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1

what is LTE network structure layout?

Access network - EUTRAN consists of eNodeBs , providing service on control


panel and user panel.
LTE core network EPC consists of MME, SGW, P-GW.
eNodeBs are connected with each other via X2 interface, supporting data and
signaling transmission.
S1 interface connects eNodeB and EPC, and furthermore, S1-MME is the
control panel interface from eNodeB to MME, while S1-U is user panel
interface from eNodeB to GW.

2. what is UE id in LTE EPS network?


In EPS network, there are five different UE identities including IMSI, IMEI, CRNTI, GUTI and IP. Each of them has different lifetime, valid period,
functionality and Allocation.
IMSI- international Mobile Subscriber Identity
1 Permanent id allocated by SP-service provider
2 IMSI is valid as long as UE is able to get service from SP.
3 IMSI is stored in SIM and HSS.
4 IMSI is the unique id of UE, among all the PLMNs in 3GPP.
1
2
3
4

IMEI- international Mobile Equipment identity


IMEI is the permanent id allocated by Equipment manufacturers;
As long as UE is in service, IMEI is valid.
IMEI is stored in UE and HSS.
Each IMEI is unique.

C-RNTI- cell radio network temporary identity


1 It is a Dynamic labeling allocated by eNodeB;
2 It is valid when the UE is RRC-connected.
3 C-RNTI is stored in UE and eNodeB
4 C-RNTI is the only identity in UU interface served by on cell, when

UE is RRC connected
GUTI- Globally Unique Temporary indentity
1 GUTI is a dynamic labeling allocated by MME to UE;
2 It is valid for the UE registered and attached to MME;
3 GUTI is stored in UE and MME
4 GUTI is the unique identity for the attached UE.
IP
1
2
3
4

IP address is a dynamic allocated by PGW;


It is valid as long as UE is registered in EPC;
IP is stored in UE and PGW;
IP address is the UE identity for the data transmission with PDN.
Next question:

What is LTE radio Frame structure?


3. What is LTE radio Frame structure?
LTE FDD radio frame structure is as follows, time domain is
10ms, including 20 slots and 10 subframes, each subframe take 2 time slots.

LTE TDD radio frames structure is as follows, 10ms, including 2


half frames, each half frame contains 8 slots(0.5ms), and 3 special
Slots, DwPTS(Downlink Pilot TImeSlot), GP(Guard Period),UpPTS(uplink Pilot
TImeSlot), the length of DwPTS and
UpPTS can be configured, but total length of 3 special slots has to be 1 ms.
Subframe #1 and #6 contains special slots. Subframs #0 and #5 can only be
used as downlink.

Next question:
What is RSRP and RSRQ?

4. what is RSRP and RSRQ?

RSRP, Reference Signal Received Power, is defined as the linear


average over the power contributions of the resource elements that carry cellspecific reference signals within the considered measurement frequency bandwidth,
used as evaluation of the downlink power of Reference Signal, like RSCP in WCDMA,
to evaluate the DL coverage.
RSRQ, Reference Signal Received Quality is defined as the ratio
NRSRP/(E-UTRA carrier RSSI), where N is the number of RBs of the E-UTRA
carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth. The measurements in the numerator and
denominator shall be made over the same set of resource blocks, used like Ec/Io in
WCDMA.
RSSI, Received Signal Strength Indicator, comprises the linear
average of the total received power, including signals, interference and noise.
SINR, Signal-to-Interference plus Noise Ratio, is the ratio useful
signal power/noise & interference power.

Next question: what is RE and RB?


5. Whats RE and RB?
LTE consists of time domain and frequency domain resources. The minimum
unit for schedule is RB(Resource Block), which compose of RE(Resource Element)
RE has 2-dimentsion structure: symbol of time domain and subcarrier of
frequency domain.
One RB consists of 1 slot and 12 consecutive subcarriers under normal CP
configuration.

Next question: what is CP and what is it used for?


6. Whats CP?
CP(Cyclic Prefix), contains a copy of the end of OFDM symbol, applied to
eliminate ISI of OFDM. The length of CP is related with coverage radius. Normal CP
can fulfill the requirement of common scenarios. Extended CP is for wide coverage
scenario.

Next question: what is PCI?

7. what is PCI?
PCI(physical cell id), used to distinguish the radio signals of different
cells, ensuring within the cell coverage the PCI is unique. The function is like
scrambler code in UMTS, also, reuse distance has to be ensured.
The protocol decides that cell id in physical layer has two parts, cell group
id and id within cell group. The UE can get cell group id via channel SSCH, and id
within group via PSCH.

The formula shows how the PCI is generated.

is the PCI.

is cell group id and


is the id within the group.
Protocol decides there are 168 cell group id and in each cell group there are
3 id within the cell. Total 168*3=504 PCI.
Next question: what is RS?
8. what is RS?
Downlink RS (reference signals), similar with pilot signal of CDMA, used
for downlink physical channel demodulation and channel quality measurement. There
are 3 types of RS defined in protocol, cell-specific reference signal is essential and
the other two (MBSFN specific RS and UE-specific RS) are optional.
The figure shows in single antenna port, two antenna ports and four antenna
ports, how the RS is the distributed with normal CP. RS are discontinuous at both
time and frequency domains, in order to have more precise physical channel quality
evaluation. For two and more antennas ports the positions of RS are different in
figures, and none of the positions can be used for data transmission.

Next question:

What is REG and CCE?


