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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Sample Paper 1 Solution

AP State Board
Class X Physical Science
Sample Paper 1 Solution
SECTION - I
1.
(a) Experiment to determine the specific heat of a solid:
Aim: To find the specific heat of the given solid
Apparatus: Calorimeter, thermometer, stirrer, water, steam heater, wooden box
and lead shots
Procedure: The mass of the calorimeter along with the stirrer is determined by
using a common balance (m1).
One-third of the volume of the calorimeter is filled with water and its mass is
measured as m2.
The calorimeter is placed in the wooden box, and the temperature is measured
using the thermometer (T1).
Lead pieces placed in a steam heater are heated to a temperature and are quickly
transferred to a calorimeter with minimum loss of heat.
Contents in the calorimeter are stirred well and then the resultant temperature is
noted (T2).
Because there is no loss of heat to the surroundings, we can assume that the entire
heat lost by the solid is transferred to the calorimeter and water to reach the final
temperature (T3).
Let the mass of the calorimeter along with the contents be measured as m3. Let Sc, Ss
and Sw be the specific heats of the calorimeter, solid pieces and water, respectively.
Heat lost by the solid = Heat gain by the calorimeter + Heat gain by water

m3 m1 Ss T2 - T3 = m1 Sc (T3 - T1 ) + m2 m1 Sw T3 - T1
[m1 Sc m2 m1 Sw ] (T3 - T1 )
Ss =
m3 m1 T2 - T3
Knowing the specific heat capacities of the calorimeter and water, we can calculate
the specific heat of the solid pieces.

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

OR
(b) An electric motor is a device which converts electrical energy into mechanical
energy.
Principle: When an electric current is passed through a conductor placed normally
in a magnetic field, a force acts on the conductor because of which the conductor
begins to move. The direction of the force is obtained with the help of Fleming's lefthand rule.
Diagram:

Working: The plane of the coil is horizontal. The split ring S1 touches the brush
B1, while the split ring S2 touches the brush B2. The brush B1 is connected to the
anode of the DC battery, while the brush B2 is connected to the cathode. The current
flows in the coil in the direction ABCD. The arms BC and DA being parallel to the
magnetic field experience no force.
According to Fleming's left-hand rule, force 'F' acting on the arm AB is inward and
perpendicular to the plane of the coil and the force on the arm CD is in the opposite
direction. The forces on the arms AB and CD being equal and opposite form an
anticlockwise couple due to which the coil begins to rotate. It rotates in such a way
that the arm AB goes in and the arm CD comes out.
When the coil reaches the vertical position, the couple becomes zero because the
forces on the arms now become collinear. However, due to the inertia of motion, the
coil does not stop in this position. As the coil passes from the vertical, the split ring
S1 meets the brush B2, while the split ring S2 meets the brush B1. Now the current
flows through the coil in the direction DCBA and the forces acting on the arms DC
and AB of the coil again form an anticlockwise couple due to which the coil remains
rotating in the same direction. Thus, whenever the coil comes in the vertical
position, the direction of the current through the coil reverses and the coil continues
to rotate in the same direction.

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

2.
(a) M-shell is the outermost shell.
(b) 2 electrons are present in the outermost shell.
(c) 20
(d) 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2
OR
Formation of sodium chloride:
Sodium chloride (NaCl) is made of two elementssodium and chlorine.
Na + 1/2 Cl2 NaCl
In the above reaction, electron transfer takes place from sodium ion to chlorine atom. It
can be explained as follows:
Sodium atom has one electron in its valence shell. It loses one electron to achieve the
octet configuration and it forms a cation Na+.
Na Na+ + e
The chlorine atom has seven electrons in its valence shell. It gains one electron from the
sodium atom to achieve the octet configuration and it forms anion Cl.
Cl + e Cl
Electrons get transferred from sodium to chlorine atoms and form their respective ions.
Sodium forms cation Na+ and chlorine forms anion Cl. Electrostatic forces of attraction
hold these oppositely charged ions together and form the compound NaCl.
Na+ + Cl Na+Cl or NaCl
Formation of calcium oxide:
Calcium oxide (CaO) is made of two elementscalcium and oxygen.
Ca + O CaO
In the above reaction, electron transfer takes place from calcium ion to oxygen atom. It
can be explained as follows:
Calcium atom has two electrons in its valence shell. It loses two electrons to achieve the
octet configuration and it forms a cation Ca2+.
Ca Ca2+ + 2e
The oxygen atom has six electrons in its valence shell. It gains two electrons from the
calcium atom to achieve the octet configuration and it forms anion O2.
O + 2e O2
Electrons get transferred from calcium to oxygen atoms and form their respective ions.
Calcium forms cation Ca2+ and oxygen forms anion O2. Electrostatic forces of attraction
hold these oppositely charged ions together and form the compound CaO.
Ca2+ + O2 Ca2+O2 or CaO

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

3.
(a) According to Ohms law, the electric current flowing through a conductor is directly
proportional to the potential difference across its ends, provided the physical
conditions (such as temperature and pressure) do not change.
Experiment:
Aim: To show that the ratio V/I is a constant for a conductor
Materials: 5 dry cells of 1.5 V each, conducting wires, an ammeter, a voltmeter, a
resistor R, led and key
Procedure: Connect a circuit as shown in the figure below.

