Project Report On

EMERGING TREND IN MORDEN RETAIL FORMAT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HUL (SHAKTI), ITC (E-CHAUPAL) & GODREJ (ADHAAR)

SUBMITTED TOMRS. POOJA PATHAK SUBMITTED BY GAURAV KUMAR GUPTA PGDM-MARKETING ROLL NO-14

ABSTRACT

The field of Rural marketing has taken a giant leap at the threshold of twentieth century. Rural marketing have become an booming sector in all over the globe. The proverb ‘Need is the mother of invention’ is proving equally correct in case of Rural marketing. Rural marketing have already had a considerable impact on many aspects of our society. This Project on “EMERGING TREND IN MORDEN RETAIL FORMAT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HUL (SHAKTI), ITC (E-CHAUPAL) & GODREJ (ADHAAR) Deals with the automation of various activities done in Rural marketing like how the Rural marketing spread his business and what is the Market strategy and what is supply chain Management applied by hul (SHAKTI) & itc (e-chupal)Godrej (Aadhar) in Rural marketing.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am hearty grateful to Mr. Su d h ir S h aran s ir (D irector). H e has alw ay s been an invaluable s ource of ins piration. I t g iv es me immens e pleas ure in submitt ing this project on “EMERGING TREND IN MORDEN RETAIL FORMAT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HUL (SHAKTI), ITC (E-CHAUPAL) & GODREJ (ADHAAR) . I h ave developed this project in partial fulfillm ent of P .G .D .M from ‘ ” S C HOOL OF MA N A GE ME N T SC I E NC E ” L U C KN OW I w o u ld like to express my s incere thanks to my P roject G uide Mrs . Po o j a Path ak for her cons tant guidance and valuable s upport during th e p r o ject w ork and als o for her Encouragement and excellen t guidance in th e s u cces s ful completion of the project work. A n d o f cours e nothing could have come true w ithout the support of my f amily , and friend’s cons tant encouragement and us eful tips through ou t my p r oject. I w ill alw ays be grateful to all of them .

DECLARATION

I here by declare that this Project Report titled “EMERGING TREND IN MORDEN RETAIL FORMAT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HUL (SHAKTI), ITC (ECHAUPAL) & GODREJ (ADHAAR)” is the result of my own effort of my study which I did as a part of the curriculum, for the fulfillment of POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MANAGEMENT (PGDM). It has not been duplicated from any other earlier works and all information provided in this report is genuine. This Report is submitted for the partial Fulfillment of PGDM program. It has not been submitted to any other university or for any other degree.

Gaurav Kumar Gupta PGDM-Marketing School of Management Sciences

Certificate

This is to certify that the project report entitled “EMERGING TREND IN MORDEN RETAIL FORMAT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HUL (SHAKTI), ITC (ECHAUPAL) & GODREJ (ADHAAR) has been prepared by Mr. Gaurav Kumar Gupta in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of PGDM from “SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES LUCKNOW” has been carried out under my supervision and guidance and that no part of report has been submitted for the award of any other degree.

Place: Date: project Guide:Signature of

CONTENTS

Chapter 1. Introduction & Background
1.1 Company Profile 1.2 Objective of the Project

Chapter 2. Research Methodology & Design Chapter 3. Research Findings Chapter 4. Conclusion Chapter 5. Limitations Chapter 6. Suggestion References
Books Web sources

Chapter 1

Introduction

Introduction
From the strict marketing point of view, the market structure in India is dichotomous having rural and urban markets. But many do not concur with this view as they contend that consumer everywhere is a consumer and hence their needs, aspirations, beliefs and attitudes will also be the same. The fact, however, remains that there are certain unique characteristic features which call for separate marketing strategies to be distinctively developed to suit the rural and urban market behaviour. Conditions existing in urban markets at present can also be analyzed in this context. First, the urban markets have almost reached a saturation level that further tapping them with a high profit margin has become difficult. Secondly, competition is becoming tough in urban markets compelling many firms to incur heavy costs in promotional expenditure. Thirdly, the awareness level of urban consumers is high and hence product features have to be changed often. Needless to say this process needs a huge investment which will have a negative impact on profitability. Thus, except perhaps for easy reach the urban markets have become as oasis.

Significance of Rural Markets
The rural markets are estimated to be growing fastly compared to the urban markets. The potentiality of rural markets is said to be like a 'woken up sleeping giant'. These facts are substantiated in a study of market growth conducted by various researches. In recent years, rural markets have acquired significance in countries like China and India, as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. On account of the green revolution in India, the rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. In this context, a special marketing strategy, namely, rural marketing has taken shape. Sometimes, rural marketing is confused with agricultural marketing – the later denotes marketing of produce of the rural areas to the urban consumers or industrial consumers, whereas rural marketing involves delivering manufactured or processed inputs or services

to rural producers or consumers. A number of factors have been recognized as responsible for the rural market boom to come into existence: 1. Increase in population and hence increase in demand. 2. A marked increase in the rural income due to agrarian prosperity. 3. Standard of living is also increasing in rural areas. 4. Large inflow of investment for rural development programmes from government and other sources. 5. Increased contact of rural people with their urban counterparts due to development of transport and wide communication network. 6. Increase in literacy and educational level and resultant inclination to sophisticated lives by the rural folks. 7. Inflow of foreign remittances and foreign made goods into rural areas. 8. Change in the land tenure systems causing a structural change in the ownership patterns and consequent changes in the buying behaviour. 9. Rural markets are laggards in picking up new products. This will help the companies to phase their marketing efforts. This will also help to sell inventories of products out dated in urban markets. Rural market has following arrived and the following facts substantiate this.

What makes Rural Markets Attractive?
* 742 million people * Estimated annual size of the rural market - FMCG Rs. 65,000 Crores - Durables Rs. 5,000 Crores - Agri-inputs (incl. tractors) Rs. 45,000 Crores - 2 / 4 wheelers Rs. 8,000 Crores * In 2001-02, LIC sold 55 % of its policies in rural India. * Of two million BSNL mobile connections, 50% in small towns/villages. * Of the six lakh villages, 5.22 lakh have a Village Public Telephone (VPT) * 41 million Kisan Credit Cards issued (against 22 million credit-plus-debit cards in

urban) with cumulative credit of Rs. 977 billion resulting in tremendous liquidity. * Of 20 million Rediffmail signups, 60 % are from small towns. 50% transactions from these towns on Rediff online shopping site * 42 million rural HHs availing banking services in comparison to 27 million urban HHs. * Investment in formal savings instruments: 6.6 million HHs in rural and 6.7 million in urban

Opportunities: In Rural Marketing
Infrastructure is improving rapidly. - In 50 years only 40% villages connected by road, in next 10 years another 30%. - More than 90 % villages electrified, though only 44% rural homes have electric connections. - Rural telephone density has gone up by 300% in the last 10 years; every 1000+ pop is connected by STD. * Social Indicators have improved a lot between 1981 and 2001 - Number of "pucca" houses doubled from 22% to 41% and "kuccha" houses halved (41% to 23%) - Percentage of BPL families declined from 46% to 27% - Rural Literacy level improved from 36% to 59% * Low penetration rates in rural so there are many marketing opportunities. Durables Urban Rural Total (% of rural HH) CTV 30.4 4.8 12.1 Refrigerator 33.5 3.5 12.0 FMCGs Urban Rural Total (% of rural HH) Shampoo 66.3 35.2 44.2 Toothpaste 82.2 44.9 55.6

* Marketers can make effective use of the large available infrastructure - Post offices - 1, 38,000 - Haats (periodic markets) - 42,000 - Melas (exhibitions) - 25,000 - Mandis (agri markets) - 7,000 - Public distribution shops - 3, 80,000 - Bank branches - 32,000 * Proliferation of large format rural retail stores which have been successful also. - DSCL Haryali stores - M & M Shubh Labh stores - TATA/Rallis Kisan Kendras - Escorts rural stores - Warnabazaar, Maharashtra (annual sale Rs. 40 crores)

EMERGING TRENDS IN MARKETS ONLINE RURAL MARKET (INTERNET, NICNET):
Rural people can use the two-way communication through on – line service for crop information, purchases of Agri-inputs, consumer durable and sale of rural produce online at reasonable price. Farm information online marketing easily accessible in rural areas because of spread of telecommunication facilities all over India. Agricultural information can get through the Internet if each village has small information office.

