Scope: Development of an Insulin Pump for Athletes (IPfA) to improve blood

sugar management during moderate to extreme physical output. Insulin dependent diabetics when initiating or enduring a high exertion activity are required with high precision to balance insulin dosage with calorie intake. Both variables: calorie intake and insulin dosage, are relative to the level of exertion involved in the activity performed. For the greatest level of energy during high physical exertion, maintaining an appropriate balance between calorie intake and insulin dosage relative to the activity is critical. For insulin dependent high endurance athletes, such as marathon or ultra trail runners, high endurance road cycling, mountain biking and bi/tri-athletes, initiating training or increasing training regimes can be a challenge due to the trial and error of maintaining proper sugar levels. Questions such as, ´How much do I need to eat before an eventµ, ´How long will my sugar level last after I start this activityµ, ´How soon should I eat after I start this activityµ and ´What intervals should I eat and how muchµ are significant concerns in the minds of insulin dependent athletes. The idea presented would be an aid to bridge the gap (balancing food, insulin, activity) in maximizing appropriate sugar level balance for individuals who desire to increase their physical activity performance. The bridge would be the ability to predict blood sugar level after a given time interval based on an

average heart rate maintained over the same time period. Figure 1 provides an example of what can occur to a given initial sugar level over a time period with an increased heart rate, in this case 85% of a maximum heart rate, while maintaining a consistent basal rate.

Figure 1, Blood Sugar Loss over time due to an increased heart rate (85% of maximum BPM) Description: A device that logs insulin dosage, meaning insulin ´on-boardµ

and current basal rate, blood sugar level and heart rate simultaneously could be developed by integration of a heart rate monitor and insulin pump. Whether the blood sugar level monitoring is determined by typical blood sugar testing and logging, or dynamic sample rate from a secondary input is not entirely resolved. Initially, multiple blood sugar tests could be done during an activity to establish trends. After a number of exercise events a threedimensional model for an individual insulin dependent athlete could be developed. The model would provide an algorithm within the integrated heart rate monitor/insulin pump and also provide reminders to eat during an activity, including how many calories are needed to maintain sugar levels based on a current and prolonged heart rate average. Figure 2 provides a cartoon of 4 different exercise events, each with a different level of exertion or heart rate average.

Figure 2, Different blood sugar level loss rates over time based on maintained average heart rate

The IPfA system shown in figure 3, consists of a standard heart monitor chest strap to transmit heart rate, with a PDA or insulin pump able to receive and record the heart rate signals, record blood sugars and perform standard insulin pump functionality. The PDA approach would be separate from the actual pump, much like the Omni Pod system but with athletic functionality: light weight, large display but small in dimensions like an Apple I-Touch. Materials and assembly would be water and impact resistant to withstand outdoor vigorous activity.
Depiction:

Figure 3, Depiction of the IPfA system.

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