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what is LTE network structure layout?

Access network - EUTRAN consists of eNodeBs , providing service on control
panel and user panel.
LTE core network – EPC consists of MME, SGW, P-GW.
eNodeBs are connected with each other via X2 interface, supporting data and
signaling transmission.
S1 interface connects eNodeB and EPC, and furthermore, S1-MME is the
control panel interface from eNodeB to MME, while S1-U is user panel
interface from eNodeB to GW.

2. what is UE id in LTE EPS network?
In EPS network, there are five different UE identities including IMSI, IMEI, CRNTI, GUTI and IP. Each of them has different lifetime, valid period,
functionality and Allocation.
IMSI- international Mobile Subscriber Identity
1 Permanent id allocated by SP-service provider
2 IMSI is valid as long as UE is able to get service from SP.
3 IMSI is stored in SIM and HSS.
4 IMSI is the unique id of UE, among all the PLMNs in 3GPP.
1
2
3
4

IMEI- international Mobile Equipment identity
IMEI is the permanent id allocated by Equipment manufacturers;
As long as UE is in service, IMEI is valid.
IMEI is stored in UE and HSS.
Each IMEI is unique.

C-RNTI- cell radio network temporary identity
1 It is a Dynamic labeling allocated by eNodeB;
2 It is valid when the UE is RRC-connected.
3 C-RNTI is stored in UE and eNodeB
4 C-RNTI is the only identity in UU interface served by on cell, when

UE is RRC connected
GUTI- Globally Unique Temporary indentity
1 GUTI is a dynamic labeling allocated by MME to UE;
2 It is valid for the UE registered and attached to MME;
3 GUTI is stored in UE and MME
4 GUTI is the unique identity for the attached UE.
IP
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2
3
4

IP address is a dynamic allocated by PGW;
It is valid as long as UE is registered in EPC;
IP is stored in UE and PGW;
IP address is the UE identity for the data transmission with PDN.
Next question:

What is LTE radio Frame structure?
3. What is LTE radio Frame structure?
LTE FDD radio frame structure is as follows, time domain is
10ms, including 20 slots and 10 subframes, each subframe take 2 time slots.

LTE TDD radio frames structure is as follows, 10ms, including 2
half frames, each half frame contains 8 slots(0.5ms), and 3 special
Slots, DwPTS(Downlink Pilot TImeSlot), GP(Guard Period),UpPTS(uplink Pilot
TImeSlot), the length of DwPTS and
UpPTS can be configured, but total length of 3 special slots has to be 1 ms.
Subframe #1 and #6 contains special slots. Subframs #0 and #5 can only be
used as downlink.

Next question:
What is RSRP and RSRQ?

4. what is RSRP and RSRQ?

RSRP, Reference Signal Received Power, is defined as the linear
average over the power contributions of the resource elements that carry cellspecific reference signals within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth,
used as evaluation of the downlink power of Reference Signal, like RSCP in WCDMA,
to evaluate the DL coverage.
RSRQ, Reference Signal Received Quality is defined as the ratio
N×RSRP/(E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RB’s of the E-UTRA
carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and
denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks, used like Ec/Io in
WCDMA.
RSSI, Received Signal Strength Indicator, comprises the linear
average of the total received power, including signals, interference and noise.
SINR, Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratio, is the ratio useful
signal power/noise & interference power.

Next question: what is RE and RB?
5. What’s RE and RB?
LTE consists of time domain and frequency domain resources. The minimum
unit for schedule is RB(Resource Block), which compose of RE(Resource Element)
RE has 2-dimentsion structure: symbol of time domain and subcarrier of
frequency domain.
One RB consists of 1 slot and 12 consecutive subcarriers under normal CP
configuration.

Next question: what is CP and what is it used for?
6. What’s CP?
CP(Cyclic Prefix), contains a copy of the end of OFDM symbol, applied to
eliminate ISI of OFDM. The length of CP is related with coverage radius. Normal CP
can fulfill the requirement of common scenarios. Extended CP is for wide coverage
scenario.

Next question: what is PCI?

The protocol decides that cell id in physical layer has two parts. used for downlink physical channel demodulation and channel quality measurement. . how the RS is the distributed with normal CP. reuse distance has to be ensured. is cell group id and is the id within the group. what is RS? Downlink RS (reference signals). in order to have more precise physical channel quality evaluation. For two and more antennas ports the positions of RS are different in figures. The function is like scrambler code in UMTS. and none of the positions can be used for data transmission.7. what is PCI? PCI(physical cell id). also. used to distinguish the radio signals of different cells. cell group id and id within cell group. similar with pilot signal of CDMA. The figure shows in single antenna port. cell-specific reference signal is essential and the other two (MBSFN specific RS and UE-specific RS) are optional. There are 3 types of RS defined in protocol. ensuring within the cell coverage the PCI is unique. is the PCI. two antenna ports and four antenna ports. Total 168*3=504 PCI. The formula shows how the PCI is generated. RS are discontinuous at both time and frequency domains. Next question: what is RS? 8. The UE can get cell group id via channel SSCH. Protocol decides there are 168 cell group id and in each cell group there are 3 id within the cell. and id within group via PSCH.