INFORMATION THROUGH LOCAL AGRICULTURE INPUT DEALERS
Most of the dealers have direct touch with the local farmers; these farmers need awareness about pests, decease, fertilizers, seeds, technology and recent developments. For this information, farmers mostly depend on local dealers. For development of rural farmers the government may consider effective channel and keep information at dealers, for farmer education hang notice board and also train the dealer recent changes and developments in agriculture. National Chain Stores: large number of stores set up in different rural areas throughout the country by the same organization for marketing its products. Thus national chain stores can serve large number of customers in rural area.

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS
Cost benefit can be achieved through development of information technology at the doorsteps of villagers; most of the rural farmers need price information of agriproduce and inputs. If the information is available farmers can take quick decision where to sell their produce, if the price matches with local market farmer no need to go near by the city and waste of money & time it means farmers can enrich their financial strength.

NEED BASED PRODUCTION
Supply plays major role in price of the rural produce, most of the farmers grow crops in particular seasons not through out the year, it causes oversupply in the market and drastic price cut in the agricultural produce. Now the information technology has been improving if the rural people enable to access the rural communication, farmers awareness can be created about crops and forecasting of future demand, market taste.

Farmers can equates their produce to demand and supply, they can create farmers driven market rather than supply driven market. If the need based production system developed not only prices but also storage cost can be saved. It is possible now a days the concept of global village.

MARKET DRIVEN EXTENSION
Agricultural extension is continuously going through renewal process where the focus includes a whole range of dimensions varying from institutional arrangements, privatization, decentralization, partnership, efficiency and participation. The most important change that influences the extension system is market forces. There is a need for the present extension system to think of the market driven approach, which would cater the demands of farmers.

PROCESSING INDUSTRY
India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world with an annual production of more than 110 million tones of fruit and vegetable only 1.3 percent of the output is processed by the organized sector commercially, the reason higher consumption in fresh form. However, as the packaging, transportation and processing capacities increase, the market for processed fruits and vegetables is projected to grow at the rate of about 20 % per annum. 100 % export oriented units (EOU) and Joint venture units required improving the processing industry.

APANAMANDI / KISAN MANDI / RYTHUBAZAAR
There is a need to promote direct agricultural marketing model through retail outlets of farmer's co-operatives in urban areas. The direct link between producers and consumers would work in two ways: one, by enabling farmers to take advantage of the high price and secondly, by putting downward pressure on the retail prices.

RURAL AGRI- EXPORT
Rural produce, raw fruits and vegetable, processing goods, have the potential market in Asian, Europe and western countries. Particularly soudhy countries have commendable potential for Indian rural produce.

Integrated Marketing
Under this concept, both the supply of inputs and servicing of inputs are undertaken at the same point or by the same company.

Classification of Customers
India 1 Consuming Class • • Constitutes only 14 % of • the country’s population Most of these customers have a substantial disposable income and • they form part of usually called as the upper middle and the lower middle class • India 2 Serving Class Includes drivers, helpers, people house office like • hold peons, It India 3 Struggling class lives hand-to-mouth so can not existence, good living. Unfortunately this segment will continue to be on the peripheries of the consumption cycle in India, in years to come.

afford to even aspire for

liftmen, washer man etc. These people make life • easier and for more the comfortable 1. Research indicates that for every India one at least three India Twos are there, making up approx. 55 % of the population but due to low income they have a very little disposable spend services . aspirational income on goods to & buying

consuming class or India

Source: Future Group Research, Published in the Book “It Happened in India” by Kishore Biyani, 2007 issue.

Emerging Trends in Modern Retail Formats:
It is difficult to fit a successful international format directly and expect a similar performance in India. The lessons from multinationals expanding to new geographies also point to this. For example, Wal-Mart is highly successful in USA but the story is different in Asian countries like China. Therefore, it is important for a retailer to look at local conditions and insights into the local buying behavior before shaping the format choice. Considering the diversity in terms of taste and preferences prevailing in India, the retailers may go for experimentation to identify the winning format suited to different geographies and segments. For example, the taste in south is different from that in north and this brings challenges to the retailers. Therefore, most of grocery retailers are region centric at this point in time. The available research findings on retail indicate the following trends in Modern Retail formats: 1) Trial & Error: Now a number of retailers are in a mode of experimentation and trying several formats which are essentially the representation of retailing concepts to fit into the consumer mind space. Apart from geography even rural and urban divide poses different kind of challenge to the retailer. Pantaloon Retail India is experimenting with several retail formats to cater to a wide segment of consumers in the market. Some of the new formats are Fashion Station (popular fashion), Blue Sky (fashion accessories), aLL (fashion apparel for plus-size individuals), Collection i (home furnishings), Depot (books & music) and E-Zone (Consumer electronics). 2) Emergence of Wholesale Clubs: Since retailers are trying to segment the market with the help of formats, they developed another new format in the form of Wholesale Club to sell a segment of consumers, who purchase on bulk and look out for substantial discounts and offers. The new format is going to be a kind of wholesale club which is likely to be located close to Food Bazaar. Consumers who are interested to purchase on bulk can take benefit from this format. Similarly the Land mark group also operates multiple formats such as hypermarket (Max), departmental store (Lifestyle), Shoe mart and Funcity8 etc.

Such experimentation and identification of an appropriate format for the local conditions would separate winners from losers in India, possibly implying multiple formats could be the reality in the long run. Pantaloon Retail India Ltd is a live example of that in Indian scenario.

3) Increasing Acceptance of Rural Markets: Mall-mania is phenomenal in India and is spreading fast and entering even the second tier cities in India. Real estate developers are jumping very fast to take this further from Metro cities to smaller cities and corporate houses like ITC and Sriram group are making steady progress to make this phenomena feasible in rural markets as well. There is no denying that the top notch cities like Mumbai, Delhi, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Chennai and Pune are leading the way but the second tier cities like Ludhiana, Chandigarh, Nagpur and Surat are also catching the eye of all retailers. Retail developers are in such a mood that they may over ride the requirement in a specific city. 4) Govt. is also promoting the Development of Modern Retail

Formats: Large format malls are increasingly getting prominence with adequate
retail space allocated to leisure and entertainment. Some states like Punjab have lifted entertainment tax on multiplexes till 2009. This boosted the confidence of the mall developers to accommodate entertainment players like PVR, Waves, Adlab and Fun Republic in large malls. 5) Efficient Buying: Increasing Importance of Supermarkets &

