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DESALTING

Crude oil often contains water, inorganic salts, suspended solids and water-soluble trace metals. The first
step in the refining process is to remove these contaminants by desalting (dehydration) in order to reduce
corrosion, plugging and fouling of equipment, and to prevent poisoning the catalysts in processing units.

ATMOSPHERIC DISTILATION
Crude oil distillation is used to separate the hydrocarbons in crude oil into fractions based on their boiling
points. These fractions are later distributed to other units, for further processing for quality enhancement.

VACUUM DISTILATION
Vacuum distillation towers provide the reduced pressure required to prevent thermal cracking when
distilling the residuum from the atmospheric tower at higher temperatures.

CATALYTIC CRACKING
It cracks the heavier, higher-boiling-point petroleum fractions into more valuable products such as gaseous
hydrocarbons (unsaturated gases), gasoline, gas oil and fuel oil.
-increase the quality and quantity of lighter, more desirable products and decrease the amount of residuals

The purpose of the FCC is to increase the quantity of lighter more valuable products, by cracking the heavy
petroleum fractions intro more valuable products (in a fluidized catalytic).
It has the purpose to convert the vacuum gas oils into more valuable products (desirable)
COKER
It has the purpose to convert the residual oil from the vacuum distillation column into low molecular weight
hydrocarbon gases, naphtha, light and heavy gas oils, and petroleum coke. The process thermally cracks
the long chain hydrocarbon molecules in the residual oil feed into shorter chain molecules.
It has the purpose to convert the residual oil from the vacuum distillation column into more valuable
products.

SCOP

Parametrii

Materii Prime

Produse Obtinute

Catalizatori

Desalinare

Inlaturarea sarurilor, a apei si a impuritatilor din


titei.

T= 140
P= 14

Titei brut

Titei desalinat

DA

Face o separare primara a titeiului, pe baza


punctelor de fierbere.

T= 360
P= 1

Titei desalinate, slops

Fr. C2-C5, naphta, kero,


motorina, pacura, gaze dgrs.

DV

Distilarea sub vacuum a rezidiului de DA, pentru


a prevenii reactiile de cracare.

T= 400
P= 0.05-0.1

Pacura de DA

Distilat de vid 1 si 2 (la cc),


Rezidiu de vid (la cx)

HB

Inlaturarea comp cu S,N,O, metale, saturarea


hidrocarb nesaturate.

T= 300
P= 40

Benzina DA, Benzina


CX, H2 (bz CC)

Fr.C2-C5, benzina hidrof,


gaze la dgrs

Ni-Mo/ alumina

Exoterma

RC

Imbunatatirea CO a benzinei, obtinerea de


hidrocarb aromatice si hidrogen.

T= 480-520
P=10-14

Benzina hidrofinata

Fr.C2-C5, benzina reformata,


concentrate aromatice, H2.

Pl / alumina

Endoterma

HPM

Inlaturarea comp cu S,N,O, metale, saturarea


hidrocarb nesaturate.

T= 330-380
P=40-50

Fr petrol DA, fr. Mot DA,


Mu CX, Mu CC, H2.

Mot hidrofinata, fr. benzina,


gaze la dgrs

Ni-Co-Mo/ alumina

Exoterma

HDV

Inlaturarea comp cu S,N,O, metale, saturarea


hidrocarb nesaturate.

T= 350-380
P=50-60

Distilat de vid, Mg CX,


H2

Distilat de vid hidrofinat,


fractie usoara, gaze la dgrs

Ni-Co-Mo/ alumina

Exoterma

Izom

Izomerizarea n-parafinelor (C5,C6), pentru


imbunatatirea CO.

T= 160-220
P=30

Fr.C5-C6, rafinat (de la


EA), H2.

Izomerizat, LPG

Pl / Zeolit

Usor endoterma

FCC

Valorificarea superioara a distilatelor de vid, prin


proces de cracare catalitica in strat fluidizat.

