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EXERCISE 2

EARTH LEAKAGE RELAY TEST

EXERCISE 2
EARTH LEAKAGE RELAY TEST

LEARNING OUTCOME
1.

To identify the setting of Earth Leakage Relays. (C2-LO2)

2.

To study the protection of equipment and system by relays in conjunction


with Low Voltage Switch Board. (P5-LO5)

3.

To explain briefly how the test is conducted. (A2-LO9)

CONTENT
2.1

THEORY

Earth leakage relays ensure the protection of electrical installations and persons
against direct and indirect contacts. Earth leakage relay are designed on an
electronic basis, which ensure the monitoring of earth fault currents.
When the fault current rises above the selected level, the outputs of the product
operate depending on the relay selected, it can have either fixed or adjustable
settings for selectivity purposes.
In the case of a ground fault occurring in any one of the phases, the Zero Current
Transformer (ZCT) will produce a flux and in turn develops a current in the
secondary. This current when passed through a burden produces a voltage. This
voltage is amplified, precision rectified and filtered.
This voltage is compared with a pre-set voltage in a comparator. When this
voltage exceeds the pre-set voltage, the comparator output changes level. This
is fed to a time delay circuit before feeding to the relay driving circuit. With the
help of the dipswitches the trip current can be set.
Pressing the Reset button after the clearance of the fault can reset the relay.
The red LED provided on the front panel will glow in case of a fault. Pressing the
Test button the healthiness of the unit gets checked. The green LED indicates
the healthiness of the unit.

Figure 2.1: Earth Leakage Relay


2.2

Equipment list

2.2.1.
2.2.2.
2.2.3.
2.2.4.

Low Voltage Switchboard


Multimeter
Hand tools
Secondary Current Injection Test Set

1 unit
1 unit
Necessary
1 unit

ACTIVITIES
Activity 1 (Current Injection)
1.

Tests on the ELR protection relay are carried out using the Secondary
Current Injection Test Set with the wiring connections as shown in Figure
2.2.

2.

Alternatively, a single-phase primary current can be injected into one of


the primary conductors to induce a secondary current on the ZCT. Before
the tests, ensure that the primary circuit of CTs is de-energized.

3.

Supply the ELR with external 240V source.

4.

Set up the Secondary Current Injection Test Set at 0 - 10 A; 0 - 240 V AC


operation.

5.

Check and record all particulars of the relay to be tested and its
operational settings, using test report as shown in Table 2.1.

6.

Increase the output current of the test set gradually until the ELR element
picks up. Record the pick-up current reading (Io) in test report as shown in
Table 2.1.

7.

Switch off the Secondary Current Injection Test Set.

Activity 2 (Operating Time Check)


1.

The following tests are carried out to verify the relay operating time.
Connect a relay trip contact to Secondary Current Injection Test Set timer
terminals. Referred to Figure 2.3.

2.

Switch on the Secondary Current Injection Test Set and set the output
current to 2.0 x Io and 3.0 x Io (tripping current setting).

3.

Switch off the test set with control knob remaining in the set position.
Switch the Secondary Current Injection Test Set to the Test position to
inject the set current and start the timer at the same time.

4.

After the relay trip contact has operated, record the relay operating time in
the above-mentioned test in the test report as shown in Table 2.1.

5.

Finally, disconnect all wiring between test set and relay and ensure that all
connections to relay are returned to the normal operational conditions.

6.

Switch off the test set.

Figure 2.2: Current Injection Test circuit.

Figure 2.3: Operating Time Check Test circuit.

Table 2.1: Earth Leakage Relay Test Report.


Relay Details:
Make:
Type:

Auxiliary Voltage:
Serial No:

Relay Settings:
Service Setting
Leakage Current, Is (mA)
Time Delay, Ts (s)

Current Injection:
Minimum operating current recorded for relay operation.
Expected Relay Operation Current
(mA)

Recorded Relay Operation


Current (mA)

Operating Time Check.


Expected Operating Time
(s)

Injected Current (A)


2 x Io
3 x Io

Tripping Circuit
Remarks
Tested by
Date

:
:
:
:

Measure
Operating Time
(s)

Figure 2.4: Connect the testing wiring.

Figure 2.5: Yellow LED, indicate 60% to trip.

Figure 2.6: Red LED, indicate tripping.

Figure 2.7: Typical ELR circuit.


Activity 3 (Questions)
1.

Briefly explain the function of Earth Leakage Relay (ELR).

2.

Briefly explain the function of Shunt Trip Coil.

REFERENCE
1.

Paul Gill; Electrical Power Equipment Maintenance & testing; Taylor &
Francis (1998).

2.

Robert W. Seaton; William H. Ubert; Switchgear & Control Handbook (3th


Edition); McGraw Hill )1998).