Discount Stores: Such a format provides the greatest selection of any general
merchandize and very often serves as the anchor store in shopping mall or shopping centre. In India, the number of department stores is less as compared to other retail formats such as supermarkets and discount stores. Shoppers' Stop is the first one to open a department store in the early 1990s and currently operates 19 stores in 10 different cities in India .The store strongly focuses on lifestyle retailing and mainly divides into five departments such as apparel, accessories,

home décor, gift ideas and other services. Shopper’s Stop is getting stronger and stronger year after year. It attracts more than 12 million shoppers every year with a conversion rate of 38 per cent. In the end of FY2000 this retailer had 5 stores and is in the process of reaching 39 stores with retail space of 2,502,747 sq ft by FY08. Another operator Lifestyle India began operations in 1998 with its first store in Chennai in 1999 and in March 2006 it opened one of the largest department stores in the same city. The store spreads over 75,000 sq. ft and store provides customers a great shopping experience with three floors of apparel, footwear, products for children, household furniture and decor, health and beauty products. 6) Hypermarkets: The Biggest Crowd Puller: Hypermarkets have emerged as the biggest crowd pullers due to the fact that regular repeat purchases are a norm at such outlets. Hypermarkets not only offer consumers the most extensive merchandise mix, product and brand choices under one roof, but also create superior value for money advantages of hypermarket shopping. With product categories on offer ranging from fresh produce and FMCG products to electronics, value apparels, house ware, do it yourself (DIY) and outdoor products, the hypermarkets are emerging as one of the popular formats in India.. Number of players operating hypermarket format are increasing day by day. One of the leading players in this format is Pantaloon Retail India Limited which operates 32 Big Bazaars in twenty cities. In early 2006, the K. Raheja Corp (C.L. Raheja Group) has introduced its value retail concept hyper city which is the country’s largest hypermarket at 118000 sq ft. hyper city Retail plans to open 55 hypermarkets by 2015. As the market is expanding and consumers are in a mood to accept changes, hypermarkets are getting overwhelming response from consumer. Currently there are about 40 odd hypermarkets in India but this format holds a great potential for growth. 7)

Customers still rely on traditional concepts: A super market normally
sells grocery, fresh, cut vegetables, fruits, frozen foods, toiletries, cosmetics, small utensils, cutlery, stationery and Gift items. In India Food World, Food Bazaar, Nilgiri (30 plus stores), and Adani are the leading super market

operators .One of the biggest super market operators in the western India is Adani Retail Limited which operates Adani super market plans to continue its journey to reach total 19 cities with the store strength of 60 plus in the state of Gujarat. ARL also plans to expand its operation in the neighboring states of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh. Subhiksha is one of the leading super market operators, who largely operates in the southern part of India is expanding to western India. One more retailer Reliance Retail is on the move and this retailer opened its Reliance Fresh-a super market chain with 11 stores in Hyderabad in November 2006 and is planning to enter 70 more cities within 2 years. 8) Emergence of Private-Label Brands: The private labels are offering flexibility to both the retailer and the consumer on price front. The objective of the store is to offer variety at affordable price in each category. Food Bazaar have made the transition from just a grocery retailer to developing emotional bonding with shoppers by providing some value added services to the shoppers. Some of these initiatives include : ( Jo Dikhta Hai wo hi Bikta Hai ) Live chakki: which allows customers to buy fresh wheat and have it grinded there at the store Fresh Juice counter: This provides customer to have fresh juices. Live dairy: This provides customers with fresh milk and milk products. Live kitchen: Customers have the option of buying vegetables, getting them chopped, cooked fully or partly. Soups, salads and sandwiches are also available at live kitchen. 9) Ease of Shopping & Customized Services: Order of the Day: To

activate it a new format has emerged in the name of Convenience Store. A Convenience store offers locational advantage to the shoppers and
provides ease of shopping and customized service to the shoppers. It charges average to above average prices, depending on the product category and carries a moderate number of stock keeping units (SKUs). Normally it remains open for long hours and shoppers use it for buying fill-in merchandize and emergency

purchases. In India, Convenience stores occupied 23 thousand sq. meter of retail space with sales of about Rs 1347 million in 2005 and are expected occupy 85 thousand square meter of selling space by 2010 . 10) Magnetic Effect: Discounters not Shopkeepers: Wal-Mart, the largest retailer in the world is a discounter. Practically the discounters offer several advantages such as lower price, wider assortment and quality assurance. The discounters like Wal-Mart and Aldi were able to quickly build scale and pass on the benefits to the consumer. However, in the long run success depends on the operational efficiency and consistent value delivery to the consumer. The same retailer Wal-Mart struggles in Asian countries like China but extremely successful in USA. It is believed that the average Indian consumer is highly price-sensitive and looks for savings in term of money in their grocery purchase. So price-value equation is a critical component in most of the grocery purchases. 11) Category Killer: A New Concept imported from U.S.: The category killer concept originated in the U.S. due to abundance of cheap land and the dominant car culture. Category Killer is a kind of discount specialty store that offers less variety but deep assortment of merchandise. By offering a deep assortment in a category at comparative low prices, category specialist can be able to “kill’ that specific category of merchandize for other retailers. Generally such kind of retailers uses a self service approach. They use their buying power to negotiate low prices, excellent terms and assured supply when items are scarce. In India this kind of retail stores are not prevalent at this point of time. But there is scope for such kind of format. In India, Mega-Mart is one sort of category killer which sells apparel products. 12) Dollar Stores: Dollar stores have their roots in America's homey five-anddimes, the general stores that offered a range of products at low prices. But modern dollar-store retailers are having more sophisticated operations; leveraging their growing buying power to strike special deals with vendors and continuously striving for unique advantage of both convenience and price. Some chains sell all their goods at $1 or less. Others offer selected items at higher prices. Most sell a combination of paper products, health and beauty supplies, cleaning products,

paper and stationery, household goods, toys, food and sometimes clothing. Both private-label and brand-name goods fill the shelves. They are looking for employing technology to manage large distribution networks. Store 99 is the example of it in Indian Scenario. 13) Retail Development in Rural India: A Market with Silver lining: Chennai based market research firm Francis Kanoi estimated the size of the rural market to be INR 1, 08,000 crore annually. During the survey in 2002 the firm took into account four categories - FMCG, durables, agri-inputs, and two- and four-wheelers for their estimation. Rural incomes are growing steadily as well. NCAER data shows while the number of middle-class households (with annual income between Rs 45,000 and Rs 2.15 lakh) is at 16.4 million in urban India, the figure stands at 15.6 million18 in the rural areas, data from. Largely this rural market is untapped and there is huge opportunity for retailers.

Recent Developments in Rural Retailing: Therefore, in recent times rural
retailing is witnessing explorations by both corporate houses and entrepreneurs – ITC's Choupal Sagar, HLL's project Shakthi and Mahamaza are some of the models being tried out. At this juncture there is no conclusive evidence of winning rural retail formats available. However, corporate forays into rural retail are expected to bring more experimentation and innovation in term of retail format. The Godrej Adhaar, the rural retail initiative of Godrej Agrovet Ltd operates a chain of 18 stores providing a host of services to farmers and their families and is planning to set up at least 1,000 stores19 across rural India in the next five years. Apart from Godrej Adhar and Choupal Sagar other formats operating successfully in the rural area are, M & M Shubh Labh stores, Escorts rural stores, Tata Kisan Sansar, and Warnabazaar, Maharashtra (annual sale Rs 40 crore).