9. What is REG and CCE?
REG is short for Resource Element Group, one REG contains 4 continuous
unoccupied RE. REG is mainly intended for control channel resource assignment on
PCFICH and PHICH, to Improve the efficiency of resource use and allocation
flexibility. Like the figure below shows, except for RS, the other colors are REG.

CCE is short for Control Channel Element, each CCE consisted of 9 REGs. The
definition of CCE is for bigger size data on PDCCH
. Each users PDCCH can take
1,2,4,8 CCE, called aggregation level.

Next question:
What is ZC sequence?
10. What is ZC sequence?
Zadoff-Chu sequence
A Zadoff-Chu sequence has good self-correlation and crosscorrelation and is defined as follows:

xu n e

un ( n 1)
N ZC

, 0 n N ZC 1

indicates the length of the Zadoff-Chu sequence, and u indicates the


physical root sequence index. The relation between the logical root
sequence index and physical root sequence index is defined in
protocols.
The preamble sequences are generated from the root Zadoff-Chu
sequence through the following cyclic shift.
What is the logical root sequence index?
The random access preambles are generated from Zadoff-Chu
sequences with zero correlation zone.
There are 64 available preamble sequences in each cell. The 64
preamble sequences are first generated from a root Zadoff-Chu
sequence using cyclic shift. If less than 64 preamble sequences are
generated, the remaining are generated from the root Zadoff-Chu
sequence corresponding to the logical index.
The previously mentioned root corresponds to the logical root
sequence index, which is sent to the UE through the SIB2.
Next question:
How to plan PRACH?
11. How to plan PRACH?

Here to plan PRACH is to plan Root Sequence index. We know that There are 64
available preamble sequences in each cell. The 64 preamble sequences are first
generated from a root Zadoff-Chu sequence using cyclic shift, which is Ncs, the
value is subject to the cell radius and maximum delay extension.

N CS 1.04875 (6.67 r TMD 2)


Step 1: The Ncs value is determined by the cell radius. If the cell radius is
10 km, the Ncs value is 76.
Step 2: The value of 839/76 is rounded down to 11, that is, each index can
generate 11 preamble sequences. In this case, six root sequence indexes are
required to generate 64 preamble sequences.
Step 3: The number of available root sequence indexes is 139 (0, 6, 12828).
Step 4: The available root sequence indexes are assigned to cells. The
assignment principles are similar to those for PCIs.

Next question:
What is PBCH?
12. what is PBCH?
PBCH: Physical Broadcast Channel, bearing system information like cell id and DL
antenna configuration, used for cell search. TTI for BCH is 40ms. In time domain,
PBCH takes the 6 RBs in the middle of symbol #7,8,9,10, in subframe #0. As the
figure shows,

Next question:
What is PCFICH?
13. what is PCFICH?

PCFICH(Physical control Format Indicator Channel), used for indicating how many
(ranging from 1-3) OFDM symbols are used for PDCCH. The PCFICH information is 4
REGs on first symbol in each subframe, discontinuous in the whole band, to avoid
interference.
Next question:
What is PDCCH?
14. What is PDCCH?
PDCCH-Physical Downlink Control Channel, mainly bears the DCI-Downlink control
information. There are different kinds of DCI.
Format 0: transmits the PUSCH scheduling grant information.
Format 1: transmits the PDSCH one code word scheduling grant information.
Format 1A: compression mode of format 1
Format 1B: compression mode of format 1 with pre-coding information.
Format 1C: very compression mode of format 1.
Format 1D: compression mode of format 1 including pre-coding information and
power offset information.
Format 2: Closed-loop spatial multiplexing mode UE scheduling;
Format 2A: open-loop spatial multiplexing mode UE scheduling;
Format 3: for multi users TPC command, each user 2 bit.
Format 3A: for multi users TPC, each user 1 bit.
One PDCCH is transmitted on one or more CCE(control channel element), protocol
defines 4 PDCCH format, each having different CCE, the bit are also different.

Next question:
What is PDSCH?
15. what is PDSCH?
PDSCH: physical downlink shared channel, used for service data as well as signaling.
Before UE receive the PDSCH, UE searches for PDCCH on every subframe, and
accords to the DCI resource allocation field , analyze the actual resource allocation.
Each allocation field has two parts: type field and actual resource allocation
information. Because PDCCH has three types, type0, type1 and type2. So the PDSCH
resource allocation types include type0, type1 and type2.
Type0: the unit of UE resource allocation is RBG(RB group), use bitmap to allocate
the RBG to the UE. The size of the group is related to bandwidth.

One example of Type 0

Type 1: use bitmap to one of several RB in one group. The number of the RB groups
is related to bandwidth.

Type2: there is mapping between the virtual resource block and physical resource
block. The PB can be allocated in one RBG or whole band. Two ways to allocated is
LVRB(localized virtyal resource block) continuous allocation and DVRB(Distributed
VRB) hopping frequency location. Here is an example.

Next question:
What is PHICH?
16. what is PHICH?
PHICH: Physical Hybrid ARQ indicator Channel, for bearing the ACK/NACK
feedback. Several PHICH reused to mapped into the same RE resource, which is
called a PHICH group. Within a group, different PHICH differs from each other via
orthogonal sequence. Whether PUSCH is received by eNOdeB properly will be
feedback in the fourth subframe PHICH to UE. Each PHICH takes 3 REGs. Here is
an example of the PHICH resource allocation.