T=520-530
P=2-3

Distilat de vid hidrof, Mg


cx daca nu o da la HDV

Fr. gaze umede, B nestab,


Bg, Mu, Mg, Mr, cocs

Zeoliti (alumino
silicati cristalini)

Endoterma

GasCon

Prelucrarea benzinei si fractionarea gazelor


provenite din instalatia FCC

T= 30-40
P=15

Fr. gaze CC, B nestab,


gaze CX.

C3, C3, iC4-C4, nC4-C4, B


stab, gaze la dgrs.

Merox

Inlaturarea H2S si a mercaptanilor, (abs H2S cu


amine, extr RSH cu soda, oxidare mercaptide)

T= 40
P=24

Fr.C3C4 // B stab
cat p baza de Co

Fr.C3C4 // B stab, disulfuri,


H2S in DEA.

Separarea pe componenti a Fractiei C2-C5

T=
P=30-10

Fr.C2C5(HB,RC,DAV)
(hb si dav la tratare)

Gaze rafinarie, C3,iC4,nC4,


iC5,nC5.

CX

Valorificarea superioara a rezidiului de vid, prin


proces de cracare termica severa

T= 480-510
P=3-4

Rezidiu de vid

Fr.C2-C5 (gascon), B cx (hb),


Mu(hpm), Mg(hdv), cocs

DGRS

Desulfurarea gazelor de raf (abs) si recuperarea


sulfului din H2S prin procedeul CLAUS

T= 1100-1300
P=1

Gaze sulfuroase, H2S in


dea,(hidrf,fcc,gscon,da)

Gaze desulfurate, sulf

TiO2/ alumina

Exoterme

Fabrica de
H2

Obtinerea H2 prin procesul de reformare cu abur


a gazului metan

T= 480-800 (i-e)
P= 15

CH4, H2O

H2, CO2 (in atm), rest


nereactionat..

1. Ni / alumina
2. Oxid de Fe si Cr

Endot: ch4+h2o=co+h2
Exot: co+h20=co2+h2

Mtbe tame

Eterificarea izobutenei de CC cu metanol, pt a


obtine un prod cu CO mare (MTBE)

T=50
P=15

Ic4, metanol

MTBE, LPG

Rasini schimbat de
ioni

Exoterma, in faza
condensta.

FGR

Scindare= endoterma
Aditie,substit= exoterma

R-SH + NaOH = R-SNa + H2O (mercaptide)


2R-SNa+O+ H2O= R-S-S-R + 2NaOH

Endoterma

PURPOSE
Desalting

Removing salts, water (contaminants) from


crude oil.

AD (CDU)

Separate crude into fraction, based on their


boiling points.

VD

Provides the reduced pressure required to


prevent thermal cracking during distilling ..

Nph-HDS

Remove sulphur, contaminants, saturate


hydrocarbons

Platforming

Upgrade low-octane naphtha

Parameters

Feedstocks

Products

Catalyst

Vacuum gas oil, vacuum


residue.
Ni-Mo/ alumina
Improving low-octane
naphta

Pl / alumina

Kero-GO
Hydrotreating

Remove sulphur, contaminants, saturate


hydrocarbons

Ni-Co-Mo/ alumina

VD HDT

Remove sulphur, contaminants, saturate


hydrocarbons

Ni-Co-Mo/ alumina

Convert straight chain to branch

Isomerisation
FCC

Upgrading heavier hydrocarbons into more


valuable lower boiling hydrocarbons.

GasCon

Process the wet gases and the unstabilized


gasoline from FCC

Merox

Remove H2S, convert mercaptan

straight chain alkanes


are converted into
branched chain isomers

Pl / Zeolit

Zeolite (alumino silicati


cristalini)

Desulfan

Saturate
Gas Plant
Coker
MTBE
SRU

Convert vacuum residuals


Isobutene eterification

Ion exchanger catalyst


TiO2/ alumina

(Amine
treating)
H2 Plant
Hydrocracking

Remove acidic contaminants


Produce hydrogen
Convert to lighter hydrocarbons

1-reactie reformer
2-reactie converter

Reformeaza aburul
Conver CO la CO2