DSCL Haryali Kisan Bazaar
Hariyali stores keep wide range of product assortments such as fertilizers, pesticides, farm implements, seeds, animal feed and irrigation equipment among other agriculture related products. They also have officers who offer free advices to farmers regarding best agriculture practices. Offering insurance and financial services to farmers is part of the business. So far, 22 "Hariyali" Stores have been operational in different states across

North India. Farmer response has been extremely encouraging. A centre is attracting 150 - 200 farmers a day. Hariyali Kisaan Bazaar has plans to rapidly scale up the operations & create a national footprint covering all the major agricultural markets of the country.

Mahindra & Mahindra Shubh Labh
This is the rural initiative taken by Mahindra & Mahindra group to provide complete package of products and services related to firm productivity. One of the basic objectives is to establish market linkage and optimize farm produce supply chain. There are about franchised Shub Labh store established in ten states in India.

14: e-Retailing: The importance of internet retailing is growing all over the world.
Some internet retailers such as e Bay and rediff.com are providing a platform to vendors to sell their products online and they do not take the responsibility of delivering the product to buyer. They provide virtual shopping space to the vendors. On the other hand online retailers like amazon.com and walmart.com have to maintain their warehouse to stock products and take the responsibility of delivering products to the buyer. So, most of the brick and mortar stores are entering into online retailing as they have physical infrastructure and they can use that to capture additional consumer wallet. All the big retailers like Target, Sears and Kmart are operating online shop and some manufactures also operate online. For example Apple Inc. operates through apple.com and Dell Inc. sells its products online Through dell.com. In India internet retailing is growing by 29% CAGR and Euro-monitor report estimates that the a CAGR 48 per cent and in value term it going to touch INR 27 billion by 2010 from INR 4 billion in 2005. The report also predicts that the contribution of internet retailing to non-store retailing to is likely to be 46 per cent by 2010. Emerging recent developments in the Indian Mall Development scenario include the coming up of so called Gen X Malls and Central which is a Seamless Mall. Gen X Malls have been defined Chesterton Megharaj as greater than 5, 00,000 sq.ft and incorporate large entertainment area with enough space for parking and excellent infrastructural benefit that shall be passed on to the retailer . The target audience for the Gen X malls is tourist /out of town visitor and the person from the city looking for

entertainment options. So, we can say that we are moving from a nation of Dukandars to a Nation that loves to shop.

After 1991: This post-economic reform period evidenced both setbacks and progress.
Rural income poverty increased from 34% in 1989-90 to 43% in 1992 and then fell to 37% in 1993-94. Urban income poverty went up from 33.4% in 1989-90 to 33.7% in 1992 and declined to 32% in 1993-94 Also, NSS data for 1994-95 to 1998 show little or no poverty reduction, so that the evidence till 1999-2000 was that poverty, particularly rural poverty, had increased post-reform. However, the official estimate of poverty for 1999-2000 was 26.1%, a dramatic decline that led to much debate and analysis. This was because for this year the NSS had adopted a new survey methodology that led to both higher estimated mean consumption and also an estimated distribution that was more equal than in past NSS surveys. The latest NSS survey for 2004-05 is fully comparable to the surveys before 1999-2000 and shows poverty at 28.3% in rural areas, 25.7% in urban areas and 27.5% for the country as a whole, using Uniform Recall Period Consumption. The corresponding figures using the Mixed Recall Period Consumption method was 21.8%, 21.7% and 21.8% respectively. Thus, poverty has declined after 1998, although it is still being debated whether there was any significant poverty reduction between 198990 and 1999-00. The latest NSS survey was so designed as to also give estimates roughly, but not fully, comparable to the 1999-2000 survey. These suggest that most of the decline in rural poverty over the period during 1993-94 to 2004-05 actually occurred after 19992000.

In summary, the official poverty rates recorded by NSS are:

Year

Round

Uniform Poverty Rate (%)

Poverty Mixed (%) Reduction per year(%)

Mixed Reduction (%)

1977-78

32

51.3

1983

38

44.5

1.3

1987-88

43

38.9

1.2

1993-94

50

36.0

0.5

1999-00

55

26.9

2004-05

61

27.5

21.8

0.8

1.0

HUL (SHAKTI)

Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is India's largest Fast Moving Consumer Goods Company, touching the lives of two out of three Indians with over 20 distinct categories in Home & Personal Care Products and Foods & Beverages. The company’s Turnover is Rs. 20, 239 crores (for the 15 month period – January 1, 2008 to March 31, 2009). HUL is a subsidiary of Unilever, one of the world’s leading suppliers of fast moving consumer goods with strong local roots in more than 100 countries across the globe with annual sales of €40.5 billion in 2008. Unilever has about 52% shareholding in HUL. Hindustan Unilever was recently rated among the top four companies globally in the list of “Global Top Companies for Leaders” by a study sponsored by Hewitt Associates, in partnership with Fortune magazine and the RBL Group. The company was ranked number one in the Asia-Pacific region and in India. The mission that inspires HUL's more than 15,000 employees, including over 1,400 managers, is to “add vitality to life". The company meets everyday needs for nutrition, hygiene, and personal care, with brands that help people feel good, look good and get more out of life. It is a mission HUL shares with its parent company, Unilever, which holds about 52 % of the equity. Heritage HUL’s heritage dates back to 1888, when the first Unilever product, Sunlight, was introduced in India. Local manufacturing began in the 1930s with the establishment of subsidiary companies. They merged in 1956 to form Hindustan Lever Limited (The company was renamed Hindustan Unilever Limited on June 25, 2007). The company created history when it offered equity to Indian shareholders, becoming the first foreign subsidiary company to do so. Today, the company has more than three lakh resident shareholders. HUL’s brands -- like Lifebuoy, Lux, Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Sunsilk, Clinic, Close-up, Pepsodent, Lakme, Brooke Bond, Kissan, Knorr, Annapurna, KwalityWalls - are household names across the country and span many categories - soaps, detergents, personal products, tea, coffee, branded staples, ice cream and culinary products. They are manufactured in over 35 factories, several of them in backward areas of the country. The operations involve over 2,000 suppliers and associates.HUL's distribution network covers 6.3 million retail outlets including direct reach to over 1 million.

HUL has traditionally been a company, which incorporates latest technology in all its operations. The Hindustan Lever Research Centre (now Hindustan Unilever Research Centre) was set up in 1958. Doing Well by Doing Good HUL believes that an organisation’s worth is also in the service it renders to the community. HUL focuses on hygiene, nutrition, enhancement of livelihoods, reduction of greenhouse gases and water footprint.It is also involved in education and rehabilitation of special or underprivileged children, care for the destitute and HIV-positive, and rural development. HUL has also responded in case of national calamities / adversities and contributes through various welfare measures, most recent being the relief and rehabilitation of the people affected by the Tsunami disaster, in India. Project Shakti was launched in the year 2001 in the Nalgonda district situated in Andhra Pradesh.HUL’s Project Shakti is a rural initiative that targets small villages populated by less than 5000 individuals. Through Shakti, HUL is creating microenterprise opportunities for rural women, thereby improving their livelihood and the standard of living in rural communities. Shakti also provides health and hygiene education through the Shakti Vani programme.The program now covers 15 states in India and has over 45,000 women entrepreneurs in its fold, reaching out to 100,000 villages and directly reaching to over three million rural consumers. HUL also runs a rural health programme, Lifebuoy Swasthya Chetana. The programme endeavours to induce adoption of hygienic practices among rural Indians and aims to bring down the incidence of diarrhoea. It has already touched 120 million people in approximately 50, 676 villages across India. If Hindustan Unilever straddles the Indian corporate world, it is because of being singleminded in identifying itself with Indian aspirations and needs in every walk of life. • The recruitment of a Shakti Entrepreneur or Shakti Amma (SA) begins with the executives of HUL identifying the uncovered village. The representative of the company meets the panchayat and the village head and identify the woman who they believe will be suitable as a SA. After training she is asked to put up Rs 20,000 as investment which is used to buy products for selling. The products are then sold door-to-door or through petty shops at home. On an average a Shakti Amma makes a 10% margin on the products she sells. It is the association between the company and the self help groups and financial institutions. • The Shakti Entrepreneur programme creates income- generating capabilities for underprivileged rural women by providing them with a sustainable microenterprise opportunity.