Each user’s PDCCH can take 1. .4. called aggregation level. What is REG and CCE? REG is short for Resource Element Group. REG is mainly intended for control channel resource assignment on PCFICH and PHICH. to Improve the efficiency of resource use and allocation flexibility. except for RS. Like the figure below shows. one REG contains 4 continuous unoccupied RE. CCE is short for Control Channel Element.2. each CCE consisted of 9 REGs.8 CCE.Next question: What is REG and CCE? 9. the other colors are REG. The definition of CCE is for bigger size data on PDCCH .

and u indicates the physical root sequence index.  There are 64 available preamble sequences in each cell. What is ZC sequence?  Zadoff-Chu sequence  A Zadoff-Chu sequence has good self-correlation and crosscorrelation and is defined as follows: xu  n   e j un ( n 1) N ZC .  What is the logical root sequence index?  The random access preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu sequences with zero correlation zone.  The previously mentioned root corresponds to the logical root sequence index. 0  n  N ZC  1  indicates the length of the Zadoff-Chu sequence. The relation between the logical root sequence index and physical root sequence index is defined in protocols.Next question: What is ZC sequence? 10. The 64 preamble sequences are first generated from a root Zadoff-Chu sequence using cyclic shift. If less than 64 preamble sequences are generated. which is sent to the UE through the SIB2. How to plan PRACH? .  The preamble sequences are generated from the root Zadoff-Chu sequence through the following cyclic shift. the remaining are generated from the root Zadoff-Chu sequence corresponding to the logical index. Next question: How to plan PRACH? 11.

12…828). bearing system information like cell id and DL antenna configuration. As the figure shows. If the cell radius is 10 km. the Ncs value is 76.67 r  TMD  2) Step 1: The Ncs value is determined by the cell radius. In this case. used for cell search. In time domain. the value is subject to the cell radius and maximum delay extension. TTI for BCH is 40ms. Step 2: The value of 839/76 is rounded down to 11. N CS  1. PBCH takes the 6 RBs in the middle of symbol #7.Here to plan PRACH is to plan Root Sequence index. The assignment principles are similar to those for PCIs.8.10. Step 3: The number of available root sequence indexes is 139 (0. six root sequence indexes are required to generate 64 preamble sequences. what is PBCH? PBCH: Physical Broadcast Channel.04875  (6. Step 4: The available root sequence indexes are assigned to cells.9. 6. Next question: What is PBCH? 12. which is Ncs. what is PCFICH? . Next question: What is PCFICH? 13. that is. in subframe #0. We know that There are 64 available preamble sequences in each cell. each index can generate 11 preamble sequences. The 64 preamble sequences are first generated from a root Zadoff-Chu sequence using cyclic shift.

each user 1 bit. type0. used for service data as well as signaling. each having different CCE. What is PDCCH? PDCCH-Physical Downlink Control Channel. discontinuous in the whole band. use bitmap to allocate the RBG to the UE. Next question: What is PDSCH? 15. each user 2 bit. used for indicating how many (ranging from 1-3) OFDM symbols are used for PDCCH. Next question: What is PDCCH? 14. The PCFICH information is 4 REGs on first symbol in each subframe. analyze the actual resource allocation. One PDCCH is transmitted on one or more CCE(control channel element). protocol defines 4 PDCCH format. Format 3A: for multi users TPC. Because PDCCH has three types. Format 1: transmits the PDSCH one code word scheduling grant information. to avoid interference. mainly bears the DCI-Downlink control information. Format 2A: open-loop spatial multiplexing mode UE scheduling. Each allocation field has two parts: type field and actual resource allocation information. the bit are also different. UE searches for PDCCH on every subframe.PCFICH(Physical control Format Indicator Channel). Format 3: for multi users TPC command. Format 1A: compression mode of format 1 Format 1B: compression mode of format 1 with pre-coding information. and accords to the DCI resource allocation field . . Format 2: Closed-loop spatial multiplexing mode UE scheduling. So the PDSCH resource allocation types include type0. The size of the group is related to bandwidth. type1 and type2. There are different kinds of DCI. Format 0: transmits the PUSCH scheduling grant information. type1 and type2. Format 1D: compression mode of format 1 including pre-coding information and power offset information. Before UE receive the PDSCH. Format 1C: very compression mode of format 1. what is PDSCH? PDSCH: physical downlink shared channel. Type0: the unit of UE resource allocation is RBG(RB group).

. Two ways to allocated is LVRB(localized virtyal resource block) continuous allocation and DVRB(Distributed VRB) hopping frequency location. Type2: there is mapping between the virtual resource block and physical resource block. Here is an example. The number of the RB groups is related to bandwidth. The PB can be allocated in one RBG or whole band.One example of Type 0 Type 1: use bitmap to one of several RB in one group.

Each PHICH takes 3 REGs. what is PHICH? PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ indicator Channel. for bearing the ACK/NACK feedback. which is called a PHICH group. Within a group. Whether PUSCH is received by eNOdeB properly will be feedback in the fourth subframe PHICH to UE.Next question: What is PHICH? 16. Next question: . different PHICH differs from each other via orthogonal sequence. Here is an example of the PHICH resource allocation. Several PHICH reused to mapped into the same RE resource.