Next question:

What is PRACH?
17. what is PRACH?
PRACH-Physical random access channel. Regarding the mobility of the UE makes
the distance and position from the EUTRAN is uncertain, so if UE wants signaling
and data transmitting to EUTRAN, it has to be maintain UL-sync. And the PRACH is
for UE to get UL-sync and dedicated resource from EUTRAN. The random access
procedures are important for initial UE access, handover implementation, connection
reestablishment and recover of UL time and freq sync.
In time domain, the preamble for random access is the integer times of the
subframe, and in frequency domain, Preamble takes 6 RBs, 1.08Mhz.
Next question:
What is PUSCH?
18. Whats PUSCH?
PUSCH: Physical Uplink Shared Channel. Mainly used for UL data transmitting. The
PUSCH proceeding includes scrambling, modulation mapper, transform precoder,
resource element mapper and IFFT transfer signal generating. As below shows,

Here is the UL channels time&frequency structure.

Next question:
What is PUCCH?
19. what is PUCCH?

PUCCH: Physical Uplink Control Channel. For bearing the ACK/NACK for HARQ,
scheduling request and CQI such information. On frequency domain, the PUCCH is
located on both ends of the bandwidth. it can support hopping frequency between
two slots. See from the below.

Next question:
What is UL RS?
20. what is UL RS
There are two kinds of UL RS.
DMRS, Demodulation Reference Signal: because for UL, SC-FDMA are used, each
UE only takes part of the bandwidth, DMRS is carried only in the PUCCH and
PUSCH. The positions in the slots depends on the different formats of PUSCH and
PUCCH.
SRS, sounding Reference signal: reference signal when there is no PUCCH and
PUSCH. The frequencies taken by SRS is wider than those taken by each UE, aiming
at better evaluation on the whole band UL channel quality. SRS is being transmitted
on the last symbol of each subframe. The cyclic period and band can be configured.
SRS can be scheduled by more than one UEs.
Next question,
What is RI, PMI, CQI?

21. what is RI, PMI, CQI?

RI: Rank indication, is the rank of Antenna array,


represents several valid parallel data streams.
PMI: pre-coding matrix indication, Pre-encoding in a
multi-antenna system, is an adaptive technique. It is
based on the channel state information (CSI) adaptively
changing the coding matrix at the transmitter, changing
the channels. Both ends of the transceiver stores a
codebook including several precoding matrix, so that the
receiver can estimate the channel matrix ,selecting one
of the pre-coding matrix, and feedback the index value
and the quantized channel state to the transmission side;
the next moment, the sending end with the new
precoding matrix and based on the channel state

information, determine the coding and modulation


scheme.
CQI: Channel quality indictor. It is a indictor of channel
quality when BLER (10%) is fulfilled, including the
current modulation scheme, coding rate and efficiency
information. The greater the CQI value is, the more
efficient the encoding is. Meaning the same thing as CQI
in HSDPA, but in LTE, the CQI takes 4 bits, the other
takes 5 bits.
Next question:
GAP measuring.
22. GAP measuring
GAP measuring happens when UE has to leave the current measuring frequency point
and measure other frequency points.
Because UE has one receiver normally, at the same time can only receive the signal
on one frequency point. Before inter frequency or inter RAT handover, it has to do
measuring on other frequency points within a period of time, like Compression mode
in WCDMA.
When inter freq or inter RAT measuring is triggered, eNodeB will send
corresponding GAP measuring configuration to UE, UE will do the measuring
accordingly, as below figure shows. When there are GAP measuring for both
coverage-based or service-based, eNOdeB will record all the measuring according to
different triggering causes, called GAP members. GAP members share same GAP
configurations. Only when all the members stop, UE will stop GAP measuring.

Next one,
What is mapping between physical channels, transmission channels and logical
channels.

23. Channel mapping.


For UL, logical channels CCCH,DCCH,DTCH are mapped into transmission channels
UL-SCH, physical channel PUSCH. UL transmission channel RACH is mapped into
physical channel PRACH.

For DL, logical channel PCCH is mapped into transmission channel PCH, physical
channel PDSCH. Logical channel BCCH is mapped into two parts. One part is mapped
into transmission channel BCH, physical channel PBCH, bearing MIB information. the

other part is mapped into transmission channel DL-SCH, physical channel PDSCH,
bearing other system information. CCCH, DCCH,DTCH,MCCH(Multicast control
channel) are mapped into transmission channel DL-SCH, physical channel PDSCH.
MTCH(Multicast traffic channel) is mapped into DL-SCH, physical PDSCH when
MTCH bears single cell data and into MCH, physical PMCH when MTCH bears multi
cell data.

Next one,
What are the procedures for Downlink signal processing?
24. procedures for Downlink signal processing
Downlink signal processing need a few steps, Scrambling, Modulation, layer mapping,
pre coding, RE mapping, Generate OFDM symbols.

Next one,

What is system information in LTE?


25. What is system information in LTE?
MIB:
Dl bandwidth, SFN, PCHICH channel configuration.

SIB 1
i) Cell Access Related Information - PLMN Identity List, PLMN Identity, TA Code,
Cell identity & Cell Status
ii) Cell Selection Information - Minimum Receiver Level
iii) Scheduling Information - SI message type & Periodicity, SIB mapping Info, SI
Window length

SIB 2
i) Access Barring Information - Access Probability factor, Access Class Baring List,
Access Class Baring Time
ii) Semi static Common Channel Configuration - Random Access Parameter, PRACH
Configuration
iii) UL frequency Information - UL EARFCN, UL Bandwidth, additional emmission

SIB 3
i) Information/Parameters for intra-frequency cell reselections

SIB 4
i) Information on intra-frequency neighboring cells

SIB 5

i) Information on inter-frequency neighboring cells

SIB 6
i) Information for reselection to UMTS (UTRAN) cells

SIB 7
i) Information for reselection to GSM (GERAN) cells

SIB 8
i) Information for reselection to CDMA2000 systems

SIB 9
i) Home eNodeB name for future LTE femtocell applications

SIB 10 + 11
i) ETWS (Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System) information

SIB 12
i) Commercial Mobile Alerting System (CMAS) information.

