book entry or other report by a flight crew member concerning
an aircraft malfunction.
48. What does abbreviation A & P, AC, AD, SB, SD, SL stands for?
A & P means Airframe and Power plant.
AC means Advisory Circular.
AD means Airworthiness Directive.
SB means Service Bulletin.
SD means Standard Deviation about mean value.
SL means Service Letter.
49. Differentiate between TCand C of A.
TC Type certificate is a certificate issued by Civil Aviation Authority of country of
manufacturing the A/C.
C of A Certificate of Airworthiness (in India) or AC (Airworthiness certificate, FAA). C of A
is issued by DGCA to each aircraft built to assure that it was built to TC standard.
50. Differentiate between NDI and NDT.
NDI Non Destructive Inspection is an inspection technique that does not change the unit being
NDT Non Destructive Testing is a testing technique which does not change the unit under test.
51. What are the structural damage the A/C go through?
Environmental deterioration.
Accidental damage.
Fatigue damage.

52. What is flight plan? How are they scheduled?

Flight plan are document filed by pilots with local Civil Aviation Authority prior to departure.
They include information such as departure and arrival point, estimated time en route, alternate
airport etc. Flight plans are scheduled according to the availability of routes in coordination with
53. Differentiate between scheduled and unscheduled maintenance.
Scheduled Maintenance: Simple maintenance and / or servicing activities designed to maintain
the inherent level of safety and reliability of a system and done at specified intervals.
Unscheduled Maintenance: Maintenance performed to restore an item that has failed or
deteriorated beyond usable levels to its inherent level of reliability and safety.
54. What is NFF?
NFF means No Fault Found while shooting.
55. What do you mean by LRU?
LRU means Line Replaceable Unit. An LRU is a component or system that has been designed in
such a manner that the parts that most commonly fail can be quickly removed and replaced on the
56. What do you mean by Lubrication?
An act of replenishing oil, grease or other substances used for the purpose of maintaining the
inherent design capabilities of a unit or system by reducing friction and / or removing heat.
57. What is overhauling?
The disassembly, inspection and / or check of an A/C, component, engine or appliance to an
extent necessary to determine that it is in satisfactory condition to operate one complete overhaul
58. Differentiate between MSI and SSI.
MSI means (Maintenance Significant Item) An item, determined by the manufacturer, would
be hidden from the flight crew, or would have an operational or economic impact.
SSI means (Structurally Significant Item) Any detail element or assembly which contributes
significantly to A/C loading and whose failure could affect the structural integrity necessary for
safety of the aircraft.
59. Differentiate between inspection, visual inspection and zonal inspection.
Inspection: An examination of an item and comparison against a specific standard.
Visual inspection: A visual examination that will detect obvious, unsatisfactory conditions or
Zonal inspection: Several visual inspection tasks performed in a specific area (zone) of the A/C.
60. What is Back shops?
Another name for overhaul shops for maintenance and repair of off - A/C equipment.
61. Differentiate between block time and flight time (flight hours)?
Block time (Block hours) Hours measured for the time A/C leaves the gate to the time A/C
stops at the destination gate.

Flight time (Flight hours) Actual flight time measured from take off to landing.

62. What do you mean by reliability centered maintenance (RCM)?

Failure rate




(See Page No.10)


1,2,3 follow HT & OC

i.e. Hard time and on condition


4,5,6 follow CM
i.e. condition monitoring

63. Which among HT, OC, and CM is unscheduled maintenance? Give example for each.
HT is scheduled and failure preventive [e.g. landing gear overhaul]
OC is scheduled and failure preventive [e.g. boroscopic inspection of engines]
CM is unscheduled and until failure [e.g. navigation and communication equipment]
64. What is walk around inspection?
At stations where no maintenance is available, the flight crew will do a walk around inspection
i.e. they will perform a transit check consisting of oil check, visual inspection.
65. What are the five objectives of an airline maintenance program?
(i) To ensure safety and reliability level of equipment.
(ii) To restore safety and reliability level of equipment.
(iii)To obtain necessary information, data etc for adjustment of maintenance program when
inherent levels are not met.
(iv)To obtain information for design improvement.
(v) To do this maintenance at minimum cost.
66. How is no data related to false alert?
Some time no data i.e. when equipment was not in service, is taken as no failure. The no
failure gives us the overall mean value or false. And thus getting false alert level.
(e.g.) weather radar work only two months and is not needed for 10 months.(See page 203)