* The Shakti Vani programme improves rural quality of life by spreading awareness of best practices in health and hygiene. * The iShakti community portal tries to empower rural communities by creating access to relevant information. Objective of Shakti program • The Shakti entrepreneur program creates livelihood opportunities for underprivileged rural women. • The Shakti Vani program works to improve the quality of life in rural India, by spreading awareness of best practices in health and hygiene. • They are also studying the consumption habits of the rural people.

HOW IT WORKS • • • • • Villages with a population of about 2000–3000 are selected Personnel from HUL approach SHGs Selection of the Shakti Amma HUL vouches for Shakti Ammas with banks for credit one Shakti entrepreneur

is appointed for one village & Villages that are about 2 kilometres apart from her village (satellite villages ). • • • • • The Shakti dealer places initial orders worth Rs. 15,000/(principal customer of HUL) Finance : Self+SHG+micro credit Training by the Rural sales promoter. The Shakti dealer organizes, a ‘‘Shakti Day’’ in the village (display of products & free gifts ) Core Brands: Lifebuoy, Wheel, Pepsodent, Annapurna salt, Clinic Plus, Lux, Ponds, Nihar and 3 Roses tea.

Vision 2010

100,000

Entrepreneurs

500,000 villages 600 million Consumers Shakti shall reach every home in every village, create sustainable livelihood opportunities, and enhance the quality of life in rural India Future plans • • • Project Shakti plans to extend to the states of West Bengal, Punjab and Rajasthan. Partnership with other non-competitor companies to sell their products through the Shakti network. Nippo, TVS Motor for mopeds, insurance companies for LIC policies.

ITC E-chupal
ITC was incorporated on August 24, 1910 under the name Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited. As the Company's ownership progressively Indianised, the name of the Company was changed from Imperial Tobacco Company of India Limited to India Tobacco Company Limited in 1970 and then to I.T.C. Limited in 1974. In recognition of the Company's multi-business portfolio encompassing a wide range of businesses Cigarettes & Tobacco, Hotels, Information Technology, Packaging, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Agri-business, Foods, Lifestyle Retailing, Education & Stationery and Personal Care - the full stops in the Company's name were removed effective September 18, 2001. The Company now stands rechristened 'ITC Limited'. ITC is one of India's foremost private sector companies with a market capitalisation of nearly US $ 19 billion and a turnover of over US $ 5 billion.* ITC is rated among the World's Best Big Companies, Asia's 'Fab 50' and the World's Most Reputable Companies by Forbes magazine, among India's Most Respected Companies by BusinessWorld and among India's Most Valuable Companies by Business Today. ITC ranks among India's `10 Most Valuable (Company) Brands', in a study conducted by Brand Finance and published by the Economic Times. ITC also ranks among Asia's 50 best performing companies compiled by Business Week. ITC has a diversified presence in Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards & Specialty Papers, Packaging, Agri-Business, Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Information Technology, Branded Apparel, Personal Care, Stationery, Safety Matches and other FMCG products. While ITC is an outstanding market leader in its traditional businesses of Cigarettes, Hotels, Paperboards, Packaging and Agri-Exports, it is rapidly gaining market share even in its nascent businesses of Packaged Foods & Confectionery, Branded Apparel, Personal Care and Stationery.

As one of India's most valuable and respected corporations, ITC is widely perceived to be dedicatedly nation-oriented. Chairman Y C Deveshwar calls this source of inspiration "a commitment beyond the market". In his own words: "ITC believes that its aspiration to create enduring value for the nation provides the motive force to sustain growing shareholder value. ITC practices this philosophy by not only driving each of its businesses towards international competitiveness but by also consciously contributing to enhancing the competitiveness of the larger value chain of which it is a part." ITC's diversified status originates from its corporate strategy aimed at creating multiple drivers of growth anchored on its time-tested core competencies: unmatched distribution reach, superior brand-building capabilities, effective supply chain management and acknowledged service skills in hoteliering. Over time, the strategic forays into new businesses are expected to garner a significant share of these emerging high-growth markets in India. ITC's Agri-Business is one of India's largest exporters of agricultural products. ITC is one of the country's biggest foreign exchange earners (US $ 3.2 billion in the last decade). The Company's 'e-Choupal' initiative is enabling Indian agriculture significantly enhance its competitiveness by empowering Indian farmers through the power of the Internet. This transformational strategy, which has already become the subject matter of a case study at Harvard Business School, is expected to progressively create for ITC a huge rural distribution infrastructure, significantly enhancing the Company's marketing reach. ITC's wholly owned Information Technology subsidiary, ITC Infotech India Ltd, provides IT services and solutions to leading global customers. ITC Infotech has carved a niche for itself by addressing customer challenges through innovative IT solutions. ITC's production facilities and hotels have won numerous national and international awards for quality, productivity, safety and environment management systems. ITC was the first company in India to voluntarily seek a corporate governance rating. ITC employs over 26,000 people at more than 60 locations across India. The Company continuously endeavors to enhance its wealth generating capabilities in a globalising

environment to consistently reward more than 3,47,000 shareholders, fulfill the aspirations of its stakeholders and meet societal expectations. This over-arching vision of the company is expressively captured in its corporate positioning statement: "Enduring Value. For the nation. For the Shareholder."

Rural market E –CHUPAL

Before ITC introduced us to e-Choupal, we were restricted to selling our produce in the local mandi. We had to go through middlemen and prices were low. ITC trained me to manage the Internet kiosk and I became the e-Choupal Sanchalak in my village. Today we are a community of e-farmers with access to daily prices of a variety of crops in India and abroad – this helps us to get the best price. We can also find out about many other important things – weather forecasts, the latest farming techniques, crop insurance, etc. eChoupal has not only changed the quality of our lives, but our entire outlook.

e-Choupal States covered

Now 10

Villages covered No. of e-Choupals Farmers e-empowered

40,000 6,500 4 million

A powerful illustration of corporate strategy linking business purpose to larger societal purpose, e-Choupal leverages the Internet to empower small and marginal farmers – who constitute a majority of the 75% of the population below the poverty line. By providing them with farming know-how and services, timely and relevant weather information, transparent price discovery and access to wider markets, e-Choupal enabled economic capacity to proliferate at the base of the rural economy. Today 4 million farmers use e-Choupal to advantage – bargaining as virtual buyers’ co-operatives, adopting best practices, matching up to food safety norms. Being linked to futures markets is helping small farmers to better manage risk. e-Choupal has been specially cited in the Government of India’s Economic Survey of 2006-07, for its transformational impact on rural lives.The network of 6,500 e-Choupal centres spread across 40,000 villages has emerged as the gateway of an expanding spectrum of commodities leaving farms – wheat, rice, pulses, soya, maize, spices, coffee, aqua-products. The reverse flow carries FMCG, durables, automotives and banking services back to villages