Next one:
Difference between RA-RNTI and C-RNTI.
26. Difference between RA-RNTI and C-RNTI.
RA-RNTI, Random Access Radio Network Temporary Identifier.

C-RNTI, Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier.


When UE is attempting to do random access, UE itself can be RRC-connected mode
or from RRC-IDLE to RRC-connected. For the former network have already assigned
unique C-RNTI, and the latter the network has not assigned RNTI to UE yet. And
for such situation, the network assign not only UE TA,UL GRANT, but also RNTI
related to UE, namely is RA-RNTI.
RA-RNTI is sent out when network respond to UE preamble and after that the UE
will use RA-RNTI in the UL information, network recognize UEs by different RARNTI.
Next one,
What is radio bearer in LTE?
27. What is radio bearer in LTE?
in LTE system, one service flow with a defined QoS, between one UE to PGW, can be
called EPS bearer.
In EPS bearer, the bearer between UE and eNodeB is called radio bearer, between
eNodeB to SGW is called S1 bearer. Radio bearer and S1 bearer consist E-RAB.
Radio bearer can be divided into SRB(signaling Radio Bearer) and DRB(Data Radio
Bearer), according to different kinds of content.
SRB bear the control signaling.
SBR0 bears the signaling before RRC connection , transmit on logical channel CCCH,
at RLC use TM mode.
SRB1 bears RRC signaling (may take some NAS messages as well) and NAS signaling
before SRB2, transmit on DCCH, use AM mode on RLC.
SRB2 bears NAS signaling, transmit on DCCH, use AM mode on RLC. SRB1 is prior
to SRB2, only after security mode setup, SRB2 is set up.
DRB bears user plane. A maximum of 8 DRBs can be set up between UE and eNodeB
with different QoS.

Next one ,
28. Concept in scheduling.

Some basic Concept in scheduling.


CQI: channel quality indicator. Used as Reflecting the identity of the downlink
channel quality, for DL scheduling. CQI reporting is controlled by eNodeB, based on
event or periodically. Also it is possible to configure event-based reporting and
period reporting same time. When two report come same time, the event-based one
is considered more accurate.
SINR: Used as Reflecting the identity of the uplink channel quality, for UL
scheduling. SINR is measured on physical level and eNodeB will accord to ACK/NACK
on UL data and adjust SINR to Converge BLER to the target.
FSS: Frequency selective scheduling. This method is to assign continuous
subcarriers or RBs to UEs. This method needs detail channel information, selecting
good quality RBs via sub-band CQI(for DL scheduling), or via SINR(for UL
scheduling). With FSS, we can get frequency gain and mulit users gain, increase the
usage of the spectrum and UE peak TP, in low speed users scenario.
FDS: frequency diversity scheduling. In DL scheduling, Discrete subcarriers or RBs
are being scheduled to UEs, via wide band CQI, save signaling.
In UL scheduling, FDS is to certain band, from highest to lowest search the
available RBs. When there are a few UEs to be scheduled, FDS will cause fragments

in spectrum. So FSS is priority. FDS is adapted to the scenario like high speed and
less users.
Other concepts:
AMBR: 3GPP defined QoS parameter, indicating the maximum speed for all the nonGBR services.
BSR: buffer status report, including length of buffer queue. UE report BSR to
eNodeB.
FIFO: First input first output. Early coming data will be early scheduled.
Power headroom: maximum power minus the power being used.

Next one:
What is TTI bundling?
29. What is TTI bundling?
TTI: transmission time interval, the minimum unit of scheduling, one TTI equals to
1ms.
TTI bundling means eNodeB transmits one data stream, on a number of continuous
subframes. These subframes are counted as one same resource. Thus this method
can save scheduling signaling consumption. In UL scheduling, when UE suffers bad
quality channels or limited power( like cell edge users), TTI bundling can improve the
quality of transmission.
In huawei eNodeB, TTI bundling use a fixed number of 4 continuous subframes,
carrying same data. The retransmission of TTI bundling also uses TTI bundling. In
this situation, there will be less HARQ for each UE. In FDD, the retransmission
interval change to 16 TTI from 8 TTI. In TDD, different DL/UL subframs ratio use
different transmission interval.
When TTI boudling is activated and UE has poor quality channel and limited power,
TTI bundling can give UE more opportunity and thus enhance the UL coverage.

Next one,
What are the NAS status defined in protocol?
30. What are the NAS status defined in protocol?
There are 3 NAS status for UE, which are LTE_DETACHED, LTE_IDLE,
LTE_ACTIVE. Here is the transforming relationship.

Next one,
31. What are key technology of LTE?
Compared with UMTS, what are the key technology of LTE?

OFDM. OFDM is a modulation multiplexing technology,


divides the system bandwidth onto orthogonal
subcarriers. CP is inserted between the OFDM symbols to
avoid ISI.
Advantage: high spectrum utilization efficiency due to orthogonal subcarriers need
no protect bandwidth. Support frequency link auto adaption and scheduling. Easy to
combine with MIMO.
Dis: strict requirement of time-frequency domain synchronization. High PAPR.