08Mhz. As below shows. modulation mapper. Regarding the mobility of the UE makes the distance and position from the EUTRAN is uncertain. connection reestablishment and recover of UL time and freq sync. The PUSCH proceeding includes scrambling. it has to be maintain UL-sync. transform precoder.What is PRACH? 17. the preamble for random access is the integer times of the subframe. 1. what is PRACH? PRACH-Physical random access channel. handover implementation. Next question: What is PUCCH? 19. The random access procedures are important for initial UE access. and in frequency domain. And the PRACH is for UE to get UL-sync and dedicated resource from EUTRAN. what is PUCCH? . Next question: What is PUSCH? 18. resource element mapper and IFFT transfer signal generating. Mainly used for UL data transmitting. What’s PUSCH? PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel. In time domain. so if UE wants signaling and data transmitting to EUTRAN. Preamble takes 6 RBs. Here is the UL channels time&frequency structure.

DMRS. On frequency domain. CQI? . each UE only takes part of the bandwidth. Next question: What is UL RS? 20. The frequencies taken by SRS is wider than those taken by each UE. SRS is being transmitted on the last symbol of each subframe. What is RI. See from the below. the PUCCH is located on both ends of the bandwidth. scheduling request and CQI such information.PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel. what is UL RS? There are two kinds of UL RS. DMRS is carried only in the PUCCH and PUSCH. SRS. The cyclic period and band can be configured. The positions in the slots depends on the different formats of PUSCH and PUCCH. SC-FDMA are used. it can support hopping frequency between two slots. SRS can be scheduled by more than one UEs. Demodulation Reference Signal: because for UL. aiming at better evaluation on the whole band UL channel quality. PMI. sounding Reference signal: reference signal when there is no PUCCH and PUSCH. For bearing the ACK/NACK for HARQ. Next question.

 PMI: pre-coding matrix indication. changing the channels. Pre-encoding in a multi-antenna system. CQI?  RI: Rank indication. is the rank of Antenna array. It is based on the channel state information (CSI) adaptively changing the coding matrix at the transmitter.21. so that the receiver can estimate the channel matrix . is an adaptive technique. what is RI. PMI. the next moment. Both ends of the transceiver stores a codebook including several precoding matrix. and feedback the index value and the quantized channel state to the transmission side. the sending end with the new precoding matrix and based on the channel state .selecting one of the pre-coding matrix. represents several valid parallel data streams.

When inter freq or inter RAT measuring is triggered. It is a indictor of channel quality when BLER (10%) is fulfilled. The greater the CQI value is. as below figure shows. the CQI takes 4 bits. determine the coding and modulation scheme. called GAP members. coding rate and efficiency information. Meaning the same thing as CQI in HSDPA. including the current modulation scheme. Next question: GAP measuring. Before inter frequency or inter RAT handover. 22.information. eNOdeB will record all the measuring according to different triggering causes.  CQI: Channel quality indictor. at the same time can only receive the signal on one frequency point. UE will stop GAP measuring. GAP measuring GAP measuring happens when UE has to leave the current measuring frequency point and measure other frequency points. GAP members share same GAP configurations. When there are GAP measuring for both coverage-based or service-based. Only when all the members stop. it has to do measuring on other frequency points within a period of time. like Compression mode in WCDMA. the more efficient the encoding is. eNodeB will send corresponding GAP measuring configuration to UE. Because UE has one receiver normally. but in LTE. the other takes 5 bits. . UE will do the measuring accordingly.

physical channel PUSCH.DTCH are mapped into transmission channels UL-SCH. logical channel PCCH is mapped into transmission channel PCH. transmission channels and logical channels. For UL. logical channels CCCH. One part is mapped into transmission channel BCH. the . physical channel PBCH. Logical channel BCCH is mapped into two parts. 23. physical channel PDSCH. UL transmission channel RACH is mapped into physical channel PRACH.Next one. bearing MIB information.DCCH. Channel mapping. For DL. What is mapping between physical channels.

. physical channel PDSCH. layer mapping. DCCH. physical PDSCH when MTCH bears single cell data and into MCH. Next one. pre coding. CCCH. Scrambling. physical channel PDSCH. bearing other system information. RE mapping. Next one. physical PMCH when MTCH bears multi cell data. Modulation. What are the procedures for Downlink signal processing? 24. Generate OFDM symbols. MTCH(Multicast traffic channel) is mapped into DL-SCH. procedures for Downlink signal processing Downlink signal processing need a few steps.other part is mapped into transmission channel DL-SCH.MCCH(Multicast control channel) are mapped into transmission channel DL-SCH.DTCH.

What is system information in LTE? MIB: Dl bandwidth. PRACH Configuration iii) UL frequency Information .Minimum Receiver Level iii) Scheduling Information .SI message type & Periodicity. UL Bandwidth.UL EARFCN.PLMN Identity List. Access Class Baring Time ii) Semi static Common Channel Configuration . SIB 1 i) Cell Access Related Information . additional emmission SIB 3 i) Information/Parameters for intra-frequency cell reselections SIB 4 i) Information on intra-frequency neighboring cells SIB 5 . Cell identity & Cell Status ii) Cell Selection Information .Access Probability factor. SI Window length SIB 2 i) Access Barring Information .What is system information in LTE? 25. PCHICH channel configuration. SFN. PLMN Identity. TA Code. Access Class Baring List.Random Access Parameter. SIB mapping Info.

