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DIFFERENT CLASSES OF ANTIBIOTICS - AN OVERVIEW

Key:

COMMONLY ACT AS BACTERIOSTATIC AGENTS, RESTRICTING GROWTH & REPRODUCTION

COMMONLY ACT AS BACTERICIDAL AGENTS, CAUSING BACTERIAL CELL DEATH

-LACTAMS

AMINOGLYCOSIDES

chloramphenicol

glycopeptides

ansamycins

streptogramins

MOST WIDELY USED ANTIBIOTICS


IN THE NHS

FAMILY OF OVER 20 ANTIBIOTICS

COMMONLY USED IN LOW INCOME


COUNTRIES

COMMON DRUGS OF LAST RESORT

CAN ALSO DEMONSTRATE


ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITY

TWO GROUPS OF ANTIBIOTICS THAT


ACT SYNERGISTICALLY

O
O

O
HO
O

HO

HO

O HO
O

HO

HN

OH

H2N

O
All contain a beta-lactam ring
EXAMPLES
Penicillins (shown) such as
amoxicillin and flucloxacillin;
Cephalosporins such as cefalexin.
MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit bacteria cell wall biosynthesis.

DISCOVERY

N
N

NH2

OH

NH2
NH2

OH

N+

OH

HO

O-

HO

O
O

HO

N
H

OH

O
NH

HO

All contain aminosugar substructures

Distinct individual compound

EXAMPLES
Streptomycin (shown), neomycin,
kanamycin, paromomycin.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit synthesis of proteins,
preventing growth.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit the synthesis of proteins by
bacteria, leading to cell death.

No longer a first line drug in any


developed nation due to increased
resistance and worries about safety.

1940

OCH3

O
OH

N
H

H3CO

Cl
Cl

NH2

1930

OH

OH
O

H
N
O

N
H
H2N

H
N

N
H

OH

HN

O
H3CO

NH2

OH

EXAMPLES
Vancomycin (shown), teicoplanin.
MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit bacteria cell wall biosynthesis.

1960

HN

Consist of carbohydrate linked to a


peptide formed of amino acids

1950

O
HO

NH

OH

OH

Cl
O

Cl

O
O

All contain an aromatic ring bridged by


an aliphatic chain.

Combination of two structurally differing


compounds, from groups denoted A & B

EXAMPLES
Geldanamycin (shown), rifamycin,
naphthomycin.

EXAMPLES
Pristinamycin IIA (shown),
Pristinamycin IA.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit the synthesis of RNA by
bacteria, leading to cell death.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit the synthesis of proteins by
bacteria, leading to cell death.

1970

1980

sulfonamides

tetracyclines

macrolides

oxazolidinones

quinolones

lipopeptides

FIRST COMMERCIAL ANTIBIOTICS


WERE SULFONAMIDES

BECOMING LESS POPULAR DUE TO


DEVELOPMENT OF RESISTANCE

SECOND MOST PRESCRIBED


ANTIBIOTICS IN THE NHS

POTENT ANTIBIOTICS COMMONLY


USED AS DRUGS OF LAST RESORT

RESISTANCE EVOLVES RAPIDLY

INSTANCES OF RESISTANCE RARE

O
H2N

S
O

H
H

All contain the sulfonamide group


EXAMPLES
Prontosil, sulfanilamide (shown),
sulfadiazine, sulfisoxazole.
MODE OF ACTION
Do not kill bacteria but prevent their
growth and multiplication. Cause
allergic reactions in some patients.

OH

OH O
OH

O
NH2

HO

OH
N

HO

OH

OH

C2H5

HO
O

O
O
CH3

CH3

OCH3

O
O

H
N

N
O

OH

O
F

F
N

HO

O
H2N

H
N

C9H19
O

N
H

O
HN

NH
O

NH

OH

HN

HN
NH2 O
H
N
N
H
O
OH

O
N
H
NH

OH
O
NH

HN

OO

HN

OH
O
OH

NH

All contain 4 adjacent cyclic


hydrocarbon rings

All contain a 14-, 15-, or 16-membered


macrolide ring

All contain 2-oxazolidone somewhere


in their structure

All contain fused aromatic rings with a


carboxylic acid group attached

EXAMPLES
Tetracycline (shown), doxycycline,
limecycline, oxytetracycline.

EXAMPLES
Erythromycin (shown),
clarithromycin, azithromycin.

EXAMPLES
Linezolid (shown), posizolid,
tedizolid, cycloserine.

EXAMPLES
Ciprofloxacin (shown), levofloxacin,
trovafloxacin.

All contain a lipid bonded to a peptide

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit synthesis of proteins by
bacteria, preventing growth.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit protein synthesis by bacteria,
occasionally leading to cell death.

MODE OF ACTION
Inhibit synthesis of proteins by
bacteria, preventing growth.

MODE OF ACTION
Interfere with bacteria DNA
replication and transcription.

MODE OF ACTION
Disrupt multiple cell membrane
functions, leading to cell death.

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NH2

EXAMPLES
Daptomycin (shown), surfactin.

BY

NC

ND