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ALIMARINA

(Crab Shell Flour)

JAMAICA MARIE M. TUMULAK


Holy Trinity School
RESEARCHER

Requirement in Chemistry
A.Y. 2012 2013

CHAPTER III
ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to test the effectiveness of chitin on crab shells as an
alternative source of flour. Flour is known to be a good substitute for rice. The global
economic crisis became the major cause of price hike of flour in the world market. Thus,
there is a need to find an alternative source of flour which is affordable and safe for
human consumption.
Crab shells which were collected from the different households in Batangas City,
were pulverized.
It was found out that the crab shells which were grounded into pulverous powder
or deacetylated powder could be a good substitute for flour by using this flour from crab
shells in making hot pancake.

CHAPTER IV
RESEARCH PLAN
Materials:
crab shells
mortar and pestle
stove
basin
pan
water

General Procedures:
Crab shells were collected from different houses in Batangas City. The collected
crab shells were thoroughly cleaned with water and dried them by heating it using pan
and water for 30 minutes. I have waited for another 15 minutes for the cooking of heated
crab shells. Using mortar and pestle, I had grounded the crab shells into a pulverous
powder until it was thoroughly pulverized.

RESEARCH PLAN
REQUIRED FOR ALL PROJECTS BEFORE
EXPERIMENTATION

The research plan for ALL projects is to include the following:


A. Questions being addressed
This study aims to compare the effectiveness between the pulverized crab
shell and the commercial flour that will best answer the following objectives
generally:
To have further studies regarding with this topic, to conduct researches
about the importance of chitin even in industrial and medical application and to
prove further studies if pulverized crab shells can be good for a big sale
production and a good substitute for commercial flour.
Specifically, it aims to answer the following:
1. Is there a significant difference on effectiveness and taste between pure
pulverized crab shell and commercial flour?
2. Is pulverized crab shell safe to eat?
3. Is the proposed flour easy to make?

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B. Hypotheses

The conduct of this research seeks to test the following hypotheses:


1. There is a significant difference on the effectiveness and taste between the pulverized
crab shell and the commercial flour.
2. There is no significant difference on the effectiveness and taste between the pulverized
crab shell and the commercial flour.
C. Description in detail of methods and procedures

Materials:
crab shells
mortar and pestle
stove
basin
pan
water

General Procedures:

Crab shells were collected from different houses in Batangas City. The collected
crab shells were thoroughly cleaned with water and dried them by heating it using pan
and water for 30 minutes. I have waited for another 15 minutes for the cooking of heated
crab shells. Using mortar and pestle, I had grounded the crab shells into a pulverous
powder until it was thoroughly pulverized.

D. Bibliography
Websites
http://www.encyclopedia.com/
http://wiki.answers.com/
http://www.wikipedia.org/
Books
Groliers Encyclopedia
Encarta 2007

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E. Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion
Based on the study, I therefore concluded that pulverized crab shells can
be of good and effective substitute for commercial flour. I had also concluded that
this product is affordable and safe for human consumption.

Recommendation
Through this Science Investigatory Project, we can produce good and
effective substitute for commercial flour. This crab shell flour is affordable, easy
to make and safe for human consumption. This project can also be an additional
source of income for those who dont have permanent job.

INTRODUCTION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Flour which is known to be a good substitute for rice had been widely used in
different parts of the world. In our country, Philippines, we often import flour from other
countries not only from home consumption but also as our source of livelihood especially
nowadays by which our country is experiencing food shortage.
Last year, our country had been affected by global economic crisis which we fill
still these days. This study aimed to help not only our families but also the economy of
our country in terms of providing affordable and nutritional foods.
Flour is a powder made of cereal grains or roots. It is the main ingredient of
bread, which is a staple food for many civilizations, making the availability of adequate
supplies of flour, a major economic and political issue at various times throughout
history.
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are complex carbohydrates
also known as polysaccharides.
Likewise, this aims to compare the effectiveness between pulverized crab shell
and commercial flour.
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STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


This study sought to answer the following problems:
1. Is there a significant difference on effectiveness and taste between pure
pulverized crab shell and commercial flour?
2. Is pulverized crab shell safe to eat?
3. Is the proposed flour easy to make?

OBJECTIVES
The objectives of this study are:
1. To have further studies regarding with this topic.
2. To conduct researches about the importance of chitin even in industrial and
medical application.
3. To prove further studies if pulverized crab shells can be good for a big sale
production and a good substitute for commercial flour.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY


The used of pulverized crab shell in this study will help to find another source of
flour and will decrease the import of flour if used widely. This study will also be helpful
in terms of providing our community to lessen the waste from different households and
seafood restaurants.

SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

The span of time in this study lasted for about one week including the preparation
and experimentation.
It covers only the deacetylation and application of crab shell flour as an effective
substitute for commercial flour. It cannot affect anyone who will consume this because of
its non-toxic and non-allergic properties.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
CHITIN - main component of crab shell.
CHITOSAN - a derivative of chitin, used in water-waste treatment
CRAB SHELL - major material used in this experiment. It is the hard part of the crab
which is known as the carapace.
DEACETYLATION - process of removing the shells from crab and the shells are then
grounded into a pulverous powder.
FLOUR - it is the finely grounded bolted of meat and wheat, as that used in baking.
POLYMER - a compound of high molecular weight derived either by the addition of
many smaller molecules, as polyethylene, or by the condensation of many smaller
molecules with the elimination of water, alcohol, or the like, as nylon.
POLYSACCHARIDE - a polymeric carbohydrate contained by flour and crab shell.

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PULVERIZED - to reduce to dust or powder, as by pounding or grinding.
STARCH - a white, tasteless, solid carbohydrate, (C6H1 0O5)n, occurring in the form of

minute granules in the seeds, tubers, and other parts of plants, and forming an important
constituent of rice, corn, wheat, beans, potatoes, and many other vegetable foods.
GRINDER - use to grind solid materials.

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