RA-RNTI. 26. Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier.i) Information on inter-frequency neighboring cells SIB 6 i) Information for reselection to UMTS (UTRAN) cells SIB 7 i) Information for reselection to GSM (GERAN) cells SIB 8 i) Information for reselection to CDMA2000 systems SIB 9 i) Home eNodeB name for future LTE femtocell applications SIB 10 + 11 i) ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information SIB 12 i) Commercial Mobile Alerting System (CMAS) information. . Next one: Difference between RA-RNTI and C-RNTI. Difference between RA-RNTI and C-RNTI.

C-RNTI. between one UE to PGW. When UE is attempting to do random access. And for such situation. SRB1 bears RRC signaling (may take some NAS messages as well) and NAS signaling before SRB2. SRB2 bears NAS signaling. transmit on DCCH. transmit on DCCH. SRB1 is prior to SRB2. What is radio bearer in LTE? 27. For the former network have already assigned unique C-RNTI. transmit on logical channel CCCH. What is radio bearer in LTE? in LTE system. SRB2 is set up. the bearer between UE and eNodeB is called radio bearer. use AM mode on RLC. and the latter the network has not assigned RNTI to UE yet. use AM mode on RLC. network recognize UEs by different RARNTI. but also RNTI related to UE. UE itself can be RRC-connected mode or from RRC-IDLE to RRC-connected. Radio bearer can be divided into SRB(signaling Radio Bearer) and DRB(Data Radio Bearer). SRB bear the control signaling.UL GRANT. Next one. . can be called EPS bearer. according to different kinds of content. only after security mode setup. In EPS bearer. DRB bears user plane. Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier. one service flow with a defined QoS. A maximum of 8 DRBs can be set up between UE and eNodeB with different QoS. the network assign not only UE TA. at RLC use TM mode. RA-RNTI is sent out when network respond to UE preamble and after that the UE will use RA-RNTI in the UL information. SBR0 bears the signaling before RRC connection . Radio bearer and S1 bearer consist E-RAB. namely is RA-RNTI. between eNodeB to SGW is called S1 bearer.

or via SINR(for UL scheduling). When there are a few UEs to be scheduled. In DL scheduling. Also it is possible to configure event-based reporting and period reporting same time. CQI: channel quality indicator. 28. the event-based one is considered more accurate. FSS: Frequency selective scheduling. save signaling. In UL scheduling. selecting good quality RBs via sub-band CQI(for DL scheduling). we can get frequency gain and mulit users gain. for UL scheduling. This method is to assign continuous subcarriers or RBs to UEs. This method needs detail channel information. FDS: frequency diversity scheduling. When two report come same time. in low speed users scenario. CQI reporting is controlled by eNodeB. from highest to lowest search the available RBs. With FSS. Concept in scheduling. increase the usage of the spectrum and UE peak TP. Discrete subcarriers or RBs are being scheduled to UEs. Used as Reflecting the identity of the downlink channel quality. Some basic Concept in scheduling.Next one . SINR: Used as Reflecting the identity of the uplink channel quality. FDS will cause fragments . for DL scheduling. based on event or periodically. FDS is to certain band. via wide band CQI. SINR is measured on physical level and eNodeB will accord to ACK/NACK on UL data and adjust SINR to Converge BLER to the target.

when UE suffers bad quality channels or limited power( like cell edge users). The retransmission of TTI bundling also uses TTI bundling. TTI bundling can give UE more opportunity and thus enhance the UL coverage. .in spectrum. Thus this method can save scheduling signaling consumption. In FDD. one TTI equals to 1ms. In huawei eNodeB. carrying same data. Other concepts: AMBR: 3GPP defined QoS parameter. When TTI boudling is activated and UE has poor quality channel and limited power. TTI bundling can improve the quality of transmission. indicating the maximum speed for all the nonGBR services. FDS is adapted to the scenario like high speed and less users. including length of buffer queue. UE report BSR to eNodeB. Next one. What are the NAS status defined in protocol? 30. These subframes are counted as one same resource. Early coming data will be early scheduled. Power headroom: maximum power minus the power being used. on a number of continuous subframes. there will be less HARQ for each UE. In this situation. What are the NAS status defined in protocol? There are 3 NAS status for UE. LTE_IDLE. In UL scheduling. which are LTE_DETACHED. TTI bundling means eNodeB transmits one data stream. Here is the transforming relationship. In TDD. So FSS is priority. different DL/UL subframs ratio use different transmission interval. LTE_ACTIVE. What is TTI bundling? TTI: transmission time interval. TTI bundling use a fixed number of 4 continuous subframes. the retransmission interval change to 16 TTI from 8 TTI. the minimum unit of scheduling. Next one: What is TTI bundling? 29. BSR: buffer status report. FIFO: First input first output.