MIMO:
MIMO is supported in LTE DL to achieve spatial multiplexing, including single user
mode SU-MIMO and multi users mode MU-MIMO. For UL, due to UE cost and power
consumption, it is difficult to implement the UL multi transmission and relative
power supply. Virtual-MIMO, in which multi single antenna UEs are associated to
transmit in the MIMO mode.
Scheduling and link auto-adaption.
Select better subcarriers for specific user according to the fading characteristic.
User diversity can be achieved to increase spectrum efficiency. The channel

propagation information is feed back to eNodeB through the uplink channel quality
identity is the overheading of system. The less, the better.
Link auto-adaption, LTE support link auto-adaption in time-domain and frequencydomain. Modulation scheme is selected based on the channel quality in domains.

Enhance MBMS,
Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service
MBMS, all e-NodeB apply same frequency resource and send MBMS data
simultaneously. Not necessary to divide the signal from eNodeBs. For UE, the
signals from eNodeBs which can be soft combined by UE.

Cell interference control


ICIC(inter-cell interference coordination)
ICIC is one solution for the cell interference control, is essentially a schedule
strategy. Some coordination schemes like SFR(soft frequency reuse) and
FFR( fractional frequency reuse) can control the interference in cell edges to
enhance the frequency reuser factor and performance in the cell edges.
SFR solution is one effective solutioin of inter-cell interference control. The system
bandwidth is separated into primary band and secondary band with different
transmit power.

Next one,
What is advantage and disadvantage of multi TA strategy?
32. What is advantage and disadvantage of multi TA strategy?
Multi tracking area registration is more than 1 tracking area consisting one TA list.
These TAs are allocated to UE same time, decided by the network which TA are
allocated to UE for registration. When UE move between these TA within one TA
list, no need for UE to do TA update. Once UE move to a new TA not in the list,
when TA update is needed, network will send another list of TAs.
Advantage:
1.Less require on the broadcast channel, less load on the BCCH. Because only one
TAC is broadcasted.
2.EPC allocates TAs to UE more flexibly.
3.Avoid pingpang TAU;
4.More efficiency usage on the radio resource
Disadvantage,

In dense urban, to control the paging load, the size of TA cant be too big. For high
speed UE, TA list should include more TACs to avoid over many TAU. And this will
increase the size of the TAU message. More resource will be taken.
Next one,
When will UE read SI-RNTI on PDCCH?
33. When will UE read SI-RNTI on PDCCH?
On PDCCH, UE Synchronize with SI-RNTI, including time information and
frequency information of system information, thus UE can read the system
information on PDCCH.
In the following situations the UE will read system information.

1
2
3
4
5
6

UE power on and attaches.


UE perform cell reselection.
Handover finished.
UE inter work from RAT to LTE network.
UE enters LTE coverage from non-coverage area.
UE receives system information modification from
eNodeB.
7 UE receives ETWS message.
8 UE again reads system information in 3 hours after UE
read system information.
Next one,
How is X2 interface connected and the maximum number of X2 interfaces?
34. How is X2 interface connected and the maximum number of X2 interfaces?
There is no physical entity for X2 interface to connect two eNodeBs directly.
Instead X2 interface is based on IP network.
For the time being(eRan3.0), the maximum number of X2 interfaces for one eNodeB
is 64. It is suggested that neighbor eNodeBs, which has neighbor cell relations,
should be configured via X2 interface. If neighbor eNodeBs number exceeds 64,
the more important NB need to be configured with priority, and the rest NBs can
make handover via S1.
Next one,
35. The meaning of AMBR, MBR and GBR.

Regarding the NON_GBR or GBR bearer, there are three important parameters:
AMBR, MBR, GBR.
AMBR: Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate, applied for NON_GBR bearer bit rate
management. System will limit a Collection of the data streams speed less than
AMBR. Multi EPS bearers can bear one AMBR.
APN-AMBR: per APN Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate is the limit of bit rate of all the
NON_GBR under one UE one APN.
UE-AMBR: per UE Aggregate Maximum Bit Rate is the limit of bit rate of all
NON_GBR bearers for one UE.
GBR is the expected bit rate that can be offered, MBR is the maximum of the bit
rate of bear that can be offered.

Next one,
AX and BX events for handovers
36.AX and BX events for handovers
measurin
g events
trigger condition

A1

measuring cell greater than threshold

A2

measuring cell less than threshold


neighbor cell higher than serving cell by greater
than threshold

A3
A4
A5
B1
B2

inter freq cell greater than threshold


inter freq cell greater than threshold and
serving cell lower than threshold
RAT cell higher than threshold
RAT cell higher than threshold and serving cell
lower than threshold

actions
cancel inter freq/IRAT
measuring
trigger inter freq/IRAT
measuring
trigger intra freq/same pr
inter freq handover
trigger high priority inter
handover
trigger low priority inter
handover
trigger
high
priority
handover
trigger
low
priority
handover

Next one
37. Handover thresholds and measuring control.
For LTE, there are intra RAT measuring and inter RAT measuring. Whether to send
UE the measuring configuration depends on the UE ability to measure. If the
eNodeB think UE has the ability, on the second RRC_CONN_RECFG message there

will be measuring config message unit.

For the handover events, please refer to the last FAQ.