ITC has continued to build new infrastructure by supplementing the farmgate presence of e-Choupal with new physical infrastructure – rural marketing hubs called Choupal Saagars, positioned within tractorable distance of 30 e-Choupal centres and their user communities. The e-Choupal – Choupal Saagar hub and spoke combination is unprecedented grassroots click and mortar infrastructure transporting rural local economies to a new level of productivity and consumption. Choupal Saagars offer a combination of services to rural India. Made-to-design agri-business hubs, they function as: 1. ITC agri-sourcing centres providing farmers a transparent best price sales window, 2. shopping centres bringing a range of products comparable to urban levels of choice, and facilitation centres delivering a host of farm-related services – training, soil testing, product quality certification, medical and clinical services, cafeteria and fuel station. 24 Choupal Saagar hubs are already in operation in 3 states, to grow to 100 by 2010 ITC’s strategic intent is to develop e-Choupal as a significant two-way multidimensional delivery channel, efficiently carrying goods and services out of and into rural India. By progressively linking the digital infrastructure to a physical network of rural business hubs and agro-extension services, ITC is transforming the way farmers do business, and the way rural markets work e Choupal is an initiative of ITC Limited (a large multi business conglomerate in India) to link directly with rural farmers for procurement of agricultural / aquaculture produce like soybeans, wheat, coffee, and prawns. eChoupal was conceived to tackle the challenges posed by the unique features of Indian agriculture, characterized by fragmented farms, weak infrastructure and the involvement of numerous intermediaries

Springboard for competitive farming
The digital and physical infrastructure has a third dimension. It galvanises ITC’s constant agency for propagating adoption of best practices in farming and soil and water management. In 2006-07, ITC’s unique paid Choupal Khet Pradarshan farm extension service conducted over 15,000 Field demonstrations in 9 states. This continuous interaction sustains the rising tide of productivity channeled by the click and mortar infrastructure. The 1 million tons of wheat sourced by ITC over e-Choupal – strategically supporting its packaged foods business – makes e-Choupal robust and open, a successful application of business logic to serve a larger cause.

Effects of eChoupal
ITC Limited has now established computers and Internet access in rural areas across several agricultural regions of the country, where the farmers can directly negotiate the sale of their produce with ITC Limited. The PCs and Internet access at these centres enable the farmers to obtain information on mandi prices, good farming practices and place orders for agricultural inputs like seeds and fertilizers. This helps farmers in improving the quality of produce, and also helps in realizing a better price. Each ITC Limited kiosk having an access to Internet is run by a sanchalak — a trained farmer. The computer housed in the sanchalak’s house is linked to the Internet via phone lines or by a VSAT connection and serves an average of 600 farmers in the surrounding ten villages within about a 5 km radius. The sanchalak bears some operating cost but in return earns service fee for the e-transactions done through his eChoupal. The warehouse hub is managed by the same traditional middle-men, now called samyojaks, but with no exploitative power due to the reorganised role. Indeed these middlemen make up for the lack of infrastructure and fulfill critical jobs like cash disbursement, quantity aggregation and transportantion.

Due to the eChoupal services, farmers have seen a rise in their income levels because of rise in yields, improvement in quality of output and a fall in transaction costs. Even small farmers have gained from the initiative. Customized and relevant knowledge is offered to the farmers despite heterogeneous cultures, climates and scales of production. Farmers can get real-time information despite their physical distance from the "mandis". The system saves procurement costs for ITC Limited. The model is quite different from the other models, as the farmers do not pay for the information and knowledge they get from eChoupals. The principle of the eChoupals is to inform, empower and compete. At the same time ITC Limited also has extracted value in four steps to make the model sustainable and scalable: 1. elimination of non-value added activities 2. differentiated product through identity preserved supply chains 3. value added products traceable to farm practices 4. e-market place for spot transactions and support services to futures exchange One of the factors leading to eChoupal's success is ITC's managerial expertise in executing complex projects and managing costs. ITC Limited adopted a flexible project management approach called "roll out, fix it, and scale up" to deal with uncertainties in a pioneering model. There are 6,500 eChoupals today. ITC Limited plans to scale up to 20,000 eChoupals by 2012 covering 100,000 villages in 15 states, servicing 15 million farmers.

Critical problem

Mission Sunehra Kal, ITC’s rural capacity building programme, now active in 11 States, empowers rural communities to adopt sustainable changes that make them economically competitive and socially secure. In the rural communities where the mission has put down roots there is a new spirit of optimism and confidence. People have augmented and diversified their livelihoods. Education for children, employment for women, sanitation and family health have taken on a new urgency. Every family and every farm has resources to build a better future. Stagnation and deterioration have given way to change and improvement. To accomplish this change, ITC targets four problems, which it believes are the fundamental obstacles to productivity and growth in the farm sector : 1. Loss of productivity through soil erosion caused by intensification of land use and decline of water tables and forest resources. 2. Dependence on out-moded farm practices and inferior inputs. 3. Loss and disruption of farm incomes and non-availability of alternative livelihoods.

ITC’s mission is to build community based capacity to remove these adverse conditions and create the basis for renewed agrarian prosperity:
• •

help farmers to achieve higher farm productivity, enable communities to develop and manage water, soil and forest resources for long term ecological security, empower rural men and women by creating new non-farm livelihoods, facilitate development of infrastructure for primary education, health

• •

ITC enables farmers to implement solutions that are sustainable because they are 1. mutually reinforcing, 2. based on knowledge transfer and co-operative application of technology, 3. dependent on mobilisation and optimisation of local resources. The delivery model mobilises a four-way partnership between village communities, specialist NGOs, the Government and ITC, bringing to every initiative the best relevant management and technical expertise. ITC has also worked with State Governments in pioneering public-private partnerships. In Andhra Pradesh, 3,596 hectares of wasteland have been developed so far through a collaboration with the State Government’s rural poverty reduction project, Indira Kranthi Padham, and its Comprehensive Land Development programme. ITC has also signed a landmark agreement with the Government of Rajasthan to bring 5,000 hectares under soil and moisture conservation in the drought-prone Bhilwara district. By augmenting water resources and forest cover and fostering organic soil management, ITC has enhanced farm productivity. It has simultaneously opened up new avenues of non-farm income and employment to reduce pressure on land.

Godrej Aadhar
Godrej Group is one of the largest conglomerates based in Mumbai, India, involved in various industries that include appliances, precision equipment, machine tools, furniture, healthcare, interior solutions, office equipment, food-processing, security, materials handling and industrial storage solutions, construction and information technology. Its products include security Systems and Safes, Typewriters and Word processors, Rocket Launchers, Refrigerators and Furniture, Outsourcing Services, Machine Tools and Process Equipment, Cosmetics and Detergents, Engineering Workstations, Medical Diagnostics and Aerospace Equipment, Edible Oils and Chemical, Mosquito Repellents, Car perfumes, Chicken and Agri-products, Material Handling Equipments Like FORKLIFT Trucks, Stackers, Tyre handlers, Sweeping machines, access equipments etc. The Group is headed by Mr. Adi Godrej & Mr. Jamshyd Godrej. Traditionally, Vikhroli, a suburb to the Northeast of Mumbai has been Godrej's manufacturing base, but increasingly the group have moved significant production facilities away from Mumbai. The Godrej group also owns vast land in Vikhroli, occupying 3500 acres (14 sq km) of land on both sides of the Vikhroli section of the LBS marg. That makes the Godrej group the biggest private land owner in Mumbai by far[citation
needed]

. Such vast land can, in theory, be used to create at least 1500 acres of residential

floor space, which, at very modest rates (Rs.10000/sq ft), can be sold for USD 16 billion . Thus, the Godrej group is sitting on an invisible cashpile that is envy of other Indian conglomerates.