Support frequency link auto adaption and scheduling. it is difficult to implement the UL multi transmission and relative power supply. due to UE cost and power consumption. 31. Advantage: high spectrum utilization efficiency due to orthogonal subcarriers need no protect bandwidth. including single user mode SU-MIMO and multi users mode MU-MIMO. Select better subcarriers for specific user according to the fading characteristic.Next one. High PAPR. User diversity can be achieved to increase spectrum efficiency. For UL. CP is inserted between the OFDM symbols to avoid ISI. Easy to combine with MIMO. OFDM is a modulation multiplexing technology. What are key technology of LTE? Compared with UMTS. Dis: strict requirement of time-frequency domain synchronization.  MIMO: MIMO is supported in LTE DL to achieve spatial multiplexing. The channel . what are the key technology of LTE?  OFDM. divides the system bandwidth onto orthogonal subcarriers. Virtual-MIMO. Scheduling and link auto-adaption. in which multi single antenna UEs are associated to transmit in the MIMO mode.

Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service MBMS. Link auto-adaption.Avoid pingpang TAU. What is advantage and disadvantage of multi TA strategy? 32. 3. no need for UE to do TA update.More efficiency usage on the radio resource Disadvantage.  Cell interference control ICIC(inter-cell interference coordination) ICIC is one solution for the cell interference control. network will send another list of TAs. Once UE move to a new TA not in the list. The less.  Enhance MBMS. What is advantage and disadvantage of multi TA strategy? Multi tracking area registration is more than 1 tracking area consisting one TA list. the signals from eNodeBs which can be soft combined by UE. The system bandwidth is separated into primary band and secondary band with different transmit power. . Not necessary to divide the signal from eNodeBs. For UE. all e-NodeB apply same frequency resource and send MBMS data simultaneously. decided by the network which TA are allocated to UE for registration.EPC allocates TAs to UE more flexibly. when TA update is needed.Less require on the broadcast channel. 4.propagation information is feed back to eNodeB through the uplink channel quality identity is the overheading of system. the better. 2. SFR solution is one effective solutioin of inter-cell interference control. Advantage: 1. less load on the BCCH. is essentially a schedule strategy. LTE support link auto-adaption in time-domain and frequencydomain. Modulation scheme is selected based on the channel quality in domains. Next one. Some coordination schemes like SFR(soft frequency reuse) and FFR( fractional frequency reuse) can control the interference in cell edges to enhance the frequency reuser factor and performance in the cell edges. When UE move between these TA within one TA list. These TAs are allocated to UE same time. Because only one TAC is broadcasted.

It is suggested that neighbor eNodeBs. UE receives system information modification from eNodeB.In dense urban. which has neighbor cell relations. In the following situations the UE will read system information.0). 1 2 3 4 5 6 UE power on and attaches. and the rest NBs can make handover via S1. MBR and GBR. the size of TA can’t be too big. TA list should include more TACs to avoid over many TAU. When will UE read SI-RNTI on PDCCH? On PDCCH. If neighbor eNodeBs number exceeds 64. Handover finished. 7 UE receives ETWS message. the more important NB need to be configured with priority. UE perform cell reselection. Instead X2 interface is based on IP network. More resource will be taken. When will UE read SI-RNTI on PDCCH? 33. the maximum number of X2 interfaces for one eNodeB is 64. The meaning of AMBR. UE inter work from RAT to LTE network. 8 UE again reads system information in 3 hours after UE read system information. Next one. For the time being(eRan3. UE Synchronize with SI-RNTI. thus UE can read the system information on PDCCH. Next one. How is X2 interface connected and the maximum number of X2 interfaces? There is no physical entity for X2 interface to connect two eNodeBs directly. For high speed UE. How is X2 interface connected and the maximum number of X2 interfaces? 34. Next one. . should be configured via X2 interface. UE enters LTE coverage from non-coverage area. to control the paging load. including time information and frequency information of system information. 35. And this will increase the size of the TAU message.

applied for NON_GBR bearer bit rate management. GBR is the expected bit rate that can be offered. Handover thresholds and measuring control. on the second RRC_CONN_RECFG message there . MBR is the maximum of the bit rate of bear that can be offered. Next one. AX and BX events for handovers 36. there are three important parameters: AMBR. GBR. System will limit a Collection of the data streams speed less than AMBR. MBR.Regarding the NON_GBR or GBR bearer.AX and BX events for handovers measurin g events trigger condition A1 measuring cell greater than threshold A2 measuring cell less than threshold neighbor cell higher than serving cell by greater than threshold A3 A4 A5 B1 B2 inter freq cell greater than threshold inter freq cell greater than threshold and serving cell lower than threshold RAT cell higher than threshold RAT cell higher than threshold and serving cell lower than threshold actions cancel inter freq/IRAT measuring trigger inter freq/IRAT measuring trigger intra freq/same pr inter freq handover trigger high priority inter handover trigger low priority inter handover trigger high priority handover trigger low priority handover Next one 37. For LTE. Multi EPS bearers can bear one AMBR. APN-AMBR: per APN Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate is the limit of bit rate of all the NON_GBR under one UE one APN. If the eNodeB think UE has the ability. UE-AMBR: per UE Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate is the limit of bit rate of all NON_GBR bearers for one UE. Whether to send UE the measuring configuration depends on the UE ability to measure. there are intra RAT measuring and inter RAT measuring. AMBR: Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate.

For the handover events. not the regional value. And the thresholds expect A3 in the message needs calculation. please refer to the last FAQ.will be measuring config message unit. A1-A5. For example. .