And the thresholds expect A3 in the message needs calculation, not the regional
value.
For example, A1-A5,

B1 B2 have similar setting.

Next one,
The power of symbol A/B and entire power.
38. The power of symbol A/B and entire power.

Via MML, the power of RS(PRS), PA and PB can be set.

To calculate the cell power, the power of symbol A and B can be set as PPDSCH_A,
PPDSCH_B.
PPDSCH_A=PRS+ A ( here, A=PA)
PPDSCH_B=PRS+ B
The ratio of PPDSCH_A and PPDSCH_B can be defined as PB index. PB index is as
follows,

On symbol B, there are 2 RS and 8 non RS. Each RB power is


2*PRS+8*PPDSCH_B
On symbol A, there are 12 non RS. Each RB power is
12*PPDSCH_A.
The cell max power needs to be the maximum of symbol A and B.
Example:
PRS=18.2dBm, PA=-3, PB=1, 20M bandwidth 100 RB, 2 ports.
So the entire power of symbol A is
18.2-3+10log(100*12)=15.2+30.8=46dBm=40W
Power of A equals to B.
Next one,
The understanding of layers, rank and codeword.
40. In LTE system, spatial layers means the Spatially multiplexed streams. The
number of layers is equal to or less than the number of antennas, equals to Rank of
the channel matrix.
The rank of the channel matrix equals to spatial layers, equal to or less than the
number of antennas.
Code word is independent encoded data block with same MCS. One codeword maps
into one TB on MAC layer, protected by CRC. Multi codeword means multi TBs. The
reason why codeword is 2 is not because UE has two antennas for RX and TX. For
example, if eNOdeB has 4 antennas for TX , UE has 4 antennas for RX, the
codeword is still 2. The number of codeword equals to TB.
For example, when eNodeB has 4 antennas for TX, UE has 4 antennas for RX. The
rank can be 1,2,3,4. The number of layers can be 1,2,3,4 accordingly. But the
codeword is 2, the number of TB is 2.

RANK
RANK1
RANK2
RANK3
RANK4

Codeword 1
Layer 1
Layer 1
Layer 1
Layer 1,2

Codeword 2
No codeword
Layer 2
Layer 2,3
Layer 3,4

The FAQ for basic concepts has come to an end. From next FAQ, we will introduce
the features and algorithm.
Next one,
What is MIMO, what gain can it bring?
41.

MIMO:
MIMO is supported in LTE DL to achieve spatial multiplexing, including single user
mode SU-MIMO and multi users mode MU-MIMO. For UL, due to UE cost and power
consumption, it is difficult to implement the UL multi transmission and relative
power supply. Virtual-MIMO, in which multi single antenna UEs are associated to
transmit in the MIMO mode.

The gain that MIMO brings:

next one:
what is difference between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO

42. what is difference between SU-MIMO and MU-MIMO?


SU-MIMO, Parallel data streams, which occupy same time-frequency resource, are
transmitted to one single UE or to eNodeB from one single UE. This mode is called
single user MIMO.

MU-MIMO, Parallel data streams, which occupy same time-frequency resource, are
transmitted to different UEs or different UEs send to eNodeB. This mode is called
MU-MIMO. In UL, it is Virtual-MIMO, considering the LTE terminal implementation
complexity.

Next one,
What are the MIMO modes, TM2, TM3.? And the Scenario?
3. What are the MIMO modes, TM2, TM3.? And the Scenario?

In huawei Products, TM2,TM3,TM4,TM6 are supported.


The gains and scenario for each mode.
Mode
TM2

Meaning
Open-loop transmit diversity

Gains
Array gain, diversity gain,
co-channel interference
reduction

Scenario
Poor SINR and
speed UE

TM3

Open-loop spatial multiplexing

Good SINR and


speed UE

TM4

Closed-loop spatial multiplexing

TM6

Closed-loop transmit diversity

Array gain, co-channel,


spatial multiplexing gain
,interference reduction
Array gain, co-channel,
spatial multiplexing gain
,interference reduction
Array gain, diversity gain,
co-channel interference
reduction

Next one
OFDM technology and MIMO technology are easy to combine, why is that?
44. OFDM technology and MIMO technology are easy to combine, why is that?
MIMO technology key is to effectively reduce the interference between the
antennas in order to distinguish between different data streams. As known, In the
horizontal fading channels, it is easier for MIMO. In the frequency selective fading

Good SINR
speed UE

and

Poor SINR
speed UE

and

channels, because the interference between antennas and interference between


symbols are mixed together, it is difficult for MIMO and Channel equalization. And
in OFDM, each OFDM subcarrier, which only takes 15khz, can be taken as horizontal
fading channel, which is easier for MIMO.
Next one,
What is ICIC?
45. what is ICIC?
ICIC, inter cell interference coordination. In LTE system each cell uses whole
bandwidth, and therefore there is interference between cells, especially at the cell
edges. Well inter cell interference is one of the major factors that impact the LTE
performance. ICIC is one technology that combine scheduling, power control to
reduce the inter cell interference, work on MAC layer.
eNodeB will limit the time and frequency resource of CCU- cell center user or CEUcell edge user. The mechanism is to limit the CEU on part of the bandwidth, or
schedule the resource to CEU different time, in order to reduce the interference
between cells and then improve the cell edge user throughput and system coverage.