Close the key and note the readings of current from the ammeter and potential
difference from the voltmeter in the table given below.
S. No.
Potential
Current (I)
V/I
difference (V)

Next, connect two cells in the circuit instead of one cell and note the respective
readings of the ammeter and voltmeter for the values of current and potential
difference across the resistor R.
Repeat the above steps using three cells, four cells and five cells. Record the values
of V and I corresponding to each case in the Table.
Find the ratio V/I for each set of values. We observe that the ratio V/I is constant,
which proves Ohms law.
OR

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
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(b) Aim: Verification of first law of reflection


Materials: Mirror strip, drawing board, white paper, pins, clamps scale and pencil
Procedure: Take a drawing board and fix a sheet of white paper on it with the help
of clamps. Draw a straight line AB at the centre of the paper and also a normal (ON)
to AB at the point O. Draw a straight line PQ making a certain angle (angle i) with
ON as shown in the figure. Fix two pins at the points P and Q on the paper vertically.
Observe the image P of the pin P and Q of the pin Q in the mirror kept along the line
AB. Fix two more pins R and S such that they are in the same line as that of P and Q.
Join R, S and O as shown in the figure.

We measure the angle between RS and ON (angle of reflection). We find that angle of
incidence = angle of reflection.
On repeating the experiment with different angles of incidence and on measuring
the corresponding angles of reflection, we find that angle of incidence = angle of
reflection. This proves the first law of reflection.
4.
(a) 2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2H2O
(b) Hg(NO3)2 + 2KI HgI2 + 2KNO3
(c) 2H2 + O2 2H2O
(d) 2KClO3 2KCl + 3O2
OR
(a) An aldehyde derived from ethane Ethanal
(b) A ketone derived from butane Butan-2-one
(c) A chloride derived from propane 1-Chloropropane, 2-Chloropropane
(d) An alcohol derived from pentane Pentane-1-ol, Pentane-2-ol, Pentane-3-ol, 2Methylbutan-1-ol, 3-Methylbutan-1-ol, 2-Methylbutan-2-ol, 2-Methylbutan-3-ol/3Methylbutan-2-ol, 2,2-dimethylpropanol

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

SECTION - II
5. Electrolysis of fused ores is the most suitable method for extraction of high-reactivity
metals. For high-reactivity metals, reduction methods are not feasible as the
temperature required for reduction is too high and the method is expensive. If aqueous
solution of ores is carried out, water instead of metal ions will be discharged at the
cathode, thus rendering this method futile. Thus, electrolysis of fused ores is the most
suitable method for extraction of high-reactivity metals. It liberates metal ions in the
molten state at the cathode.
6. The consequences would be disastrous. Defects of vision could not be corrected without
knowing about spherical mirrors and lenses. It would be unsafe to drive cars without a
rear view mirror, especially in the night. There would be no spherical mirrors in
streetlights to spread light. In addition, there would be no solar furnaces, leading to
increased use of fossil fuels, which will destroy the environment. Many large telescopes
to observe the Universe would not be present.
7. Group VIIIA elements are called noble gases or inert gases. The noble gas elements are
Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and Radon (Rn).
As the outermost electron shell of atoms of these elements is full, they do not react
chemically with other substances except under certain special conditions. They are
relatively non-reactive and have little tendencies to gain or lose electrons. They have
high ionisation energies and low electronegativities.
8. Totally reflecting prisms are used in binoculars. Prisms are used in binoculars as the
final image is bright as compared to mirrors. The presence of dust or moisture does not
affect the quality of the image because no rays of light are absorbed by totally reflecting
prisms.

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

9.

10.

The object should be placed at the centre of curvature to get an image on the object
itself. This image is real, inverted and of the same size as the object.

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

SECTION - III
11. Laws of reflection:
1. The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.
2. The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal at the point of incidence lie in the
same plane.
12. Dimethyl ketone also known as acetone, is the simplest ketone. Its formula is CH3-COCH3.
13. The refractive index is given as
Speed of light in air/vacuum
Refractive index
Speed of light in medium
300000
n
2.42
124000
14. Ionic compounds have strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the ions.
Therefore, it requires a lot of energy to overcome these forces. That is why ionic
compounds have high melting points.
15. There are 7 horizontal rows in the modern periodic table which are known as periods.
16. The focal length of a system of lenses when they are separated by a distance d with
principal axis is given as
1 1 1 d

f f1 f2 f1f2
f =

f1f2
f1 f2 d

17. The experiments were performed by Michael Faraday.

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AP X | PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Sample Paper 1 Solution

SECTION - IV
18. (b) The temperature in Celsius scale is C = K 273. Hence, we have
C = 373 273 = 100C
19. (c) The image is formed at C if the object is at C.
20. (d)

1
1
1
n 1
f
R1 R 2

21. (a) The resistance of the two parts is 5 each.


The equivalent resistance is given as
1 1 1 2

R 5 5 5
R 2.5
22. (b) The magnetic force is given as ILB.
F ILBsin
90
F ILB
23. (a) Principal quantum number (n) signifies the distance from the nucleus and the size
of an atom.
24. (b) Nitrogen gas is used to flush the bags of chips to prevent it from oxidation.
25. (d) When dilute HCl reacts with zinc metal, hydrogen gas is liberated.
26. (d) Eka-silicon was later named Germanium.
27. (b)Carbon dioxide is released when baking soda is added to cake batter. This makes a
cake rise during baking, making it soft and spongy.

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