The power of symbol A/B and entire power. 38. Via MML. The power of symbol A/B and entire power. Next one. . the power of RS(PRS).B1 B2 have similar setting. PA and PB can be set.

there are 2 RS and 8 non RS. The cell max power needs to be the maximum of symbol A and B. equals to Rank of the channel matrix. PB index is as follows. PB=1. the codeword is still 2.2+30. when eNodeB has 4 antennas for TX. Each RB power is 2*PRS+8*PPDSCH_B On symbol A. UE has 4 antennas for RX.8=46dBm=40W Power of A equals to B. The number of layers is equal to or less than the number of antennas.2dBm.2-3+10log(100*12)=15. The rank can be 1.2. 40. Multi codeword means multi TBs. equal to or less than the number of antennas. But the codeword is 2. rank and codeword.3.4 accordingly. So the entire power of symbol A is 18. The number of codeword equals to TB. protected by CRC. spatial layers means the Spatially multiplexed streams. The reason why codeword is 2 is not because UE has two antennas for RX and TX.3. The rank of the channel matrix equals to spatial layers. the number of TB is 2. ρA=PA) PPDSCH_B=PRS+ ρB The ratio of PPDSCH_A and PPDSCH_B can be defined as PB index. Each RB power is 12*PPDSCH_A. PPDSCH_B. The number of layers can be 1. For example. there are 12 non RS. The understanding of layers.2. if eNOdeB has 4 antennas for TX . the power of symbol A and B can be set as PPDSCH_A.To calculate the cell power. On symbol B.4. 2 ports. PPDSCH_A=PRS+ ρA ( here. PA=-3. For example. . Example: PRS=18. In LTE system. One codeword maps into one TB on MAC layer. Code word is independent encoded data block with same MCS. Next one. 20M bandwidth 100 RB. UE has 4 antennas for RX.

we will introduce the features and algorithm. What is MIMO. The gain that MIMO brings: next one: what is difference between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO .3 Layer 3.  MIMO: MIMO is supported in LTE DL to achieve spatial multiplexing. due to UE cost and power consumption. including single user mode SU-MIMO and multi users mode MU-MIMO.RANK RANK1 RANK2 RANK3 RANK4 Codeword 1 Layer 1 Layer 1 Layer 1 Layer 1. For UL. Next one. what gain can it bring? 41. in which multi single antenna UEs are associated to transmit in the MIMO mode. From next FAQ.4 The FAQ for basic concepts has come to an end. Virtual-MIMO.2 Codeword 2 No codeword Layer 2 Layer 2. it is difficult to implement the UL multi transmission and relative power supply.

Parallel data streams. which occupy same time-frequency resource. What are the MIMO modes. are transmitted to different UEs or different UEs send to eNodeB. What are the MIMO modes. what is difference between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO? SU-MIMO. This mode is called single user MIMO. are transmitted to one single UE or to eNodeB from one single UE. TM3….? And the Scenario? 3. TM3….? And the Scenario? . MU-MIMO. Next one. TM2. In UL. This mode is called MU-MIMO. which occupy same time-frequency resource. considering the LTE terminal implementation complexity.42. Parallel data streams. TM2. it is Virtual-MIMO.

co-channel interference reduction Next one, OFDM technology and MIMO technology are easy to combine. diversity gain. it is easier for MIMO.interference reduction Array gain.interference reduction Array gain. diversity gain. co-channel interference reduction Scenario Poor SINR and speed UE TM3 Open-loop spatial multiplexing Good SINR and speed UE TM4 Closed-loop spatial multiplexing TM6 Closed-loop transmit diversity Array gain.TM6 are supported. TM2.TM4. why is that? MIMO technology key is to effectively reduce the interference between the antennas in order to distinguish between different data streams. As known. Mode TM2 Meaning Open-loop transmit diversity Gains Array gain. spatial multiplexing gain .In huawei Products. why is that? 44. In the horizontal fading channels.TM3. In the frequency selective fading Good SINR speed UE and Poor SINR speed UE and . The gains and scenario for each mode. OFDM technology and MIMO technology are easy to combine. co-channel. spatial multiplexing gain . co-channel.

eNodeB will limit the time and frequency resource of CCU. In this way. and the edge users.cell center user or CEUcell edge user. work on MAC layer. The mechanism is to limit the CEU on part of the bandwidth. because the interference between antennas and interference between symbols are mixed together. . power control to reduce the inter cell interference. DL ICIC contains downlink static ICIC(basic feature) and downlink dynamic ICIC(optional feature). what is DL ICIC? Unlike UL ICIC. 46.channels. especially at the cell edges. it is difficult for MIMO and Channel equalization. Next one. which is easier for MIMO. ICIC is one technology that combine scheduling. And in OFDM. In LTE system each cell uses whole bandwidth. Downlink static ICIC In DL static ICIC. inter cell interference coordination. and therefore there is interference between cells. which only takes 15khz. what is ICIC? ICIC. each OFDM subcarrier. Next one. What is ICIC? 45. Well inter cell interference is one of the major factors that impact the LTE performance. the edge bandwidth is separated from the whole bandwidth beforehand. can be taken as horizontal fading channel. in order to reduce the interference between cells and then improve the cell edge user throughput and system coverage. DL ICIC is using only frequency domain interference coordination and there is no distinguish between intra-eNodeB and inter-eNodeB. or schedule the resource to CEU different time. DL ICIC. are allocated the edge bands which are Orthogonal to each other. the interference can be reduced. which are suffering the interference from other neighbor cells.