Next one,
DL ICIC.
46. what is DL ICIC?
Unlike UL ICIC, DL ICIC is using only frequency domain interference coordination
and there is no distinguish between intra-eNodeB and inter-eNodeB.
DL ICIC contains downlink static ICIC(basic feature) and downlink dynamic
ICIC(optional feature).
Downlink static ICIC
In DL static ICIC, the edge bandwidth is separated from the whole bandwidth
beforehand, and the edge users, which are suffering the interference from other
neighbor cells, are allocated the edge bands which are Orthogonal to each other. In
this way, the interference can be reduced.

Downlink dynamic ICIC


Downlink ICIC will accord to the load at the edge band and adjust the cell edge band
dynamically. The result of adjustment will send to neighbor cells by RNTP(Relatively
narrow-band transmission power) message.
Next one,
What is UL ICIC?
47. what is UL ICIC?
UL ICIC contains uplink static ICIC(basic feature) and uplink dynamic ICIC(optional
feature).
uplink static ICIC uses different band assignment for different eNodeBs. Edge
band will allocated to CEU and center band to CCU. Neighbor eNodeBs have
different assignment strategy, within one eNodeB the cell bands assighment method
is the same.
And it uses time domain ICIC for the cells in same eNodoB, and frequency domain
ICIC for different eNodeBs.
uplink dynamic ICIC,
based on uplink static ICIC, for inter-eNodeB scenario, uplink dynamic ICIC adds
self adaptive edge band adjustment function. This function can adjust the edge
band based on the load of the cell edge.
UL ICIC have different strategy for different CEUs, considering the fact that
uplink inter cell interference is associated with the distribution of CEUs. One CEU
might have great interference to intra-eNodeB neighbor cell A but hardly any
interference to another B. therefore, UL ICIC judges its neighbors for different
CEU.
Next one,
Regarding the initial band divide, what is difference between DL static ICIC and
dynamic ICIC?

48. Regarding the initial band divide, what is difference between DL static ICIC and
dynamic ICIC?
DL dynamic ICIC
When the serving cell is reconfigured or initialed, the center band is configured as
the whole band, which means nothing for the edge band.
DL static ICIC
UL ICIC configured the band according to different eNodeB, while DL static ICIC
configures the band according to different cells. One method is often used, which is
to divide the whole band into 3 parts, each takes 1/3 of the entire RBs. In this way,

each cell can have 1/3 as its edge band.


Next one,
What is the difference between event-triggered ANR and flash ANR?
49. What is the difference between event-triggered ANR and flash ANR?
Based on the methods of measuring neighbor cells, ANR is classified into eventtriggered ANR and fast ANR (known as periodic ANR).
Event-triggered ANR takes actions according to intra-frequency and interfrequency A1/A2/A4 events triggered. Event-triggered adds missed neighbors and
meantime event-triggered have PCI confliction detection function.
And for fast ANR, which is also called period ANR, specific UE will send
measurement report periodically and eNodeB will add those neighbors into NCL, no
direct relation with events.
The procedures of the event-triggered ANR.

The procedures of the fast ANR.

Next one,
Will fast ANR impact the throughput?
50. Will fast ANR impact the throughput?
Intra-RAT fast ANR has influences on the throughput
1.when UE reads the CGI and other information about an unknown cell during
discontinuous reception(DRX) periods. This drop occurs because the UE cannot be
scheduled during DRX periods.
2.when UE performs gap-assisted measurement on inter-frequency or inter-RAT
neighboring cells
Moreover, the influences on throughput is controllable and acceptable. Because the

upper limits on the number of UEs in fast ANR per cell and the number of the
periodic measurement reports is configurable.
Besides, the event-triggered ANR also has impact on the throughput when reading
CGI and other information about unknown cell during DRX periods.
Next one,
DRX parameters configuration in ANR.
51.DRX parameters configuration in ANR.
In ANR, when the PCI of neighbor reported by the UE is not in the NCL of the
serving eNodeB, UE needs to read the CGI of the neighbor. And when UE reading
CGI, UE and eNodeB will be DRX mode.
In eRan2.1SPC420 and earlier version, the DRX configuration for reading CGI is as
follows,

Meaning that longDRX is 160ms, onDuration timer is 5ms, inactivity timer is


10ms,retransmission timer is 8ms.
But after practice, when longDRX is 160ms, the success rate for reading CGI on
some sorts of UEs is low. Given this fact, the version after eRan2.1SPC430, the
longDRX is extended to 320ms, onDuration timer 200ms,inactivity timer 200ms.
This configuration will have the best performance.

Next one,
How to export SON logs from M2000?
52. how the intra LTE ANR impact the system performance?
There are two procedures that might have impact on the performance. One is
neighbor cell measuring, the other is neighbor cell ECGI reading.
The intra-LTE event-triggered ANR has minor impact on the performance because,

1 For neighbor cell measuring, no matter ANR is switched on


or not, neighbor cell is always on going.
2 As for reading ECGI, firstly, no need for all the UEs to do
the reading. When the neighbor is established, there is no
need for UE to do the ECGI reading. Secondly, the period
for UE to read ECGI is short, lasting around hundreds of
mini seconds.

The intra-LTE fast ANR, if there exist inter-frequency neighbors, a group of UE


are selected for GAP measuring, will cause some impact on those UEs. But compared
with call drop or poor cell serving due to missing handovers, the impact can be
accepted.
Next one,
What are the scheduling modes in huawei product?
53. How to export SON logs from M2000?
Configuration-LTE self optimization-Query SON logs

Select the log category, event source, duration

And you can view the logs listed. The event description.

Next one,
What are the scheduling modes in huawei product?
54. What are the scheduling modes in huawei product?