Aadhar Retailing
agri-services to direct sourcing from farmers, Aadhar Retailing is now getting into the business of output management with farmers across the country. With the Future Group owing a 70 per cent stake in Godrej Aadhar, the newly formed company, Aadhar, would now serve as a procurement hub for the Future Group’s retail formats such as Food

Bazaar and KB’s Fair Price and even become supplier to other retailers across the country. Mr Arvind Chaudhary, Chief Executive Officer, Aadhar Retailing, told Business Line, “We have now started buying the farmers’ produce and getting into the business of output management. With the intention of selling the farmers’ produce to other retailers, we would be adding one crop after another and help them in managing their produce,” stated Mr Chaudhary. Reaching out to 50,000 farmers every month, the company has already employed 300 people to directly access the produce of farmers across 2,000-odd villages in the country. The States where farmers are being approached include Punjab, Haryana, Maharashtra and Gujarat. With the Future Group’s cash-and-carry format on the backburner, sourcing from farmers and helping them sell their produce to other retailers is being seen as an extension of the same format by analysts. Not wanting to be compared with ITC’s e-Choupal, Aadhar Retailing believes it would operate in the business of providing solutions for farmers. “We would operate on a different model from e-Choupal as we would be advising farmers on what to produce and giving services such as soil testing and weather prediction facilities. The purpose is to become a one-stop-shop in the rural areas,” says Mr Chaudhary.

Fresh inputs
Meanwhile, the existing 66 Godrej Aadhar outlets would also be stocking the Future Group’s private labels and financial products to extend its current portfolio. New brands such as Koryo (for consumer durables) and food brands such as Tasty Treat and Fresh ’N Pure would be making an appearance at the Aadhar outlets. Besides, with the Future Group having forged strategic alliances with players such as GlaxoSmithKline to develop the Gopika brand of ghee, its outlets would also see the

brand making an appearance at Aadhar outlets. Financial products, such as insurancebased products of Future Generalli, would also get sold at the outlets. Besides, there is also a possibility of the Future Card (the Future Group’s loyalty cum credit card) being introduced.

Corporate details
Adi Godrej is the current Chairman of the Godrej Group. Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd. is headed by Mr. Jamshyd Godrej. The Group revenue was approximately US$ 1.7 billion in financial year 06/07. Godrej Interio is the flagship company of the group. The Godrej group can be broadly divided into two major holding companies, working independently: 1. Godrej Industries Ltd. 2. Godrej & Boyce Mfg. Co. Ltd. The Major Companies, subsidiaries and affiliates are

Chemical & Commodities
 Godrej Industries  Chemicals  Veg Oils

FMCG
 Godrej Consumer Products  Keyline Brands UK  Rapidol South Africa  Godrej Global Mideast FZE  Godrej SCA Hygiene Limited

 Godrej Hershey Foods & Beverages Limited  Nutrine  Godrej Sara Lee

AGRI
 Godrej Agrovet  Animal Feeds  Goldmohur Foods and Feeds  Golden Feed Products  Higashimaru Feed Products  Oil Palm  Agri Inputs  Godrej Aadhaar  Nature's Basket  Integrated Poultry Business  Plant Biotech

Services
  

Godrej HiCare (Pest Management Services) Godrej Global Solutions (ITES) Godrej Properties

Achievement
  

In 1897, Godrej Introduced the first lock with lever technology in India. In 1902, Godrej made the first Indian safe. In 1920, Godrej made soap using vegetable oil, which was a huge hit with the vegetarian community in India In 1955, Godrej produced India's first indigenous typewriter

In 1989, Godrej became the first company to introduce PUF ( Polyurethane Foam) Introduced India's first and only 100% CFC, HCFC, HFC free refrigerators

Godrej Agrovet
Godrej Agrovet (GAVL) is a diversified agribusiness company with interests in animal feed, oil palm plantations, agrochemicals and poultry.It is headquartered at Vikhroli, Mumbai India. The business was set up in 1971. GAVL today has 45 manufacturing facilities across India, a network of over 10,000 rural distributors, dealers & agents and over 1900 employees committed to improving the lives of Indian farmers. The company has a presence in 21 states.Under the guidance of Chairman, noted industrialist Nadir Godrej and its Cheif Executive Officer Balram Singh Yadav , GAVL today occupies the position of India's largest animal feed company, producing over 750,000 tons of nutritionally balanced feed for diary cattle, poultry & aquaculture every year. Its oil palm plantation business is the market leader in India, with over 35,000 hectares of smallholder cultivation across Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, TamilNadu, Orissa, Goa, Gujarat & Mizoram. With the intend of radically improving farmer economics, the agrochemicals business focuses on innovative and environmentally sensitive products.It has dominant market share in plant growth promoters & soil conditioners. GAVL has introduced fresh, chilled chicken to Indian consumer over the past decade, and now has a 20% market share in processed poultry. Its Real good chicken brand is the best known fresh poultry product in India, with a consumer loyalty about 80%. The Rs 900 crore Godrej Agrovet Ltd, a unit of the $1 billion Godrej Industries Ltd, will open 1,000 'hub-and- spoke' centres in rural and semi-urban areas across the country in the next five years.

These centres will also provide technical services like farm management, soil micronutrient analyses to farmers. The hub would cover about 10,000 sq ft and spoke 3,000 sq ft, each costing about Rs 75 lakh and Rs 30 lakh respectively. These outlets will sell agro-products like seeds, pesticides, fertilisers and grocery, apparel, footwear, home appliances, furniture and kitchen appliances. It will also house banks, insurance offices, pharmacies, post offices and petrol pumps. R S Vijan, executive vice-president, Godrej Agrovet, said: "We have decided to expand in rural and semi-urban markets. We will open 100-120 stores in the country in this financial year and these centres would be funded and managed by the company itself." Godrej Agrovet posted a turnover of Rs 900 crore in 2005-06 and is expecting revenues of Rs 3,500-4,000 crore from these stores in the next five years. At present, it has 24 Aadhaar centres in Maharashtra, Punjab, West Bengal, Orissa and Tamil Nadu. It has earmarked Rs 750 crore to train technical and marketing staff. Godrej Agrovet is a key player in the farm segment with a large presence in cattle and poultry feed. It covers the whole spectrum of poultry business -- from breeding and hatching broilers to the marketing of its branded chicken. The company also has foothold in animal feeds, agricultural inputs and palm oil, and retail presence in urban areas through Nature's Basket. The animal feed segment constitutes about 75% of the company's revenues; almost 10% comes from poultry and the remaining from the rest of the businesses. Recently, the firm signed a deal with Apollo Pharmacy, part of the Apollo Hospitals group and the country's largest retail pharmacy chain, to give medical support to the farming community.Earlier in January, in a bid to strengthen its hold on the farmer, Godrej Aadhaar had launched two new formats. The large format stores have been opened at Mancher and Alephata on the Pune-Nashik highway in Maharashtra, taking the Aadhaar tally to 18 nationally.

To increase its rural reach, Godrej Agrovet, which set up Aadhaar a year ago, is now moving away from being a standalone outlet to hub and spoke model.