uplink dynamic ICIC. One CEU might have great interference to intra-eNodeB neighbor cell A but hardly any interference to another B. UL ICIC judges its neighbors for different CEU. what is UL ICIC? UL ICIC contains uplink static ICIC(basic feature) and uplink dynamic ICIC(optional feature). each takes 1/3 of the entire RBs. Next one. In this way.Downlink dynamic ICIC Downlink ICIC will accord to the load at the edge band and adjust the cell edge band dynamically. Edge band will allocated to CEU and center band to CCU. therefore. what is difference between DL static ICIC and dynamic ICIC? DL dynamic ICIC When the serving cell is reconfigured or initialed. Regarding the initial band divide. within one eNodeB the cell bands assighment method is the same. The result of adjustment will send to neighbor cells by RNTP(Relatively narrow-band transmission power) message. UL ICIC have different strategy for different CEUs. Neighbor eNodeBs have different assignment strategy. . what is difference between DL static ICIC and dynamic ICIC? 48. based on uplink static ICIC. which is to divide the whole band into 3 parts. Next one. and frequency domain ICIC for different eNodeBs. What is UL ICIC? 47. uplink static ICIC uses different band assignment for different eNodeBs. considering the fact that uplink inter cell interference is associated with the distribution of CEUs. uplink dynamic ICIC adds self adaptive edge band adjustment function. the center band is configured as the whole band. And it uses time domain ICIC for the cells in same eNodoB. Regarding the initial band divide. which means nothing for the edge band. One method is often used. while DL static ICIC configures the band according to different cells. This function can adjust the edge band based on the load of the cell edge. for inter-eNodeB scenario. DL static ICIC UL ICIC configured the band according to different eNodeB.

The procedures of the event-triggered ANR. Event-triggered adds missed neighbors and meantime event-triggered have PCI confliction detection function. What is the difference between event-triggered ANR and flash ANR? 49. specific UE will send measurement report periodically and eNodeB will add those neighbors into NCL. And for fast ANR. no direct relation with events. Next one. ANR is classified into eventtriggered ANR and fast ANR (known as periodic ANR). What is the difference between event-triggered ANR and flash ANR? Based on the methods of measuring neighbor cells. Event-triggered ANR takes actions according to intra-frequency and interfrequency A1/A2/A4 events triggered. which is also called period ANR. The procedures of the fast ANR. .each cell can have 1/3 as its edge band.

when UE reads the CGI and other information about an unknown cell during discontinuous reception(DRX) periods. Because the . This drop occurs because the UE cannot be scheduled during DRX periods.when UE performs gap-assisted measurement on inter-frequency or inter-RAT neighboring cells Moreover. Will fast ANR impact the throughput? 50. Will fast ANR impact the throughput? Intra-RAT fast ANR has influences on the throughput 1. the influences on throughput is controllable and acceptable. 2.. Next one.

How to export SON logs from M2000? 52. UE needs to read the CGI of the neighbor.upper limits on the number of UEs in fast ANR per cell and the number of the periodic measurement reports is configurable.1SPC420 and earlier version. The intra-LTE event-triggered ANR has minor impact on the performance because. In ANR. the longDRX is extended to 320ms. UE and eNodeB will be DRX mode. And when UE reading CGI. when the PCI of neighbor reported by the UE is not in the NCL of the serving eNodeB.DRX parameters configuration in ANR. But after practice. . the version after eRan2.retransmission timer is 8ms. 51.1SPC430. the event-triggered ANR also has impact on the throughput when reading CGI and other information about unknown cell during DRX periods. inactivity timer is 10ms. Besides. This configuration will have the best performance.inactivity timer 200ms. the other is neighbor cell ECGI reading. the DRX configuration for reading CGI is as follows. onDuration timer is 5ms. Next one. how the intra LTE ANR impact the system performance? There are two procedures that might have impact on the performance. Next one. In eRan2. the success rate for reading CGI on some sorts of UEs is low. DRX parameters configuration in ANR. onDuration timer 200ms. when longDRX is 160ms. One is neighbor cell measuring. Meaning that longDRX is 160ms. Given this fact.

Next one. The intra-LTE fast ANR. 2 As for reading ECGI. neighbor cell is always on going. will cause some impact on those UEs. But compared with call drop or poor cell serving due to missing handovers. if there exist inter-frequency neighbors. the period for UE to read ECGI is short. Secondly. When the neighbor is established. a group of UE are selected for GAP measuring. What are the scheduling modes in huawei product? 53. the impact can be accepted. no matter ANR is switched on or not. How to export SON logs from M2000? Configuration-LTE self optimization-Query SON logs . firstly.1 For neighbor cell measuring. no need for all the UEs to do the reading. lasting around hundreds of mini seconds. there is no need for UE to do the ECGI reading.