67. What do you mean by Economic useful life of A/C or engine?

Economic useful life of A/C or engine is the period of time over which it is physically and
economically feasible to operate it in its intended role.
68. Differentiate between A/C operating cycle and total flight time.
A/C operating cycle: A complete flight sequence including taxi, take off, flight en-route and
landing. For engines it is starting, accelerating to maximum rated power, decelerating and stopping.
Total flight time: is the operating time that an A/C, engine or component has accumulated since
69. What is dispatch reliability?
Dispatch reliability is a measure of the overall effectiveness of the airline operation with
respect to on-time departure.
70. What is the data for reliability?
Flight time and cycles of each A/C.
Cancellation and delays over 15 minutes.
Unscheduled component and engine removals.
71. What do you mean by hanger deluge system?
Hanger deluge systems are with tanks of fire retardant chemical buried in the ground or beneath
the hanger floor. This chemical mixes with water to form a foam and disperses it throughout the
72. What do you mean by inherent reliability?
The designed-in reliability of a component or system is called inherent reliability.
73. How are MPRB, MRB and MRBR related?
MPRB is maintenance program review board.
MRB is maintenance review board.
MRBR is MRB report.
74. Differentiate between hidden and evident failure.
Hidden Failure: A failure of an A/C system or component that is not evident to the flight crew.
Evident Failure: A failure of an A/C system or component that is noticeable to the flight crew.
75. How is CM related to HT and OC monitoring?
Condition Monitoring (CM) A primary maintenance process for items that do not have
characteristics that would allow the establishment of HT or OC intervals to determine
serviceability. CM items are operated to failure.
76. What is a critical failure?

Failures involving a loss of function or secondary damage that could have an adverse effect on
operating safety.
77. What is EROPS?
EROPS means extended range operation. Flight operations at a distance more than 60 minutes.
flying time with one engine inoperative from the route to enroute airport. EROPS works regardless
of number of engines. It has been replaced by ETOPS (Extended Twin Engine Operations) which
works only for two engine A/C.
78. Differentiate between Accidental Damage, Environmental Deterioration and Fatigue Damage.
Accidental Damage: The physical deterioration of an item caused by contact or impact.
E.g. Rough landing caused impact on landing gears.
Environmental Deterioration: The physical deterioration of an items strength or resistance to
failure as a result of chemical interaction with its environment.
Fatigue Damage: The initiation of a crack or cracks due cyclic loading and subsequent
propagation of such cracks.
79. What is the normal aging life of A/C?
20 years of economical life.

80. What is TBO? How is it expressed?

The maximum time that an item is permitted to operate between overhauls. TBOs are usually
expressed in flight hours, cycles or calendar increments.
81. What is progressive maintenance program?
Progressive maintenance program is one which provides for the complete inspection of an A/C
with in each 12 calendar months, in compliance with manufacturing and CAA.
82. Draw block diagram showing equipment and tools for A/C maintenance.
(Refer to question no.88)
83. What is the function of maintenance safety?
Maintenance safety:
Makes safety program.
Health matters.
Safety equipment.
84. What do you mean by inventory control?
Inventory control maintains proper stock levels in stores and initiates recorder on proper time.
85. Differentiate between line station and out station.
Any maintenance activities at stations that are not the home base of airline are called out
stations or line stations. Line stations have limited personnel and skills, limited availability of
parts and supplies, limited facilities. E.g. hanger space etc.
Out stations include the contracting of maintenance personnel on site for effecting repairs and
for servicing the A/C.

86. What do you mean by production control?

The PP & C planners control the production by two factors:
Part knowledge of work to be done.
Parts, manpower and facilities available when needed.

87. What is Quick Engine Change (QEC)?

A QEC is a collection of components and accessories such as pumps, generators, thrust
reverser, nose cowl, fluid lines installed etc. on to a bare engine to speed the eventual installation
of the entire power plant on to an A/C.
88. Name some ground support equipments.
Ground support equipment & tools

Servicing and
handling of A/C

Airport &

Facilitation of




Some GSE are: Wheel chocks / Tow bars / Jacks / Pneumatic air start unit / Battery charging
equipment / O2 servicing equipment etc.
89. What is Shop Visit?
An engine removal is classified as shop visit.
90. Give the guidelines for human factor design.
(i) Design the system to be compatible with human abilities, capabilities, need and strength.
(ii) Design the system to compensate for human failings and deficiencies to avoid human errors.
(iii) Provide human elements of the system with sufficient education and training.
91. What is mid time or mid life or half time or half life?
Mid time or half time implies that,
The status of scheduled inspection or overhaul is midway through.
The item has been in service for one half of their life limits.
92. What are basic elements of continuous maintenance program?