The target of scheduling is satisfying the QoS as a precondition, according to


different quality channels on different UEs, to transimiss data on the best quality
of channels, in order to maximum the capacity. eNodeB performs scheduling on MAC
layer.
In huawei eNodeB, there are two kinds of scheduling modes, Semi-static and
Dynamic.
Dynamic scheduling is in each TTI( transmission time interval), doing one time
scheduling decision and inform the UE the scheduling information by control
signalings on PDSCH. One TTI is 1ms. Dynamic has no request on the size of the
packet and arrival time, therefore it can used for any service.
Semi-static is another scheduling method to control the spending of signaling. In
this method, same UE uses same time-frequency resource until it is release, within a
semi-static period. In huawei eNodeB, this period is fixed as 20ms. So in each TTI,
no need to send control signaling. It is applied when the service is stable speed and
Periodic data service, such as VOIP.
Next one,
What is huawei scheduling strategy?
55. What is huawei scheduling strategy?
In huawei product, now 4 kinds of scheduling strategy are supported. MAX C/I,
RR(Round Robin), PF(Proportional fair) and EPF( Enhanced Proportional Fair). MAX
C/I, RR, PF are basic scheduling strategy, EPF is enhanced strategy.
Basic scheduling strategy
MAX C/I: rank all the users by their channel quality, the user with the best channel
quality can get scheduled firstly. This is to maximum the capacity, ignoring the
fairness, Qos can not be guaranteed. Used when test the maximum of the capacity.
RR: users take turns to be scheduled. Absolute fair.
PF: this is considering the real time service speed and former average speed,
calculating the weight of the priority . ensure the capacity and fairness. Used when
verify the capacity, coverage and fairness.
Enhanced,
EPF:
Satisfying the QoS of the user as a precondition, try use the channel quality
identity, which is CQI feedback, to maximum the capacity and ensure fairness same
time.
Next one
What is DL scheduling procedures?
56. What is DL scheduling procedures?
DL scheduling is to allocate the time-frequency resource for system information or

data.
DL scheduling calculates the resources that can be scheduled based on the power
left, determines the scheduling priority and MCS by QoS and CQI reported by UE.
DL procedures:
Scheduling priority: VOIP, control data/ IMS signaling, retransmission data, other
initial data.
VOIP with semi-static scheduling, other with dynamic scheduling.
The priority of control panel data is secondary to VOIP, using dynamic scheduling.

Next one
What is UL scheduling procedures?
57. What is UL scheduling procedures?
When eUtran receives the scheduling request, it starts to schedule the UE. And
according to the channel quality, size of the data and power headroom, eUtran
selects the number of the RB and MCS.
In UL scheduling, the UE channel quality is evaluated with SINR by UEs physical
layer. The size of the data is depending on the BSR and power on PHR reported by
UE.
UL scheduling procedures,
Priority: VOIP, control panel/ IMS signaling, retransmission data and others.
The strategy is similar with DL.

58. Default bearer and dedicated bearer


Default bearer established in this scenarios,

1 When UE is attaching, eUtran will establish one bearer with


a fixed bit rate, to ensure the basic service. As follows, the
initial context set up is the process to establish a default
bearer. The QCI for default bearer is usually 9.

After UE attached successfully and default bearer is established, if UE requests

to visit other PDN, eUtran will trigger the PDN request related default bearer.
Dedicated bearer,
When UE need to establish one dedicated service, and the default bearer can not
fulfilled the QoS, UE will establish one dedicated bearer with core. This can be
triggered by UE, but request by eUtran. Like the ERab establishment procedures,

Next one,
What is load balance?
59.What is load control?
The proposal for load balance or load control is to ensure the best of capacity and
resource usage and meanwhile stabilize the system by rejecting or releasing some
service, to ensure the QoS of the service that already established.
Huawei load control is consist of load monitoring, admission control, congestion
control and load balance.
Admission control, load balance and congestion control will take actions according to
the result of the load monitoring. Meantime congestion control will provide overload
indicator for admission control and load balanced.
Load monitor is to monitor cell resource like PRB usage, GBR service Qos and etc. to
provide reference for admission control, load balance and congestion control. And
admission control will refer to the real time monitoring and decide whether to admit
the GBR service.
Load balance is to refer to the load of the neighbor cells, allocate load distribution.
To maximum the capacity and improve the admission success rate.
Usually by admission control it is possible to control the congestion. But there are
still two scenarios. One is some of the service rate is changing and this will impact
the load. The other is UE mobility lead to changing on RF condition, which will also
cause impact on the load. Therefore even though the user number remains same, the
scenarios mentioned above can cause change on the load, and thus impact the Qos of
the already established service.

Next one,
The purpose and rules for admission control.
59. The purpose and rules for admission control.
The purpose:
Not only to maximum the efficiency of the resource but also ensuring the QoS.
The rules:

Next one,
The objective of power control
60. the objective of power control
Power control is to control the transmission power of UE or eNOdeB, in order to
compensate the Path loss and shadow fading, and to control the inter cell
interference.
The objective is to

1 Ensure the Qos. Power control keeps service just fulfilling


the BLER, avoiding waste on the power.
2 Reduce energy consumption, reduce the UE battery on UL,
eNodeB power on DL.
3 Reduce the interference from the neighbor cells,
4 Improve the coverage and capacity: DL power control
allocate power to different UE to achieve the requirement
of system coverage. And by proper power allocation to
improve the system capacity.
Next one
Category of power control.