The event description.Select the log category. Next one. duration And you can view the logs listed. event source. What are the scheduling modes in huawei product? 54. What are the scheduling modes in huawei product? .

there are two kinds of scheduling modes. Dynamic has no request on the size of the packet and arrival time. now 4 kinds of scheduling strategy are supported. MAX C/I. this period is fixed as 20ms. doing one time scheduling decision and inform the UE the scheduling information by control signalings on PDSCH. same UE uses same time-frequency resource until it is release. such as VOIP. which is CQI feedback.The target of scheduling is satisfying the QoS as a precondition. according to different quality channels on different UEs. So in each TTI. RR: users take turns to be scheduled. Enhanced. Basic scheduling strategy MAX C/I: rank all the users by their channel quality. PF are basic scheduling strategy. EPF: Satisfying the QoS of the user as a precondition. calculating the weight of the priority . RR(Round Robin). Next one What is DL scheduling procedures? 56. try use the channel quality identity. to maximum the capacity and ensure fairness same time. MAX C/I. no need to send control signaling. eNodeB performs scheduling on MAC layer. ignoring the fairness. What is huawei scheduling strategy? 55. One TTI is 1ms. RR. Qos can not be guaranteed. What is huawei scheduling strategy? In huawei product. in order to maximum the capacity. It is applied when the service is stable speed and Periodic data service. Used when verify the capacity. Next one. coverage and fairness. Absolute fair. within a semi-static period. PF(Proportional fair) and EPF( Enhanced Proportional Fair). Semi-static is another scheduling method to control the spending of signaling. In huawei eNodeB. to transimiss data on the best quality of channels. In huawei eNodeB. EPF is enhanced strategy. therefore it can used for any service. This is to maximum the capacity. ensure the capacity and fairness. Semi-static and Dynamic. Used when test the maximum of the capacity. Dynamic scheduling is in each TTI( transmission time interval). the user with the best channel quality can get scheduled firstly. In this method. What is DL scheduling procedures? DL scheduling is to allocate the time-frequency resource for system information or . PF: this is considering the real time service speed and former average speed.

data. control panel/ IMS signaling. it starts to schedule the UE. The strategy is similar with DL. control data/ IMS signaling. Priority: VOIP. DL scheduling calculates the resources that can be scheduled based on the power left. size of the data and power headroom. And according to the channel quality. other with dynamic scheduling. retransmission data and others. retransmission data. VOIP with semi-static scheduling. Next one What is UL scheduling procedures? 57. the UE channel quality is evaluated with SINR by UE’s physical layer. DL procedures: Scheduling priority: VOIP. other initial data. The priority of control panel data is secondary to VOIP. In UL scheduling. determines the scheduling priority and MCS by QoS and CQI reported by UE. using dynamic scheduling. UL scheduling procedures. The size of the data is depending on the BSR and power on PHR reported by UE. eUtran selects the number of the RB and MCS. . What is UL scheduling procedures? When eUtran receives the scheduling request.

As follows. The QCI for default bearer is usually 9. to ensure the basic service. if UE requests .58. 1 When UE is attaching. the initial context set up is the process to establish a default bearer. eUtran will establish one bearer with a fixed bit rate. Default bearer and dedicated bearer Default bearer established in this scenarios. After UE attached successfully and default bearer is established.

which will also cause impact on the load. But there are still two scenarios. Huawei load control is consist of load monitoring.to visit other PDN. load balance and congestion control. Dedicated bearer. Admission control. Like the ERab establishment procedures. GBR service Qos and etc. When UE need to establish one dedicated service. and the default bearer can not fulfilled the QoS. but request by eUtran. to ensure the QoS of the service that already established. the scenarios mentioned above can cause change on the load. to provide reference for admission control. and thus impact the Qos of the already established service. Load monitor is to monitor cell resource like PRB usage. load balance and congestion control will take actions according to the result of the load monitoring. One is some of the service rate is changing and this will impact the load. Usually by admission control it is possible to control the congestion. To maximum the capacity and improve the admission success rate. admission control. allocate load distribution. Load balance is to refer to the load of the neighbor cells. And admission control will refer to the real time monitoring and decide whether to admit the GBR service. congestion control and load balance. Next one. This can be triggered by UE. What is load balance? 59.What is load control? The proposal for load balance or load control is to ensure the best of capacity and resource usage and meanwhile stabilize the system by rejecting or releasing some service. UE will establish one dedicated bearer with core. eUtran will trigger the PDN request related default bearer. Meantime congestion control will provide overload indicator for admission control and load balanced. . The other is UE mobility lead to changing on RF condition. Therefore even though the user number remains same.

The purpose and rules for admission control. The rules: . The purpose and rules for admission control. The purpose: Not only to maximum the efficiency of the resource but also ensuring the QoS. 59.Next one.

4 Improve the coverage and capacity: DL power control allocate power to different UE to achieve the requirement of system coverage. eNodeB power on DL. reduce the UE battery on UL. The objective is to 1 Ensure the Qos. The objective of power control 60. the objective of power control Power control is to control the transmission power of UE or eNOdeB. And by proper power allocation to improve the system capacity. Power control keeps service just fulfilling the BLER. Next one Category of power control. 3 Reduce the interference from the neighbor cells. . and to control the inter cell interference. in order to compensate the Path loss and shadow fading. 2 Reduce energy consumption. avoiding waste on the power.Next one.