Aadhaar’s Structure (Agri. section)

Store In-Charge (S I) ↓ Technical Service Incharge (T S I) ↓ Field Service Assistance (F S A) ↓ Farmer (Target Customer)

Benefit of Multinational companies in Rural Market
RURAL INDIA with its traditional perceptions has grown up over the years, not only in terms of income, but also in terms of thinking. The rural markets are growing at about two time faster pace than urban markets, not surprisingly, rural India accounts for 60 per cent of the total national demand. According to a survey conducted by Mckinsey in 2007, rural India with a population of 630 million (approximately) would become bigger than total consumer market in countries such as South Korea or Canada in another 20 years and it will grow at least four times from its existing size. Gone are the days when rural consumer went to nearby city to buy ’branded products and services’. The rural consumer is growing and this is an opportunity to grab the market share for all the global players in the market -- whether it is into Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector or retail sector (either insurance or banking or for that sake any other sector). The FMCG sector includes companies like Indian Tobacco Corporation (ITC), Godrej, Hindustan Lever Limited (HLL), Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF-Amul) and Dabur India Limited. All these have shown a strong global presence in the rural sector and it can be said that all the FMCG companies should target the rural sector. Some FMCGs products like toothpaste, hair oil and other like shampoos have done much better in the rural areas than the urban and the semi urban areas. It has been a phenomenon that the sales of many companies have gone up; Coca-Cola, Nestle and Godrej too have also reported better sales in rural areas. The retail sector has a huge potential for growth as a study shows that opportunities in rural retail sector were estimated to be over $34 billion in the year 2007, which is expected to touch $43 billion by the year 2010. It can be seen from the market that

companies like Reliance, Subhiksha are expanding in the rural market. ITC has launched its first rural mall ’Chaupal Sagar’, which offers products ranging from FMCG to electronic appliance to automobiles. Indian Oil is planning to invest $ 189.10 in the rural areas during the financial year 2009. Insurance sector has one of the biggest potential in the upcoming scenario and the fact lies in the statement that only eight to 10 per cent of the rural households are covered by life insurance. Rural investments are limited to their available option -- post offices and a few limited commercial banks rural extension counters. The remaining 90 per cent offer a huge potential as such for the insurance companies. The rural market is vibrant and holds tremendous potential for growth of insurance business, particularly because of the strong saving habits. LIC has a target of selling four million policies in the current financial year.

OBJECTIVE

OBJECTIVE
"Any task without sound objectives is like Tree without roots". Similarly in case of any research study undertaken, initially the objectives of the same are determined and accordingly the further steps are taken on. A research study may have many objectives but all these objectives revolve around one major objective which is the focus of the study. In this study, the focus is on the emergence of Rural markets as the most happening market on which every marketer has an eye. And so this study will be based on studying the emergence of rural market in various contexts. The following are the objectives of this research study :♦ To study the emergence of Rural markets in the context of India. ♦ To study the present scenario of rural marketing in India. ♦ To study the future prospects of rural markets and their scope for the MNCs and Indian companies, in India. ♦ To study the challenges faced by rural marketers in India. To study the reasons of popularity of rural markets in India. ♦ To measure the success of rural marketing campaign of few brands in Terms of consumer appreciation. ♦ To study the determinants of specification factors which can decide the success the rural promotion strategy. ♦ To evaluate the effects of adopting the specific brand ambassadors in the rural marketing context. .

Chapter 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY & DESIGN

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with logic behind them.

TYPE OF RESEARCHTo Study on emerging trend in modern retail format”. I have gone through various news papers, magazines, websites and collected information and data. And my study based on exploratory research.

DATA COLLECTION:In data collection method we shall collect the secondary data from the following sources. News paper Magazine Internet

PARAMETERS OF RESEARCH
Business process Service Satisfaction

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The study is a cross sectional study because the data were collected from many source’s. For the purpose of present study a related sample of population was selected on the basis of convenience.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT:
This work was carried out through Secondary data based.

TOOLS TO BE USED:
 MS Excel  MS word

Chapter 3

RESEARCH FINDING’S

FINDING’S

There are very big opportunity in rural market that’s why many big giants are move to rural market .they made serious efforts to tap the potential ,initially, innovation were confined to product or services offering, or to packaging (SKUs),price (point) and communication strategy by brands.

 Companies are concentrated on low cost product  5 Rs product are very famous in rural market  They use communication in local medium ( folk media ,haats,melas)  They make small size /quantity products for rural India  There are a change in rural people lifestyle.  Rural peoples are aware with urban market.  Lots of job opportunities are coming in rural market.  Growth of employment .  Rural people are aware with information technology with help of these Companies.  Farmers are benefited with ITC E –chupal & Godrej Aadhar & hul shakti .  Increase the productivity of rural India.

Chapter 4

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

Marketers make consistent attempt to innovate tools and strategy to overcome the challenges they face in the business arena .business innovation are broadly classified under two heads ,namely product/service innovation and process innovation .marketers need to design creative solution to overcome challenges typical of the rural environment such as physical distribution channel management and promotion and communication. Corporate India and govement bodies alike have made several efforts to bridge the gap between rural and urban India .the ICT-drive value chain and the organized retail format have been found to be the best innovation for rural India. ITC e-Choupal, Godrej Aadhar & HUL Shakti, an innovative strategy which is elaborative and extensive in rural markets so far. Critical factors in the apparent success of the venture are they provide extensive knowledge of agriculture, the & has made to retain many aspects of the existing production system, including retaining the integral importance of local partners, the companies commitment to transparency, and the respect and fairness with which both farmers and local partners are treated. The concepts, which are becoming more important in every market, include color, product attractiveness visibility, and display quality. In addition, availability (meeting local demand by increasing production locally), acceptability (building brand equity), and affordability (pricing higher than local brands, but adapting to local conditions) are the key factors.

Chapter 5

LIMITATIONS

LIMITATIONS

Problems related to rural marketing
 Barter system.  Underdeveloped people and underdeveloped markets  Lack of proper physical communication facilities.  Many language and Dialects.  Dispersed population and trade.  Poor road connectivity.  poor availability of dealers.  low destiny of shops per village and high variation in their concentration.  poor storage system,leading to inadequate stocking .  Inadequate Media coverage for rural communication.

 Highly credit driven market and low investment capacity of retailers.

Chapter 6

SUGGESTION

SUGGESTION
 PRICING
Pricing is the major element for rural marketing so cheaper price product are affordable for rural people.

 IMPROVEMENT IN TECHNOLOGY Technology is the major part of the rural area without nothing is possible through media and electrification we improve the lifestyle of rural people.  MAINTAIN THE QUALITY STANDARD
Quality standard is also very important part of rural market because some people are quality oriented customer.

 ESTABLISHMENT OF DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS
Rural market certainly offer a big attraction to marketers, it would be naïve to think that any company can enter the market without facing any problem and walk away with sizable share .but there are large number of small marketers .  Make a good distribution channel.  Underdeveloped people and underdeveloped markets  Lack of proper physical communication facilities so trained people.  Make an opinion leader for every village.  Increase the communication strategy in villages  Many language and Dialects  Make the idol distribution channel in the villages .  Improve the electrification in the villages.  Provide the training program for rural people.

 Motivate to increase investment capacity of retailers.

REFERENCES

BIBLIOGRAPHY
BOOKS:

Marketing Research – Paneerselvam Research Methodology – C.R Kothari Principles of Marketing – Philip Kotler Rural Marketing -Pradeep kashyap

WEB RESOURCES:
www.godrej.com www.google.com www.hul.co.in www.itcportal.com

MAGAZINE:
Outlook Express Business today Money Outlook NEWS PAPER: Business standard Times of India Economic times

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