A/C inspection.
Scheduled maintenance.
Unscheduled maintenance.
Repair and overhaul (Engine).
Structural inspection and overhaul Airframe).
Maintenance manual.

93. What are ACARS and FANS? How are they related to future maintenance?
ACARS means A/C communication addressing and reporting systems.
FANS means Future A/C navigation systems.
They can monitor and report about A/C engines and system performance before hand to the
maintenance department.
94. How is a typical 48 hours check followed for twin engine jet?
Check brakes.
Check oil level.
Check main and more landing gear.
Do operational check of stand by power.
Test engine, APU.
Do operational check of interior emergency lights.
Do operational check of fire / overheat systems.
Do operational check of TCAS.
ETOPS check.
95. How is transit check followed for twin engine jet?
Service engine oil.
Check RAM air inlet / exhaust door and cabin pressure outflow valve.
Check positive pressure relife valves.
Check all movable flight control surfaces.
Check more and main landing gear and wheels.
Check navigation and communication antennas.
Check static ports and probs.
Check crew oxygen discharge for pressure.
Check for leakage of fuel and / or hydraulic fluid.
Check primary control surfaces.
Check using tips and lower using surfaces for fuel leakage.
Check engine cowlings etc.
96. What is IFSD?
IFSD is inflight shut down of an A/C engine when one of the engines shut down because of
some malfunction. The malfunction is probably one of the most serious in aviation, particularly if
the airplane only has two engines or even one.
97. Differentiate between QA and QC?
QA (Quality Assurance) The M & E organization responsible for setting standards of
operation and for monitoring the operator units to ensure that such standards are met.

QC (Quality Control) The M & E organization responsible for conducting inspection of

maintenance work and for calibration of tools and test equipment.
98. Define BITE? What is EBU?
BITE means Built-in Test Equipment Special equipment associated with certain systems to
monitor health and operation of those systems and to aid in fault location efforts.
EBU means Engine Build Up The process of adding components to a basic engine to
configure it for installation on a specific A/C and position.
99. What do you mean by Engine Cycle?
Operation of the A/C engine from start-up to shut down.
100. Differentiate between process - oriented and task - oriented maintenance.
The process oriented approach to maintenance uses Hart time (HT), On condition (OC) and
Condition monitoring (CM) to accomplish scheduled maintenance actions.
The task - oriented approach to maintenance uses predetermined maintenance tasks to avoid
in service failures. Redundancy of equipment and system helps as a back up to avoid in service
failure. Task oriented is applicable in few countries. Its a future concept of A/C maintenance.


What are the factors affecting General Aviation?

What is the role of IATA and ICAO in Aviation industry?
Explain the level of management of M & E organization for Airlines with a neat chart.
What is the Chicago convention, for freedom of the air in respect of scheduled international air
5. Explain the Airport management system.
6. What is the procedure for evaluation of new A/C and old A/C added to the fleet?
7. What are the factors that effect cost of passenger fare?
8. Explain production planning and control (PP&C).
9. Explain fleet planning.
10. Explain different way of leaving procedure for Airlines.
11. Differentiate between Equipment maintenance procedure of Airlines and Equipment
maintenance procedure of M & E organization.
12. How is hub and spoke scheduling advantageous over point to point scheduling?
13. How is A/C scheduled in line with A/C maintenance practices?
14. What is line maintenance? How is it different from maintenance done in hanger?
15. What is the procedure for selecting a computer system for airline maintenance?
16. Explain reliability. How do you go about Investigation of reliability alerts?
17. What is MSC? Explain Hard Time, On Condition and Condition Monitoring Maintenance.
18. Differentiate between EROPS and ETOPS. Why we need ETOPS?
19. What is the procedure for Ageing A/C maintenance?
20. How do you define the maintenance intervals?
21. What do you mean by materials? How is it related to product support and spares?
22. What is maintenance sharing? How is it done?
23. Explain NDT. How is it related to A/C maintenance in future? Explain Task-oriented maintenance

as the future of A/C maintenance.

24. How is A/C weight and budgeting control done? What do you mean by onboard maintenance
25. Explain Engine monitoring, Turbine engine oil maintenance, Turbine engine vibration monitoring,
in A/C. What is life usage monitoring?